rss_2.0Die Bodenkultur: Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Die Bodenkultur: Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment Bodenkultur: Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment 's Cover von aktuellen Gruppenhaltungsverfahren des Wartebereichs in konventioneller Zuchtsauenhaltung in Österreich<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In keeping of breeding sows, it is important to use the working time as efficiently as possible to ensure economics within legal production conditions. This can be supported by providing working time requirement data. Therefore, the aim of this study was to generate working time requirement of current group keeping systems in the waiting area of breeding sows. For this purpose, in the keeping systems for small groups with feeding bay and large groups with retrieval station, data was collected using mobile video technology and semi-standardized questionnaires at four farms with current technology. With the gained data, operating models were created under optimized conditions in order to display the working time requirement of work processes for different stock sizes. Both keeping systems differed significantly from each other in the total working time requirement over different stock sizes. The total working time requirement in the waiting area with a typical herd size of 140 breeding sows of Austrian growing farms was 3.58 MPh/sow/year for the small group and 2.68 MPh/sow/year for the large group. The comparison of the available results with data from previous studies indicated the trend of decrease in working hours per sow and year. This was due to technical progress which enabled larger herd sizes.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of phytogenic substances on growth and biofilm formation of and field isolates<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of garlic oil, cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, and thyme oil on growth and biofilm formation of <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> and <italic>Salmonella</italic> serotypes, including field isolates from livestock animals. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) were determined using broth micro-dilution method. Biofilm biomass was assessed by measuring the attached biomass with microtiter plate assay and crystal violet (CV) staining. The strongest antimicrobial effects on <italic>E. coli</italic> serotypes were observed for thymol at 150 ppm, followed by carvacrol and cinnamaldehyde at 300 ppm and thyme oil at 600 ppm. Similar results were obtained with <italic>Salmonella</italic> serotypes except for carvacrol (MIC value at 150 ppm). Garlic oil showed no growth inhibition on serotypes of <italic>E. coli</italic> and <italic>Salmonella</italic> up to 10000 ppm. Cinnamaldehyde proved to be the most effective substance in reducing <italic>E. coli</italic> CV-biofilm formation at sub-MIC level with a threshold concentration of 5 ppm, followed by carvacrol, thymol, and thyme oil at 40 ppm and garlic oil at 10000 ppm. CV-biofilm formation of <italic>Salmonella</italic> serotypes at sub-MIC level was clearly reduced with 40 ppm cinnamaldehyde and 80 ppm carvacrol, thymol, and thyme oil. No reduction of CV-biofilm formation was observed with garlic oil. The present study demonstrates a strong antibacterial activity of cinnamaldehyde, carvacrol, thymol, and thyme oil. Similar response of field isolates and type strains to these phytogenics suggests a general effect within the bacterial species tested. All four substances were also able to reduce CV-biofilm formation at sub-MIC level. Investigating phytogenics with bacterial field isolates contributes to the development of feed additives as alternatives to antibiotics in animal feed to increase productivity and animal welfare in modern livestock production.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Growth performance and survival rates of Nile tilapia ( L.) reared on diets containing Black soldier fly ( L.) larvae meal<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A 72-day feeding trial was conducted at Sagana fish farm to assess the effects of substitution of fish meal (FM) with black soldier fly larvae meal (BSFLM) on the growth performance and survival rates of Nile tilapia. Four test diets were formulated and substitution of FM by BSFLM made at 0%, 33%, 67% and 100%. 240 male Nile tilapia (52.3 ± 0.29 g) were divided into 4 groups (4 replicates) each and were placed in 16 hapa nets (15 fish/hapa), mounted in an 800 m<sup>2</sup> earthen pond. Fish were fed twice per day at 5% of the body weight. Sampling of the fish was done biweekly; mortalities were recorded daily while the physico-chemical parameters were monitored weekly. The growth performance and survival rates of the Nile tilapia were not significantly different (<italic>p</italic> &gt; 0.05) between treatments. In conclusion, the present study indicates that full fat BSFLM can replace up to 100% of the FM without negative effects on the growth performance and survival rates of Nile tilapia, although the slight trend towards reduced growth for the 100% substitution diet points at the need for future studies on increasing the nutritional value of BSFLM, for example, by further processing.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Multidisziplinäre Untersuchungen zur nachhaltigen Stickstoffdüngung unter Berücksichtigung der Möglichkeiten der satellitengestützten Präzisionslandwirtschaft<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In the H2020 project FATIMA (FArming Tools for external nutrient Inputs and water MAnagement) an integrated approach for the optimisation of nitrogen management in agriculture was applied. In addition to the technical component, which included the processing of Sentinel-2 satellite data, the socio-economic and agronomic aspects of improved nutrient management were investigated. The results show that farmers are mainly interested in timely application maps for variable-rate nitrogen application. In the course of the project not only a field trial for the validation of satellite data as a basis for an economic analysis was established, but also an online application for site-specific fertilisation based on current and historical satellite images was developed and tested.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Ableitung der thermischen Bodenfunktionen anhand von Körnung und Porengrößenverteilung als Grundlage für In-situ-Vorhersagen des Bodenwärmehaushaltes<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>In addition to soil structure and pore function disturbances, the impairments of natural soil functions on line construction sites (e. g. power cable routing) also include changes in the site-specific variable thermal-hydraulic properties in the area of the line trenches. Based on the pore size distribution values as a function of dry bulk density classes compiled in German Soil Classification system “KA5” (Ad-Hoc-AG-Boden, 2005), volumetric heat capacity (C), thermal conductivity (λ), and thermal diffusivity (k) can be calculated using the model of <xref ref-type="bibr" rid="j_boku-2021-0004_ref_023">Xie et al. (2018)</xref>. These calculated data are presented for the soil texture spectrum according to KA5, as well for selected textures (Sl3, Lt2, Tu3) and class ranges of dry bulk density (ρ<sub>t</sub>).</p> <p>The typical curves for C (linear increase), λ (increasingly flattening increase) and k (increase with reversal to negative slope) and their rise with increasing ρt (1.1–1.7 g cm<sup>−3</sup>) are shown. k varies depending on the proportions of clay, silt and sand within the soil texture class. The curve shapes between low and high ρt differ more for “Sl3” than for the finer-grained texture class “Tu3”. With the help of these data sets, changes in the heat balance and the thermal- hydraulic soil properties can be predicted for line projects in the power grid expansion before the start of construction measures, if soil texture and dry bulk density are determined by field description methods.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Bewertung der Glaubwürdigkeit von CSR-Maßnahmen – Eine experimentelle Untersuchung zur Bedeutung von Engagement und CSR-Kommunikation am Beispiel eines fiktiven Unternehmens aus der Lebensmittelproduktion<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The credibility factor plays a very important role in corporate communication (especially in the food sector). It was investigated how the commitment (financial and time resources of a project) and the communicated interests of a company, affect the evaluation of measures regarding credibility in the field of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). This was investigated based on a sample (n = 240) of 20- to 35-year-old persons living in Austria. The persons were recruited with the help of a survey institute and randomly assigned to four groups in equal parts (age structure, distribution female/male). This is intended to achieve the greatest possible degree of internal validity and comparability. Credibility for CSR measures is defined by attributions, basic evaluations of CSR measures, the constructs trustworthiness and competence, and the evaluation of the corporate image. The authors use a two-by-two factorial experimental research design. The results show that, contrary to expectations, commitment plays a subordinate role compared to the communicated interests or motives why a company devotes itself to the topic of CSR. It can be deduced from this that the main issue in connection with CSR is honest, transparent communication of the company's goals, in which the companies not only refer to their altruistic motives for society, but also to what benefits the company itself can derive from CSR activities.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Deriving regional pedotransfer functions to estimate soil bulk density in Austria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Soil bulk density is a required variable for quantifying stocks of elements in soils and is therefore instrumental for the evaluation of land-use related climate change mitigation measures. Our motivation was to derive a set of pedotransfer functions for soil bulk densities usable to accommodate different levels of data availabilities. We derived sets of linear equations for bulk density that are appropriate for different forms of land-use. After introducing uncertainty factors for measured parameters, we ran the linear models repeatedly in a Monte Carlo simulation in order to test the impact of inaccuracy. The reliability of the models was evaluated by a cross-validation. The single best predictor of soil bulk density is the content of soil organic carbon, yielding estimates with an adjusted R<sup>2</sup> of approximately 0.5. A slight improvement of the estimate is possible when additionally, soil texture and soil depth are known. Residual analysis advocated the derivation of land-use specific models. Using transformed variables and assessing land-use specific pedotransfer functions, the determination coefficient (adjusted R<sup>2</sup>) of the multiple linear models ranged from 0.43 in cropland up to 0.65 for grassland soils. Compared to pedotransfer function, from the literature, the performance of the linear modes were similar but more accurate. Taking into account the likely inaccuracies when measuring soil organic carbon, the soil bulk density can be estimated with an accuracy of +/− 9 to 25% depending on land-use. We recommend measuring soil bulk density by standardized sampling of undisturbed soil cores, followed by post-processing of the samples in the lab by internationally harmonized protocols. Our pedotransfer functions are accurately and transparently presented, and derived from well-documented and high-quality soil data sets. We therefore consider them particularly useful in Austria, where the measured values for soil bulk densities are not available.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The effect of vegetal mulching on soil surface temperature in semiarid Brazil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Understanding the temporal and spatial dynamic of soil temperature is crucial for agriculture, since it affects soil evaporation and soil biological activity, influencing seed germination, root growth and absorption of water and nutrients by crops, and ultimately the runoff process. Mulching is one of the most applied soil and water conservation method for soil moisture and soil temperature variations control. This study aimed to investigate the influence of three different mulch types (dried elephant grass straw, dried cashew tree leaves and coconut powder or coir dust), applied with three area densities (2, 4 and 8 t ha<sup>−1</sup>), on the soil surface temperature, under field conditions in the Brazilian semiarid region. Soil temperature monitoring was carried out using thermocouple sensors and an infrared camera in the Brazilian semiarid region. Results show that mulching provided a buffer zone, dampened soil temperature fluctuations over time, mainly for the 8 t ha<sup>−1</sup> density. Mulching reduced soil temperature during the hotter period of the day and increased soil temperature during the night period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Einfluss erhöhter atmosphärischer CO-Konzentrationen auf die globale Vegetationsentwicklung sowie den Ertrag und die Produktqualität im landwirtschaftlichen Pflanzenbau<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The relationships between increased CO<sub>2</sub> supply on the one hand and vegetation development, plant growth, yield and quality of different crop species on the other hand were examined on the basis of observations and experiments (meta studies) available worldwide. Special attention was paid to FACE experiments (Free-air CO<sub>2</sub> enrichment method), but satellite surveys and chamber fumigation systems were also included. The results are: (1) The increase of the atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> concentration by about 100 ppm during the last 100 years led to increased plant growth worldwide. The global vegetation cover increased by 11–14%, which is attributed by 70% to the increased atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> content. Since 1982 the global tree population has increased by 7.1%. (2) The increase of the CO<sub>2</sub> content in the air (typically from 350 to 550 ppm) resulted in the yield increases of selected crops from 10 to more than 30%. (3) In Germany, from 1990 to 2015 the yields of wheat, barley, maize and potatoes increased by more than 30% which was partly due to the increased CO<sub>2</sub> content in the air. Across all crop species, the annual net CO<sub>2</sub> fixation in Germany is 96.3 million tons. (4) The CO<sub>2</sub>-related yield increases are based on an increase in photosynthesis performance. They were subject to large fluctuations depending on plant species, water supply and nutrient supply (especially N and P). (5) In the case of poor nutrient availability in the soil and insufficient fertilization, the CO<sub>2</sub> induced yield increase can be associated with a reduction in plant nutrient and protein concentrations (mainly due to "dilution effects") and thus with a reduction in quality. N (to a lesser extent also P) obviously plays a key role in this process. This can be compensated by adapted fertilization management and by breeding of drought-tolerant "low-input" varieties with high nutrient utilization efficiency. (6) The CO<sub>2</sub> induced yield increases should be used to secure the world's food supply and improve the income situation in poorer countries.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Auswirkungen des demografischen Wandels auf das Hochwasserrisikomanagement in Österreich: Relevanz und Empfehlungen aus der Perspektive von Expert*innen aus dem Gesundheits- und Sozialbereich<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Demographic change is very complex and difficult challenge for our society. Demographic change has become a crucial problem for many regions within in Austria. We expect a strong impact and pressure on the current social infrastructure across the country depending on the population change as householders are becoming more heterogeneous because of international migration, low birth rates, and ageing. However, the impact might be different for the regions as some regions might gain, some others might lose from this future development. This paper analyzes the effects and linkages of demographic change on flood risk management. The paper selected 17 experts from the health and care sector across the country with the aim to analyze their awareness, perspective and understanding of the interlinkages between demographic change, flood risk management and their influence on the current social infrastructure. The results show that there exists a high awareness of the problem, but on a very superficially touch upon. The main reason is the current lack of policy integration and co-operation between the various disciplines, which in turn means that the goal of “health-in-all policies” is at risk.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Concentrations and uptake of micronutrients by oat and pea in intercrops in response to N fertilization and sowing ratio<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Intercropping is of increasing interest in temperate regions. This study assessed the influence of nitrogen (N) fertilization and sowing ratio on concentrations and uptake of micronutrients copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in grain and residue of oat and pea in three substitutive intercrops on a fertile soil in eastern Austria. N increased grain concentrations of Cu and Zn in oat and pea but decreased the nutrient harvest indices especially for pea. Intercropping did not affect grain concentrations of oat but those of pea were increased in one year in intercrops with a lower pea share. Residue concentrations of Cu and Zn in oat were increased in intercrops with lower oat share. Pea residue concentrations of all four micronutrients were affected by intercropping. Slightly higher grain nutrient yields could be obtained for Mn and Zn in oat-dominated unfertilized intercrops, whereas the residue micronutrient yields were higher in all intercrops compared to pure stands because of generally higher nutrient concentrations in intercrops. Consequently, advantages of oat–pea intercrops for increasing micronutrient yield in grain were limited, but intercropping can be a strategy for increasing the micronutrient yield in residue that can be used for ruminant feeding.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-04-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Sustainable pig and poultry nutrition by improvement of nutrient utilisation – A review<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>In the context of mismanagement of natural resources going with an increasing consumption of protein from animal origin through the world population, one major challenge for the future in animal nutrition is the improvement of its efficiency and hence sustainability. Up to now, a broad range of methods like feed additives or technological treatments have been available to improve the efficiency or the production of pig-derived and poultry-derived food and hence the sustainability in pig and poultry nutrition. Nevertheless, the exact knowledge of the mode of action of these tools is a prerequisite for their successful application. Furthermore, information concerning their impact on the nutrient availability of the different feedstuffs is of great importance, in order to formulate diets that cover the animals’ requirements. Diets covering the animals’ performance level ovoid undersupplies, which can lead to health problems on the on hand, on the other hand the emissions of nitrogen are kept as low as possible.</p><p>As a result, the consumption of natural resources like grains can be considerably reduced and the substitution of regional by-products from the feed and food processing industry like wheat bran, dried distillers grains with solubles or rapeseed meal can be dramatically enhanced in diets for monogastric animals, thus contributing to more sustainable livestock production. By improving the efficiency of the production of animal-derived food, the term “sustainable’’ remains highly significant. Increasing efficiency plays an important role in ensuring that the resources required for pig and poultry nutrition are foreseeably available. Currently, there is a combination of different tools like feed additives or technological feed treatments the most promising way of improving sustainability in pig and poultry production systems.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-04-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Soybean versus other food grain legumes: A critical appraisal of the United Nations International Year of Pulses 2016<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The United Nations have declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses, which aims at communicating the various benefits of legume cropping and legume-protein-based food consumption. As the term “pulses” is inherently excluding soybean from other grain legumes, this review aims at challenging the scientific justification of this separation from both historical and crop science perspectives toward a better understanding of grain legumes and their contributions to food security. An analysis of the historical development and uses of the term “pulses” reveals that it is not used unambiguously throughout the recent scientific literature, and that the separation of soybean from other grain legumes occurred rather recently. Soybean, while being extensively used as an oilseed and animal feedstuff in some parts of the world, is an important protein crop species in other regions with a seed protein content of 40% and outstanding nutritional and food health properties as compared to most other grain legumes. Owing to similar agronomic features such as symbiotic nitrogen fixation and comparable seed protein properties, it does not seem scientifically justified to separate soybean from other food legumes. Therefore, focusing on “grain legumes” rather than “pulses” would better support food security and nutritional quality goals.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-04-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of nitrogen fertilization and genotype on the yield and yield components of winter wheat<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The effect of N fertilization on the yield, yield components, harvest index (HI), and chlorophyll content (SPAD (soil plant analysis development) index) of winter wheat cultivars was investigated in a long-term experiment in Hungary between 2006/2007 and 2008/2009. Maximal grain yield was reached at 80 and 160 kg · ha<sup>–1</sup> N treatments, the higher N rate did not lead to a further yield increase in any of the years. A substantial year effect was observed for the yield and yield components. A negative correlation was found between grain number and thousand-kernel weight (TKW). Mv Verbunkos gave among the varieties the highest grain yield, grain number per spike, and SPAD value. There was a significant (P&lt;0.001) positive correlation between the yield and the number of grains per square meter (r=0.85) and between the yield and the SPAD index (r=0.59). A significant (P&lt;0.01) negative correlation was detected between the yield and the TKW (r=–0.44) and a positive correlation between the yield and the HI (r=0.51). Regression analysis revealed a significant linear relationship between the yield and the yield components (number of grains per square meter and TKW) at the various N levels.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-04-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Antibiotics in Austrian drinking water resources, survey 2014<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>We surveyed antibiotics in drinking water in Austria. Testing for 37 antimicrobials was performed by online solid-phase extraction–liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectroscopy method. Selection of sample sites for drinking water resources focused on areas considered susceptible to contamination and on geographic population distribution. Sulfamethoxazole was detected in 10 (5%) of 200 samples collected in 2014. Five samples showed concentrations above the limit of quantification (2.5 ng/l). Concentrations measured were ≤8.9 ng/l, making toxic effects highly unlikely. However, even low-level concentrations of antibiotics could increase bacterial resistance. The presence of antibiotics is presently not regulated. We assume anthropogenic pollution (not animal husbandry) as source and ask for a maximum permissible value of antibiotics in drinking water.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-04-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of different revegetation measures on mudflow deposits in the Nature Park Sölktäler (Styria, Austria)<p>In mountain regions, the likelihood of mudflows might increase due to climate change. Although mudflows are common worldwide and devastate agricultural land, virtually nothing is known about the revegetation of mudflow deposits for agricultural purposes. To provide recommendations for rapid revegetation of mountain pastures, 52 permanent plots (4 m × 4 m) on 20 revegetated mudflow deposits in the Nature Park Sölktäler were established. We evaluated different revegetation measures (seed addition alone or combined with application of straw, lime or cattle manure) two years after sowing using commercial clover-grass seed mixtures. Furthermore, 27 permanent plots on 15 unsown mudflow deposits were surveyed. Sowing seeds can considerably accelerate revegetation on siliceous mudflow deposits. <italic>Festuca rubra</italic>, <italic>Agrostis capillaris</italic>, <italic>Lolium perenne</italic>, <italic>Trifolium repens</italic> and <italic>Lotus corniculatus</italic> are particularly suitable for rapid grassland reestablishment, whereas <italic>Poa pratensis</italic> is not recommendable. A pure straw application should be avoided because it delays the revegetation success. Lime addition is not recommended because it can lead to an undesirable legume dominance if clover-grass seed mixtures are used for revegetation. The most effective measure for large-scale revegetation seems to be seed addition without additives. To facilitate revegetation on coarse-grained deposits, large rocks should be crushed using a stone mill.</p>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of nanoemulsion on the adhesion and survival of sp. in meat and contact surfaces of meat<p>In the present investigation, coconut oil–based nanoemulsion, designated as AUSN3, was evaluated for its influence on the adhesion and survival of <italic>Aeromonas</italic> sp. AUBAS34 to beef, pork, and mutton and contact surfaces of meat such as polystyrene, glass, and stainless steel. AUSN3 treatment reduced the hydrophobicity, motility, biofilm formation, and bacterial adhesion of AUBAS34 to meat and the contact surfaces. AUSN3 treatment completely eliminated the AUBAS34 population in the contact surfaces of meat within a time period of 20 min. In meat surfaces, AUSN3 treatment resulted in 1.3–1.8 log reduction in <italic>Aeromonas</italic> population compared to sodium nitrite treatment and 2.4–3.2 log reduction compared to control.</p>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Bedeutung landwirtschaftlicher Betriebe zur Förderung der Gesundheit von Kleinkindern aus Sicht der Stakeholder<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The stay of children on a farm promotes their health as well as physical and mental development. Studies on needs-based infrastructure, personnel and operative organization to strengthen the health of small children in the context of care or visits to farms are completely lacking in the literature. In order to develop an implementation concept, needs and obstacles with qualitative interviews and the expectations of stakeholders from a farm were asked with the potential analysis of seven people, representatives of day care centres, the municipality and state government as well as the children's university and children's museum. Funding for logistics, pedagogical staff and special infrastructure as well as the expansion into preschool age were deemed necessary. Respondents named a particularly diverse environment with age-appropriate activities as a necessary requirement. The professional training of the pedagogical staff in working with small children on the farm was considered important. To implement farm visits for small children, an educational concept must be developed. Other relevant aspects are the logistics and space concepts as well as further training. The feasibility can be tested on selected pilot farms for health-promoting activities with the plant and proven with best practice examples. This requires the selection and establishment of an infrastructure suitable for small children, the development of training materials for the specialist educational staff and auxiliary staff, their schools and the support of the operational implementation.</p></trans-abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Einfluss von Regenmustern auf Splash-Erosion von sandigem Lehm<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>There are still uncertainties in defining the impact of different rainfall intensities on splash erosion. To explore them, a laboratory study with a rainfall simulator has been conducted with an increasing, decreasing and a constant rainfall intensity. The simulated rain has been applied on a sandy loam soil. All patterns had an average rainfall intensity of 24.7 mm h<sup>−1</sup> and consisted of three intensity levels which were applied for 20 min per level. The eroded soil was collected after each intensity level. The decreasing rainfall pattern led to 32% more splash erosion than the increasing one. Splash erosion was more intense, applied at the end of a simulation, due to the cumulative effect of the raindrop's kinetic energy and a thin water layer. By extrapolation of the linear regression, a minimum rainfall intensity to initiate splash erosion can be accepted between 10 mm h<sup>−1</sup> and 15 mm h<sup>−1</sup>.</p></trans-abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Moorböden als Natur- und Kulturgeschichte in Schleswig-Holstein – Verfahren zur qualitativen Bewertung von Archivböden<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The versatile functions of bog sides are in cultural history and climatic terms of ever-increasing interest. Since moors conserve anthropogenic evidence over a very long period of time and are regarded as a carbon sink, it is important to establish comprehensive protection of these ecosystems in order to maintain these functions. In this study, information from more than 140 bogs was compiled, evaluated and categorized based on a uniform evaluation matrix according to quality grades (A–D). For the quality classes parameters were chosen as the basis of evaluation, which are defined by a point system (1–5). The evaluation parameters are divided into three main categories: “cultural meaning”, “ecological meaning” and “pedological/geological meaning”. The evaluation showed that 15 % of the moor archives meet ecological requirements to a high degree and thus reached a score of &gt; 4 and were classified in the highest quality grade “A”. Due to insufficient documentation or visible anthropogenic influences, 46 % of archive floors are assigned to quality class “B” and are considered “potential archive floors”. The grade “C” is assigned to 23 % and are, however, in a heavily anthropogenic state, which would result in costly and time-consuming renaturation. Moors of quality class “D” are subject to irreversible degradation, can no longer/hardly be considered as archive soils and account for 16 % of the assessed moors. With the elaborated evaluation matrix, a statewide evaluation and categorization of the bog sites in Schleswig-Holstein is aimed at responding adequately to the increasing influence of humans on the environment and ensuring the conservation of these ecosystems.</p></trans-abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1