rss_2.0Die Bodenkultur: Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Die Bodenkultur: Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment Bodenkultur: Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment 's Cover und Energieeffizienz von Winterweizen bei unterschiedlicher mineralischer Stickstoffdüngung im Marchfeld<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The grain and straw yield, the energy input (fuel, fertilizer, pesticides, machinery) and energy efficiency parameters (energy output, net-energy output, energy intensity, energy use efficiency) as affected by the amount of mineral nitrogen fertilizer (0 kg, 60 kg, 120 kg und 180 kg N ha<sup>−1</sup>) and mineral fertilizer strategies (different mineral N-fertilizer, splitting) were analyzed on two sites in the Marchfeld plain (Engelhartstetten und Groß-Enzersdorf) in two two-year experiments. The question should be answered which mineral nitrogen fertilizations (N form, N amount and N splitting) has the highest energy efficiency. With increasing N-fertilizer amount (60 kg, 120 kg und 180 kg N ha<sup>−1</sup>), the share of fertilizer energy to total energy increased: 24%, 38% and 48%. Due to the law of decreasing yield increments, the energy efficiency for the nitrogen amount of 180 kg ha<sup>−1</sup> was statistically significant lower than for 60 kg ha<sup>−1</sup> and 120 kg ha<sup>−1</sup> in Engelhartstetten. Splitting the amount of N fertilizer into three doses increased fuel consumption by 4 % compared to a single application of the total amount of fertilizer. The energy efficiency parameters were hardly influenced by splitting. N-fertilization with calcium ammonium nitrate was more energy efficient than with urea (pure, stabilized, soil incorporated). The energy efficiency analyses can contribute to the assessment of environmental effects of management practices.</p></trans-abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Safety aspects of stingless bee pot-pollen from the Philippines<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Philippines stingless bee (<italic>Tetragonula biroi</italic> Friese) pot-pollen are known for their advantageous effects on human health due to a high nutritional value and a broad range of beneficial physiological and pharmacological effects. However, safety aspects regarding this product were rarely examined. Therefore, pollen samples from the Philippines were analyzed for inorganic contaminants and microbiological quality. Obtained values for heavy metals (e.g., arsenic 0.015–0.032 mg/kg, cadmium 0.053–0.153 mg/kg and lead 0.017–0.155 mg/kg) were generally lower compared to previous studies and most were within the safety limits. Further, microbial counts for total aerobic microorganisms, yeasts and molds, Enterobacteriaceae, <italic>E. coli</italic>, <italic>Salmonella</italic>, and <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> were in accordance with the recommended values. Microbial population was diverse and the identified species were mostly endosporeformers such as <italic>Bacillus</italic> spp. and <italic>Clostridium</italic> spp., and molds because of the low water activity and low pH of the pot-pollens. Results indicated that good practices in agriculture, hygiene and manufacturing in every step of the production chain must be implemented in order to enhance the quality and safety of this bee product. Overall, pot-pollens from <italic>T. biroi</italic> are safe for human consumption if hygienic principles are applied.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Conversion of agricultural soils in Austria—a case study for a community in Upper Austria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>We have analyzed the loss of agricultural land in a case study of the community Eggelsberg in the Innviertel in Upper Austria. The trigger for the project was the attribution of Austria as Europe’s leader in soil sealing. We compared the results of the Austrian agricultural soil survey of the 1970s with the actual land use and quantified the land use change. Within half a century, 15% of the agricultural area was converted to settlement area or to other forms of infrastructure. According to the original soil assessment, 96 ha of high-quality cropland, 1,220 ha of medium-quality cropland, 121 ha of low-quality cropland, and 409 ha of grassland were converted. The forest cover remained stable. The highest share of soil sealing was owed to the expansion of the settlement area and the construction of a successful enterprise. Minor contributions were expansions of farm buildings. The loss of agricultural land was reasonable and reflected the needs of the local population. A special protection status because of the future relevance of the agricultural land was not communicated to land managers and is not reflected in the market prices of agricultural products. The relevance of the agricultural land beyond the regional level is not fully recognized.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of crop stand, inoculation, and foliar fertilization on pea root parameters<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Ecological intensification of crop production involves the use of intercrops and the rational use of inoculation and fertilization in case of intercrops including legume species. The root system plays an important role in the productivity of crops. Therefore, effects of the inoculation treatments (Nitragina) or foliar fertilization (Photrel) or a combination of both were assessed on root parameters of pea grown as pure stand or intercrops with linseed or wheat in a 3-year experiment in Poland. Crop stand composition influenced the root parameters of pea with a higher root length density (RLD) in the root fractions of 0.1–1 mm of pea in pea/linseed intercrops than in the pure stand, a higher mean root diameter (MRD) in pure pea and intercrops of pea with linseed than with wheat, and also a tendency of a higher root dry matter (RDM) in pure pea and pea/linseed than in pea/wheat in 2 out of the 3 years. RLD was higher with Photrel than with Nitragina in root fractions of 0.1–0.5 mm. Treatments did not affect the MRD, but a combination of Nitragina + Photrel increased the RDM in 1 year. Intercropping of pea with linseed and the application of a foliar fertilizer might be a strategy to improve pea root characteristics.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-10-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of silages of hybrids of napier grass and sorghum in the low country wet zone of Sri Lanka<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Silages of hybrids of napier grass (CO-3 or CO-4) and sorghum and their combinations (50% napier grass hybrid + 50% of sorghum) were tested under three cutting intervals (4, 6 and 8 weeks). Sorghum silage had a leafy and soft texture with a fruity smell, which proved its desirable character with normal lactic acid fermentation. As such, it was with its comparatively higher dry matter content at the 6 or 8 weeks cutting interval, more suitable for ensiling. The crude protein concentration was not modified by the ensiling process, which was proved by the low ammoniacal nitrogen content. Sorghum silage had lower pH values at all three cutting intervals. On the basis of the NH<sub>3</sub>-N/TN content (&lt;10%), all silages could be considered as of good quality. Sorghum silage could be considered as the best among tested silages as compared with hybrid napier var. CO-3 or CO-4. The optimum quality of the sorghum silage with the highest soluble carbohydrates concentration and lactic acid &gt;3% could be obtained at the 6-week cutting interval.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Model-driven decision support to facilitate efficient fresh food deliveries<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The delivery of fresh food is challenged by various uncertainties present in daily logistics operations. To facilitate successful operations, this work reviews the recent work on model-driven decision support systems to identify research gaps and derive implications. Introduced systems in literature mainly employ simulation or optimization methods and focus on the consideration of industry specifics such as short shelf lives and the importance of efficient temperature control. Therefore, food quality models are often integrated to enable one to monitor quality throughout supply chain operations and adjust planning procedure respectively. To strengthen research, future work focusing on a stronger consideration of customer-related factors and holistic approaches considering various interdependencies present in fresh food logistics operations are required.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Monitoring vertebrate abundance in Austria: developments over 30 years<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Loss of biodiversity is one of the major challenges of the anthropocene. Various indices are used to quantify biodiversity. For vertebrates, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) uses the Living Planet Index (LPI). It is calculated globally as well as separately for the species occurring in terrestrial, freshwater, and marine biomes. Action to prevent biodiversity loss can be taken by countries or provinces, so it is important to understand the changes in biodiversity at local scales. We present LPIs for vertebrates in Austria, both unweighted and weighted, according to species richness. Vertebrate populations seem to have declined strongly in Austria, and their abundance was stabilized at about 60% of the initial population size in the base year 1990—the LPI declined from 1 in 1990 to ~0.6 (unweighted) or ~0.7 (weighted) in 2015. This is almost double the global decline for the same period. LPIs were calculated separately for the terrestrial biome (~0.6), the freshwater biome (~0.9), birds (~0.7), and native species (~0.6). These indices give evidence that conservation measure to halt biodiversity loss in Austria is necessary and show where more data are needed. In Austria, more research is needed especially on populations of reptile species.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Mid-Infrarot-Ergebnisse zum Fettsäuremuster der Kuhmilch von Praxisbetrieben<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The composition of milk fat is gaining importance in the dairy industry. In addition to classical analytical methods – such as gas chromatography (GC) – more time- and cost-effective rapid methods are now available for determining the milk fat composition. In the present study, the accuracy of fatty acid concentrations determined by mid-infrared spectroscopy (MIR) was evaluated with the “MilkoScan FT6000 Software Package”. The fatty acid contents determined with the GC were considered as “gold standard”. For this purpose, selected milk samples from individual farms or tank milk samples of farms in Carinthia (dairy “Kärntnermilch”) were used. Three times a year (November 2017, March 2018, June 2018), delivery milk samples were taken from five farms (2 organic and 3 conventional farms) of Kärntnermilch and from three milk collection rounds (tank milk samples from 2 organic and 1 conventional round). All organic farms followed the production guidelines of “Bio-Wiesenmilch”. Based on the GC-dataset and an additional comprehensive MIR data set of farms in Carinthia (January 2019 and June 2019), the effects of the management (organic “Bio-Wiesenmilch” versus conventional “GMO-free”) and period (summer versus winter feeding situation) on the milk fatty acid concentrations were investigated. Since the “Bio-Wiesenmilch” production scheme of the Kärntnermilch aims at grassland and pasture-based feeding systems, the possibilities for checking the ration composition via MIR fatty acid data sets had also been evaluated. The proportions of relevant fatty acid groups in milk were significantly different between the production systems (organic versus conventional) and periods (summer versus winter feeding situation). In the milk samples of the organic farms, the proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), conjugated linoleic acids (CLA) and omega-3-acids (ω-3-FA) were significantly higher than in those of the conventional farms. Regardless of the production system, the CLA, monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA) and unsaturated fatty acids (UFA) concentrations in the summer milk samples were higher than those in the winter milk samples. The seasonal effects were more pronounced in the organic system than in the conventional system. The MIR analysis results were highly correlated (r = 0.95) with the results of the GC analysis for the concentrations of UFA, saturated fatty acids (SFA) and MUFA. However, there were systematic deviations that have to be taken into account when interpreting the results. For the PUFA only a moderate correlation (r = 0.57) was found between the two methods. Additionally, a substantial variance was found, 95 of the MIR results for PUFA differed between −9.5 % and −40.4 % from the GC results. From the results of the study and from the literature it can be derived that MIR fatty acid results alone allow no clear and direct conclusions on the feeding strategy (e. g. dietary proportion of pasture, concentrated feed or maize silage). However, the MIR results could be used as a rough screening tool for farm advisory concepts.</p></trans-abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of riparian environments through semi-automated procedures for the computation of eco-morphological indicators: Preliminary results of the WEQUAL project<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The aim of WEQUAL project (WEb service centre for QUALity multidimensional design and tele-operated monitoring of Green Infrastructures) is the development of a system that is able to support a quick environmental monitoring of riparian areas subjected to the realization of new green infrastructures (GI). The Wequal’s idea is to organize a service center able to manage both the Web Platform and the whole data collection and analysis processes. Through a personal account, the final user (designer, technician, researcher) can get access to the service and requires the evaluation of alternatives GI projects. On the Web Platform, a set of algorithms runs in order to calculate, through automatic procedures, all the ecological criteria required to evaluate a quality environmental index that describes the eco-morphological value of the monitored riparian areas. For this aim, the WEQUI index was developed, which uses 15 indicators that are easy to monitor. In this paper, the approach for environmental data collection and the procedures to perform the automatic assessment of two of the ecological criteria are described. For the computation, the implemented algorithms use data including the vegetation indexes, Digital Terrain Model (DTM), Digital Surface Model (DSM) and a 3D point cloud classification. All the raw data are collected by UAVs (Unmanned Aircraft Vehicle) equipped with a 3D Lidar, multispectral camera and RGB camera. Interpreting all the raw data collected by these sensors, using a multi-attribute approach, the WEQUI index is assessed. The computed ecological index is then used to assess the riparian environmental quality at <italic>ex-ante</italic> and <italic>ex-post</italic> river stabilization works. This index, integrated with additional not-technical or not-ecological indicators such as investment required, maintenance costs or social acceptance, can be used in multicriteria analyses in order to evaluate the intervention from a wider point of view. The platform is expected to be attractive for GI designers and policy makers by providing a shared environment, which is able to integrate the method of detection and evaluation of complex indexes and a multidimensional evaluation supported by an expert guide.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Steam engines in agricultural use in Croatia and Slavonia during the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Industrial revolution and modernization of agriculture in Croatia and Slavonia began in mid-19<sup>th</sup> century and evolved at a slower pace compared to the other countries of the Austrian Empire. The main reasons were lack of capital, shortage of good river- and land traffic routes, slowness in the construction of railways, slowness in the introduction of steam engines, lack of skilled workforce and extensive farming. The second agricultural crisis in Europe, which lasted from 1873 until 1895, motivated large holdings in Croatia and Slavonia to introduce steam engines and machines for the purpose of rationalization of agricultural production. Locomobiles were mostly represented on holdings with over 575.5 ha. The then country of Slavonia, as an eminently agrarian region and the main source of wheat was leader in the use of steam engines, steam ploughs and steam-powered machines in agriculture. The locomobile was used in agriculture until the mid-20<sup>th</sup> century and was discontinued with the growing use of tractors with internal combustion engine and the use of combine harvesters. Until 1918, Croatian lands were a part of the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Potentials of crops residues – A case study for the province Vojvodina<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Crop residues are targeted as energy sources and feedstock for diverse products. A six-year lasting investigation, aiming to determine the yield potentials of crop residues of mostly grown field crops wheat, soybean and corn in the province Vojvodina (Serbia), was performed. The three levels of potentials were distinguished: theoretical, technical and sustainable. Two seasonal weather conditions were distinguished – common and dry, and their impact on the biomass yield was analyzed. The yields were expressed as absolute and relative to grain yield since the grain yield is always measured, and is available in national statistics. During common seasons, technical potentials were about 56% for wheat, 45% for soybean and 41 or 51% for the two considered corn stover collection procedures. For dry seasons, the technical potential of all considered crops was reduced to between 30 and 50%. On field remained aboveground residual biomass and its relative (to grain) amount, which was between 43 and 60%, was defined. It was concluded that the defining of sustainable potentials is a very complex task. Besides the aforementioned, measures aimed to preserve soil fertility, some overlooked issues in the literature and practice were listed and commented on.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Conflicts and resolutions in managing water allocation at the watershed scale<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Multiple runs of a river basin model produced information about water allocation under different users’ priorities, creating a set of allocation scenarios as possible decision alternatives. To identify the most desired scenario that will, expectedly, be more readily accepted and implemented, involvement of stakeholders and reaching the consensus among them in evaluating scenarios are essential. This article describes methodology for integrating multi-criteria optimization as an efficient tool for the evaluation of scenarios in a group context, with river basin simulation-optimization models. Methodology was developed within the scope of the bilateral project Serbia–Portugal, and it consisted of five phases: defining the preference schemes of allocation, running the ACQUANET model, evaluating the criteria and strategies with analytic hierarchy process, aggregation and initial search for consensus in subgroups, and obtaining the final consensus converged result (best management strategy). The approach was tested on the water allocation problem in the Nadela watershed in Vojvodina Province in Serbia, with participation of 23 stakeholders. Promising results recommended the approach for the testing in different conditions in the area near Bragança in northeast Portugal (Sabor watershed).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Austria-wide survey on resistant, potentially pathogenic bacteria at Austrian bathing sites, 2017<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>There is growing concern about human-induced antibiotic resistance and on the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant, potentially pathogenic bacteria in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of resistant, clinically relevant bacteria at bathing sites. In total, 27 of 263 bathing sites authorized under the EU Bathing Water Directive (3 per Austrian state) were sampled during the summer of 2017. Samples were tested for antibiotic-resistant bacteria by enrichment in thioglycollate broth and cultivation on chromogenic media. The screening for potentially pathogenic antibiotic-resistant bacteria was negative in 23 of the 27 samples. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were detected from 4 of the 27 bathing sites: one <italic>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</italic> and three resistant <italic>Enterobacteriaceae</italic> (piperacillin/tazobactam-resistant <italic>Enterobacter cloacae</italic> with high-level expression of AmpC beta-lactamase, carbapenem-resistant <italic>Enterobacter mori</italic>, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing <italic>Escherichia coli</italic>). Despite the occurrence of resistant bacteria, we consider the public health risk at Austrian bathing sites as low.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-10-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of tillage depth of a cultivator on the incorporation of crop residues of winter barley in a chernozem soil<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Although crop residues contribute to erosion control, the influence of the tillage depth (TD) on their incorporation has not been studied extensively. The main objective of this study was to determine the differences in the amount and distribution of incorporated crop residues and surface residue coverage if the TD of a cultivator is varied (0.10, 0.20, or 0.30 m). The experiment was carried out on a chernozem soil with winter barley residues in 2016 in Groß-Enzersdorf (Lower Austria). Individual soil cores, each 0.05 m long, were removed using a special device. No significant differences were observed for the incorporated crop residues up to a depth of 0.35 m between the three TDs. The mean values of the incorporated crop residues at a TD of 0.10, 0.20, or 0.30 m were 11.64, 13.30, and 10.82 t/ha, respectively. The distribution of crop residues in the individual depth segments (DSs) showed a main concentration of more than 90% at a depth of 0.10 m and a significant decrease in deeper layers. This stratification was independent of the TD. Therefore, a shallower TD is sufficient for straw management on a chernozem soil in the production area of Marchfeld, which also enables a reduction in draft and, consequently, fuel consumption and processing costs.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-10-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Peter Ruckenbauer (1939–2019) – Ein wissenschaftlicher Nachruf for Sustainable Soil and Land Use Management in Austria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>In times of climate change and increasing societal needs, the pressure on land is unprecedented. Sustainable soil and land use management is only achievable if stakeholders from sectors concerned work together. The aim of the project INSPIRATION (Integrated spatial planning, land use, and soil management esearch action) was the integration of science and interdisciplinary research fields to develop a strategic research agenda (SRA) for sustainable land use and soil management in Europe. This article presents the Austrian perspective and contribution to the SRA, highlights the findings of the project, and identifies the most urgent research needs addressing key societal challenges. The project followed a bottom-up, multi-stakeholder approach to enable an evidence-based collation process of interdisciplinary research needs. Through expert interviews, reviews of state-of-the-art documents, and public involvement, six key research topics of the most pressing research needs in Austria were identified. This Austrian contribution to the SRA is characterized by the need for a communication frame and knowledge transfer among research, policy, and society. A compatible knowledge transfer is pivotal to establish an understanding of shared responsibilities among all stakeholders.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-10-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of seed size on soil cover, yield, yield components and nitrogen uptake of two-row malting barley<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Seed size can influence germination, growth and yield formation of crops. A two-year field experiment was conducted in eastern Austria in 2012 and 2013 with two cultivars (Paula and Tatum) and four seeds size (&lt; 2.5, 2.5–2.75, 2.75–3.25 and &gt; 3.25 mm) to assess the effect of seed size on soil coverage, yield, yield components, nitrogen concentrations and nitrogen yield of spring malting barley. Soil coverage during the vegetation period was higher with a larger seed size in one year. Above-ground biomass and grain yield were not affected by seed size but differed between varieties and years. Seed size, however, affected the yield components. Both varieties had a higher ear density with the largest seed size compared to the smallest seed size. Higher ear density resulted in a lower thousand kernel weight. Grains ear-1 did not differ between seed sizes. Harvested grain fractions, nitrogen concentrations and nitrogen yields were also not affected by seed size.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2019-10-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Selenium supply affects chlorophyll concentration and biomass production of maize ( L.)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of selenium (Se) on the biomass production and the contents of photosynthetically active pigments. The pot experiment included two maize genotypes: hybrid 408BC originating from Croatia and a local maize population from Kosovo. The doses of Se applied were 0, 1.30, 6.57, 13, and 26 mg kg<sup>−1</sup>. The lowest Se dose (1.30 mg Se kg<sup>−1</sup>) had a positive effect on shoot and root biomass production as well as on the contents of chlorophyll <italic>b</italic> (<italic>Chl-b</italic>), total chlorophyll, and carotenoids (just for the hybrid). Chlorophyll <italic>a</italic> (<italic>Chl-a</italic>) was reduced with increasing Se doses, whereas chlorophyll <italic>b</italic> (<italic>Chl-b</italic>) and total chlorophyll further increased with medium Se doses. The highest Se dose strongly reduced biomass and the contents of photosynthetically active pigments. <italic>Chl-a</italic> and carotenoids positively correlated with shoot (for both genotypes) and root (for the hybrid) biomass, whereas no correlation was observed between <italic>Chl-b</italic> and biomass. Low amounts of Se application are favorable for biomass production and chlorophyll and carotenoids contents, whereas high amounts of Se application negatively affect both.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Roads support the spread of invasive in Austria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p><italic>Asclepias syriaca</italic> is an invasive alien plant that has recently spread in Central Europe. The spatiotemporal spread of <italic>A. syriaca</italic> was reconstructed based on the distribution data for Austria. <italic>A. syriaca</italic> has increased in abundance and range, especially after the year 2005. At present, the species occurs primarily in eastern Austria (Vienna, Lower Austria), while it was rarely recorded in southern and western Austria. Further spread and range filling is probable. Moreover, the distribution of <italic>A. syriaca</italic> along roadsides and the role of road type and adjoining land use in facilitating its spread were studied in an area of high presence of the species in Lower Austria in 2018. It was shown that <italic>A. syriaca</italic> occurred regularly along roadsides and the chance of finding <italic>A. syriaca</italic> was higher along unpaved roads and along roadsides bordered by forests and grassland. The results indicate that the road network contributes to the spread of <italic>A. syriaca</italic> in the study area, most likely by providing suitable and well connected habitats. If <italic>A. syriaca</italic> densities are to be lowered, emphasis should be placed on both a proper roadside management (e.g., mowing regimes) and on the control of the species in the respective adjacent habitat.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Ornamental Crops