rss_2.0Die Bodenkultur: Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Die Bodenkultur: Journal of Land Management, Food and Environmenthttps://sciendo.com/journal/BOKUhttps://www.sciendo.comDie Bodenkultur: Journal of Land Management, Food and Environment 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/60bef20a730f124ff2be93e5/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20210621T142700Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20210621%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=9f5b25102e1f20fa96b19ae13ed5c1ae54d200bcd6928acbf0603efd01432329200300Deriving regional pedotransfer functions to estimate soil bulk density in Austriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/boku-2020-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Soil bulk density is a required variable for quantifying stocks of elements in soils and is therefore instrumental for the evaluation of land-use related climate change mitigation measures. Our motivation was to derive a set of pedotransfer functions for soil bulk densities usable to accommodate different levels of data availabilities. We derived sets of linear equations for bulk density that are appropriate for different forms of land-use. After introducing uncertainty factors for measured parameters, we ran the linear models repeatedly in a Monte Carlo simulation in order to test the impact of inaccuracy. The reliability of the models was evaluated by a cross-validation. The single best predictor of soil bulk density is the content of soil organic carbon, yielding estimates with an adjusted R<sup>2</sup> of approximately 0.5. A slight improvement of the estimate is possible when additionally, soil texture and soil depth are known. Residual analysis advocated the derivation of land-use specific models. Using transformed variables and assessing land-use specific pedotransfer functions, the determination coefficient (adjusted R<sup>2</sup>) of the multiple linear models ranged from 0.43 in cropland up to 0.65 for grassland soils. Compared to pedotransfer function, from the literature, the performance of the linear modes were similar but more accurate. Taking into account the likely inaccuracies when measuring soil organic carbon, the soil bulk density can be estimated with an accuracy of +/− 9 to 25% depending on land-use. We recommend measuring soil bulk density by standardized sampling of undisturbed soil cores, followed by post-processing of the samples in the lab by internationally harmonized protocols. Our pedotransfer functions are accurately and transparently presented, and derived from well-documented and high-quality soil data sets. We therefore consider them particularly useful in Austria, where the measured values for soil bulk densities are not available.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Auswirkungen des demografischen Wandels auf das Hochwasserrisikomanagement in Österreich: Relevanz und Empfehlungen aus der Perspektive von Expert*innen aus dem Gesundheits- und Sozialbereichhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/boku-2020-0017<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Demographic change is very complex and difficult challenge for our society. Demographic change has become a crucial problem for many regions within in Austria. We expect a strong impact and pressure on the current social infrastructure across the country depending on the population change as householders are becoming more heterogeneous because of international migration, low birth rates, and ageing. However, the impact might be different for the regions as some regions might gain, some others might lose from this future development. This paper analyzes the effects and linkages of demographic change on flood risk management. The paper selected 17 experts from the health and care sector across the country with the aim to analyze their awareness, perspective and understanding of the interlinkages between demographic change, flood risk management and their influence on the current social infrastructure. The results show that there exists a high awareness of the problem, but on a very superficially touch upon. The main reason is the current lack of policy integration and co-operation between the various disciplines, which in turn means that the goal of “health-in-all policies” is at risk.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Einfluss erhöhter atmosphärischer CO-Konzentrationen auf die globale Vegetationsentwicklung sowie den Ertrag und die Produktqualität im landwirtschaftlichen Pflanzenbauhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/boku-2020-0019<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The relationships between increased CO<sub>2</sub> supply on the one hand and vegetation development, plant growth, yield and quality of different crop species on the other hand were examined on the basis of observations and experiments (meta studies) available worldwide. Special attention was paid to FACE experiments (Free-air CO<sub>2</sub> enrichment method), but satellite surveys and chamber fumigation systems were also included. The results are: (1) The increase of the atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> concentration by about 100 ppm during the last 100 years led to increased plant growth worldwide. The global vegetation cover increased by 11–14%, which is attributed by 70% to the increased atmospheric CO<sub>2</sub> content. Since 1982 the global tree population has increased by 7.1%. (2) The increase of the CO<sub>2</sub> content in the air (typically from 350 to 550 ppm) resulted in the yield increases of selected crops from 10 to more than 30%. (3) In Germany, from 1990 to 2015 the yields of wheat, barley, maize and potatoes increased by more than 30% which was partly due to the increased CO<sub>2</sub> content in the air. Across all crop species, the annual net CO<sub>2</sub> fixation in Germany is 96.3 million tons. (4) The CO<sub>2</sub>-related yield increases are based on an increase in photosynthesis performance. They were subject to large fluctuations depending on plant species, water supply and nutrient supply (especially N and P). (5) In the case of poor nutrient availability in the soil and insufficient fertilization, the CO<sub>2</sub> induced yield increase can be associated with a reduction in plant nutrient and protein concentrations (mainly due to "dilution effects") and thus with a reduction in quality. N (to a lesser extent also P) obviously plays a key role in this process. This can be compensated by adapted fertilization management and by breeding of drought-tolerant "low-input" varieties with high nutrient utilization efficiency. (6) The CO<sub>2</sub> induced yield increases should be used to secure the world's food supply and improve the income situation in poorer countries.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Bewertung der Glaubwürdigkeit von CSR-Maßnahmen – Eine experimentelle Untersuchung zur Bedeutung von Engagement und CSR-Kommunikation am Beispiel eines fiktiven Unternehmens aus der Lebensmittelproduktionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/boku-2020-0018<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The credibility factor plays a very important role in corporate communication (especially in the food sector). It was investigated how the commitment (financial and time resources of a project) and the communicated interests of a company, affect the evaluation of measures regarding credibility in the field of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR). This was investigated based on a sample (n = 240) of 20- to 35-year-old persons living in Austria. The persons were recruited with the help of a survey institute and randomly assigned to four groups in equal parts (age structure, distribution female/male). This is intended to achieve the greatest possible degree of internal validity and comparability. Credibility for CSR measures is defined by attributions, basic evaluations of CSR measures, the constructs trustworthiness and competence, and the evaluation of the corporate image. The authors use a two-by-two factorial experimental research design. The results show that, contrary to expectations, commitment plays a subordinate role compared to the communicated interests or motives why a company devotes itself to the topic of CSR. It can be deduced from this that the main issue in connection with CSR is honest, transparent communication of the company's goals, in which the companies not only refer to their altruistic motives for society, but also to what benefits the company itself can derive from CSR activities.</p> </trans-abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The effect of vegetal mulching on soil surface temperature in semiarid Brazilhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/boku-2020-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Understanding the temporal and spatial dynamic of soil temperature is crucial for agriculture, since it affects soil evaporation and soil biological activity, influencing seed germination, root growth and absorption of water and nutrients by crops, and ultimately the runoff process. Mulching is one of the most applied soil and water conservation method for soil moisture and soil temperature variations control. This study aimed to investigate the influence of three different mulch types (dried elephant grass straw, dried cashew tree leaves and coconut powder or coir dust), applied with three area densities (2, 4 and 8 t ha<sup>−1</sup>), on the soil surface temperature, under field conditions in the Brazilian semiarid region. Soil temperature monitoring was carried out using thermocouple sensors and an infrared camera in the Brazilian semiarid region. Results show that mulching provided a buffer zone, dampened soil temperature fluctuations over time, mainly for the 8 t ha<sup>−1</sup> density. Mulching reduced soil temperature during the hotter period of the day and increased soil temperature during the night period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Concentrations and uptake of micronutrients by oat and pea in intercrops in response to N fertilization and sowing ratiohttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/boku-2016-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Intercropping is of increasing interest in temperate regions. This study assessed the influence of nitrogen (N) fertilization and sowing ratio on concentrations and uptake of micronutrients copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in grain and residue of oat and pea in three substitutive intercrops on a fertile soil in eastern Austria. N increased grain concentrations of Cu and Zn in oat and pea but decreased the nutrient harvest indices especially for pea. Intercropping did not affect grain concentrations of oat but those of pea were increased in one year in intercrops with a lower pea share. Residue concentrations of Cu and Zn in oat were increased in intercrops with lower oat share. Pea residue concentrations of all four micronutrients were affected by intercropping. Slightly higher grain nutrient yields could be obtained for Mn and Zn in oat-dominated unfertilized intercrops, whereas the residue micronutrient yields were higher in all intercrops compared to pure stands because of generally higher nutrient concentrations in intercrops. Consequently, advantages of oat–pea intercrops for increasing micronutrient yield in grain were limited, but intercropping can be a strategy for increasing the micronutrient yield in residue that can be used for ruminant feeding.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-04-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Sustainable pig and poultry nutrition by improvement of nutrient utilisation – A reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/boku-2016-0005<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>In the context of mismanagement of natural resources going with an increasing consumption of protein from animal origin through the world population, one major challenge for the future in animal nutrition is the improvement of its efficiency and hence sustainability. Up to now, a broad range of methods like feed additives or technological treatments have been available to improve the efficiency or the production of pig-derived and poultry-derived food and hence the sustainability in pig and poultry nutrition. Nevertheless, the exact knowledge of the mode of action of these tools is a prerequisite for their successful application. Furthermore, information concerning their impact on the nutrient availability of the different feedstuffs is of great importance, in order to formulate diets that cover the animals’ requirements. Diets covering the animals’ performance level ovoid undersupplies, which can lead to health problems on the on hand, on the other hand the emissions of nitrogen are kept as low as possible.</p><p>As a result, the consumption of natural resources like grains can be considerably reduced and the substitution of regional by-products from the feed and food processing industry like wheat bran, dried distillers grains with solubles or rapeseed meal can be dramatically enhanced in diets for monogastric animals, thus contributing to more sustainable livestock production. By improving the efficiency of the production of animal-derived food, the term “sustainable’’ remains highly significant. Increasing efficiency plays an important role in ensuring that the resources required for pig and poultry nutrition are foreseeably available. Currently, there is a combination of different tools like feed additives or technological feed treatments the most promising way of improving sustainability in pig and poultry production systems.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-04-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Soybean versus other food grain legumes: A critical appraisal of the United Nations International Year of Pulses 2016https://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/boku-2016-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The United Nations have declared 2016 as the International Year of Pulses, which aims at communicating the various benefits of legume cropping and legume-protein-based food consumption. As the term “pulses” is inherently excluding soybean from other grain legumes, this review aims at challenging the scientific justification of this separation from both historical and crop science perspectives toward a better understanding of grain legumes and their contributions to food security. An analysis of the historical development and uses of the term “pulses” reveals that it is not used unambiguously throughout the recent scientific literature, and that the separation of soybean from other grain legumes occurred rather recently. Soybean, while being extensively used as an oilseed and animal feedstuff in some parts of the world, is an important protein crop species in other regions with a seed protein content of 40% and outstanding nutritional and food health properties as compared to most other grain legumes. Owing to similar agronomic features such as symbiotic nitrogen fixation and comparable seed protein properties, it does not seem scientifically justified to separate soybean from other food legumes. Therefore, focusing on “grain legumes” rather than “pulses” would better support food security and nutritional quality goals.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-04-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of nitrogen fertilization and genotype on the yield and yield components of winter wheathttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/boku-2016-0003<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The effect of N fertilization on the yield, yield components, harvest index (HI), and chlorophyll content (SPAD (soil plant analysis development) index) of winter wheat cultivars was investigated in a long-term experiment in Hungary between 2006/2007 and 2008/2009. Maximal grain yield was reached at 80 and 160 kg · ha<sup>–1</sup> N treatments, the higher N rate did not lead to a further yield increase in any of the years. A substantial year effect was observed for the yield and yield components. A negative correlation was found between grain number and thousand-kernel weight (TKW). Mv Verbunkos gave among the varieties the highest grain yield, grain number per spike, and SPAD value. There was a significant (P&lt;0.001) positive correlation between the yield and the number of grains per square meter (r=0.85) and between the yield and the SPAD index (r=0.59). A significant (P&lt;0.01) negative correlation was detected between the yield and the TKW (r=–0.44) and a positive correlation between the yield and the HI (r=0.51). Regression analysis revealed a significant linear relationship between the yield and the yield components (number of grains per square meter and TKW) at the various N levels.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-04-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Antibiotics in Austrian drinking water resources, survey 2014https://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/boku-2016-0004<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>We surveyed antibiotics in drinking water in Austria. Testing for 37 antimicrobials was performed by online solid-phase extraction–liquid chromatography–high-resolution mass spectroscopy method. Selection of sample sites for drinking water resources focused on areas considered susceptible to contamination and on geographic population distribution. Sulfamethoxazole was detected in 10 (5%) of 200 samples collected in 2014. Five samples showed concentrations above the limit of quantification (2.5 ng/l). Concentrations measured were ≤8.9 ng/l, making toxic effects highly unlikely. However, even low-level concentrations of antibiotics could increase bacterial resistance. The presence of antibiotics is presently not regulated. We assume anthropogenic pollution (not animal husbandry) as source and ask for a maximum permissible value of antibiotics in drinking water.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2016-04-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of different revegetation measures on mudflow deposits in the Nature Park Sölktäler (Styria, Austria)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/boku-2020-0015<p>In mountain regions, the likelihood of mudflows might increase due to climate change. Although mudflows are common worldwide and devastate agricultural land, virtually nothing is known about the revegetation of mudflow deposits for agricultural purposes. To provide recommendations for rapid revegetation of mountain pastures, 52 permanent plots (4 m × 4 m) on 20 revegetated mudflow deposits in the Nature Park Sölktäler were established. We evaluated different revegetation measures (seed addition alone or combined with application of straw, lime or cattle manure) two years after sowing using commercial clover-grass seed mixtures. Furthermore, 27 permanent plots on 15 unsown mudflow deposits were surveyed. Sowing seeds can considerably accelerate revegetation on siliceous mudflow deposits. <italic>Festuca rubra</italic>, <italic>Agrostis capillaris</italic>, <italic>Lolium perenne</italic>, <italic>Trifolium repens</italic> and <italic>Lotus corniculatus</italic> are particularly suitable for rapid grassland reestablishment, whereas <italic>Poa pratensis</italic> is not recommendable. A pure straw application should be avoided because it delays the revegetation success. Lime addition is not recommended because it can lead to an undesirable legume dominance if clover-grass seed mixtures are used for revegetation. The most effective measure for large-scale revegetation seems to be seed addition without additives. To facilitate revegetation on coarse-grained deposits, large rocks should be crushed using a stone mill.</p>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of nanoemulsion on the adhesion and survival of sp. in meat and contact surfaces of meathttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/boku-2020-0012<p>In the present investigation, coconut oil–based nanoemulsion, designated as AUSN3, was evaluated for its influence on the adhesion and survival of <italic>Aeromonas</italic> sp. AUBAS34 to beef, pork, and mutton and contact surfaces of meat such as polystyrene, glass, and stainless steel. AUSN3 treatment reduced the hydrophobicity, motility, biofilm formation, and bacterial adhesion of AUBAS34 to meat and the contact surfaces. AUSN3 treatment completely eliminated the AUBAS34 population in the contact surfaces of meat within a time period of 20 min. In meat surfaces, AUSN3 treatment resulted in 1.3–1.8 log reduction in <italic>Aeromonas</italic> population compared to sodium nitrite treatment and 2.4–3.2 log reduction compared to control.</p>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Bedeutung landwirtschaftlicher Betriebe zur Förderung der Gesundheit von Kleinkindern aus Sicht der Stakeholderhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/boku-2020-0013<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The stay of children on a farm promotes their health as well as physical and mental development. Studies on needs-based infrastructure, personnel and operative organization to strengthen the health of small children in the context of care or visits to farms are completely lacking in the literature. In order to develop an implementation concept, needs and obstacles with qualitative interviews and the expectations of stakeholders from a farm were asked with the potential analysis of seven people, representatives of day care centres, the municipality and state government as well as the children's university and children's museum. Funding for logistics, pedagogical staff and special infrastructure as well as the expansion into preschool age were deemed necessary. Respondents named a particularly diverse environment with age-appropriate activities as a necessary requirement. The professional training of the pedagogical staff in working with small children on the farm was considered important. To implement farm visits for small children, an educational concept must be developed. Other relevant aspects are the logistics and space concepts as well as further training. The feasibility can be tested on selected pilot farms for health-promoting activities with the plant and proven with best practice examples. This requires the selection and establishment of an infrastructure suitable for small children, the development of training materials for the specialist educational staff and auxiliary staff, their schools and the support of the operational implementation.</p></trans-abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Einfluss von Regenmustern auf Splash-Erosion von sandigem Lehmhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/boku-2020-0014<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>There are still uncertainties in defining the impact of different rainfall intensities on splash erosion. To explore them, a laboratory study with a rainfall simulator has been conducted with an increasing, decreasing and a constant rainfall intensity. The simulated rain has been applied on a sandy loam soil. All patterns had an average rainfall intensity of 24.7 mm h<sup>−1</sup> and consisted of three intensity levels which were applied for 20 min per level. The eroded soil was collected after each intensity level. The decreasing rainfall pattern led to 32% more splash erosion than the increasing one. Splash erosion was more intense, applied at the end of a simulation, due to the cumulative effect of the raindrop's kinetic energy and a thin water layer. By extrapolation of the linear regression, a minimum rainfall intensity to initiate splash erosion can be accepted between 10 mm h<sup>−1</sup> and 15 mm h<sup>−1</sup>.</p></trans-abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Moorböden als Natur- und Kulturgeschichte in Schleswig-Holstein – Verfahren zur qualitativen Bewertung von Archivbödenhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/boku-2020-0011<trans-abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The versatile functions of bog sides are in cultural history and climatic terms of ever-increasing interest. Since moors conserve anthropogenic evidence over a very long period of time and are regarded as a carbon sink, it is important to establish comprehensive protection of these ecosystems in order to maintain these functions. In this study, information from more than 140 bogs was compiled, evaluated and categorized based on a uniform evaluation matrix according to quality grades (A–D). For the quality classes parameters were chosen as the basis of evaluation, which are defined by a point system (1–5). The evaluation parameters are divided into three main categories: “cultural meaning”, “ecological meaning” and “pedological/geological meaning”. The evaluation showed that 15 % of the moor archives meet ecological requirements to a high degree and thus reached a score of &gt; 4 and were classified in the highest quality grade “A”. Due to insufficient documentation or visible anthropogenic influences, 46 % of archive floors are assigned to quality class “B” and are considered “potential archive floors”. The grade “C” is assigned to 23 % and are, however, in a heavily anthropogenic state, which would result in costly and time-consuming renaturation. Moors of quality class “D” are subject to irreversible degradation, can no longer/hardly be considered as archive soils and account for 16 % of the assessed moors. With the elaborated evaluation matrix, a statewide evaluation and categorization of the bog sites in Schleswig-Holstein is aimed at responding adequately to the increasing influence of humans on the environment and ensuring the conservation of these ecosystems.</p></trans-abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-29T00:00:00.000+00:00Peter Ruckenbauer (1939–2019) – Ein wissenschaftlicher Nachrufhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/boku-2019-0011ARTICLE2019-10-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Austria-wide survey on resistant, potentially pathogenic bacteria at Austrian bathing sites, 2017https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/boku-2019-0007<p>There is growing concern about human-induced antibiotic resistance and on the occurrence of antibiotic-resistant, potentially pathogenic bacteria in the environment. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of resistant, clinically relevant bacteria at bathing sites. In total, 27 of 263 bathing sites authorized under the EU Bathing Water Directive (3 per Austrian state) were sampled during the summer of 2017. Samples were tested for antibiotic-resistant bacteria by enrichment in thioglycollate broth and cultivation on chromogenic media. The screening for potentially pathogenic antibiotic-resistant bacteria was negative in 23 of the 27 samples. Antibiotic-resistant bacteria were detected from 4 of the 27 bathing sites: one <italic>Pseudomonas aeruginosa</italic> and three resistant <italic>Enterobacteriaceae</italic> (piperacillin/tazobactam-resistant <italic>Enterobacter cloacae</italic> with high-level expression of AmpC beta-lactamase, carbapenem-resistant <italic>Enterobacter mori</italic>, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing <italic>Escherichia coli</italic>). Despite the occurrence of resistant bacteria, we consider the public health risk at Austrian bathing sites as low.</p>ARTICLE2019-10-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Auswirkungen von Schiffswellen auf die Stabilität von Uferböden – Ein neues Messsystem zur Quantifizierung von Spannungen im Wasser und dem gesättigten Bodenhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/boku-2019-0009<p>The renaturation of river and coastal embankments needs to include ecological aspects and the stability of shorelines. The impact of waves caused by heavy ship traffic could lead to erosion processes and to the degradation of soils along the coast. To evaluate the stability of shorelines it is necessary to quantify soil stability parameters as well as stress impacts of the waves. Therefore, stress measurements of ship waves were carried out at Kiel Canal. In order to determine the three main stresses (σ1, σ2, and σ3), the averaged mean stress (MNS), and the oc-tahedral shear stress a new developed stress state transducer system was firstly tested. This newly constructed system (Mudflat-SST) is equipped with an exchangeable battery for long time measurements and waterproof, which allows measurements in water and saturated soils. The sensors heads were placed above and below the middle water level for determining the effect of waves and a potential drag effect. During two periods, different types of ships were measured such as container vessel, cargo ship, ferry, and catamaran. Maximum stress impacts of 3 kPa were determined. The results show different kind of waves regarding their period or expression for the different ship types. In order to quantify the maximum stress impact of breaking waves, further research is needed to optimize sensor head´s location in the water and saturated soil.</p>ARTICLE2019-10-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Recent planning approaches and mobility concepts for home health care services in Austria – A reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/boku-2017-0017<p>Home health care (HHC) services are faced with a rising demand in Austria. This is due to an increased life expectancy, changing family structures, and the trend to grow old at home. The percentage of their working time that is spent by the HHC staff for travelling from one client to the next one reaches 30% and even more in some rural areas. Changing the assignment of HHC staff to clients and the sequence of visits can lead to major reductions in the travel distances, and therefore, to more sustainable solutions. The aim of this paper is to provide a comprehensive overview on the logistical planning of HHC services in Austria. In order to meet the future requirements, it is important to analyze different mobility concepts for the HHC staff and to provide tailored solution approaches for routing and scheduling. The reader learns about the current HHC situation in Austria, the logistical requirements for planning these services, possible mobility concepts for the HHC staff, and potential threats for HHC operations. The developed solution methods are presented in brief and the main findings are highlighted and discussed. The paper concludes with an outlook on potential future research paths in HHC routing and scheduling.</p>ARTICLE2018-03-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Eye-tracking test design influences the relationship between gazing behaviour and evaluation decisionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.1515/boku-2017-0021<p>Recent research has revealed a correlation between consumer gazing behaviour and decision-making in eye-tracking tests, which suggested a predictability decision-making from gazing behaviour. Since the eye-tracking test design has been reported to have an effect on gazing behaviour, the objective of this work is therefore to study systematically whether the test design influences the relationship between choice and gazing. Using a Tobii-T60 Eye Tracker, 100 persons participated in eye-tracking tests working on food images. Two design factors were tested: 1) Type of evaluation (<italic>maximum choice</italic>, <italic>minimum choice</italic>, <italic>ranking</italic>, <italic>and rating</italic>); 2) Question content (<italic>deliciousness</italic>, <italic>healthiness</italic>,<italic>prices</italic>, <italic>and familiarity</italic>). The results showed that the correlation between decision-making and gazing behaviour is influenced by both <italic>Type of evaluation</italic> and <italic>Question content</italic>. Only in the choice tests, a significant correlation between gazing behaviour and consumer decision-making was found. No correlation was found in the question content group Prices, but a very strong correlation existed in the three other question content groups. The results are discussed considering the relationship between visual attention and cognitive processes in decision-making.</p>ARTICLE2018-03-09T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1