rss_2.0Balkan Journal of Dental Medicine FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Balkan Journal of Dental Medicinehttps://sciendo.com/journal/BJDMhttps://www.sciendo.comBalkan Journal of Dental Medicine 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/60f0c9984ba4892561d13730/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20210919T134606Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20210919%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=78328a308e07998c87a36e7d47f9179b3cb63dfad00bac8d7f5aae818d36d767200300Occupational Stress among Dental Professionalshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bjdm-2021-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Stress at the work place was declared by the World Health Organization as a worldwide epidemic. The stress caused by work appears when the balance between one’s own possibilities and the environment demands is disturbed, which leads to a poor mental state. The fact is that the majority of dentists find they are under constant stress, which is caused by the nature of dental work. Literature describes dentistry as an extremely stressful profession. The main stressors include the tendency toward technical perfection, the causation of pain in patients, the lack of patient cooperation during dental treatment, the failure to maintain the given appointments. Adequate education and preparation, even during dental studies, non-neglect of symptoms and difficulties at the work place, adequate and timely response to the identification of the cause and its elimination or balancing, have a key role in solving this great problem in modern dentistry.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of Different Reline Materials and Processing Methods on Flexural Strength of Denture Base Materialhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bjdm-2021-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Background/Aim:</bold> Relining is defined as the procedure used to resurface the tissue side of a denture with new base material, thus producing an accurate adaptation is provided at the denture foundation area. During mastication, relined dentures have to withstand masticatory forces to prevent fracture. The aim of this study was to evaluate the flexural strength of acrylic resin denture base relined with different methods and materials.</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> Fourteen experimental groups and one control group were determined to consider different reline materials and processing methods. Acrylic resin specimens were prepared with the dimensions of 65× 10× 1.5 mm and reline materials (1.5 mm thickness) were placed on acrylic resins. Reline material was not used in control group specimens. Flexural strength values of relined and control specimens were measured with three-point bending test at a speed of 5 mm/min. Data were analyzed with using one way Anova and Student t tests.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The highest flexural strength values were shown in control group (86.51±1.08 MPa). There were significant differences among relined specimens (p&lt; 0.05). For the relined specimens, the highest flexural strength values were found in the relined specimens with denture base material (77.90±1.93 MPa), and the lowest values were found in relined with autopolymerize acrylic material (59.81±1.50 MPa).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Relining of the heat cure denture base material significantly decreases the flexural strength for all processing methods and materials.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Antibiotic Prescribing Patterns in Paediatric Dental Patients: Cross - Sectional Epidemiological Studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bjdm-2021-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Background/Aim:</bold> The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibiotic prescribing patterns for the treatment of paediatric oral infection, dental trauma and prophylaxis among dentists in Turkey.</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> A total of 206 paediatric dentists, including general dentists, paediatric dentists and specialist dentists, participated in this cross-sectional study. The questionnaire included questions about the number of paediatric patients treated and antibiotics prescribed, the most commonly prescribed antibiotic for oral infections and the clinical conditions under which antibiotics were prescribed. The participants’ ages, workplaces and professional experience were also evaluated.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The majority of the participants were paediatric dentists (45.1%) and general dentists (42.7%). For the management of dental infections, most dentists prescribed penicillin (94.7%). Their foremost prescription choices for the presence of an anaerobic infection were metronidazole (48.5%) and penicillin (32%). For dental trauma, the most common antibiotic-prescribed cases were avulsion and contaminated wounds, followed by alveolar fracture. Antibiotics were prescribed as a first choice for dental infections and dental infections of anaerobic origin, with no significant differences between professional experience or dental specialty in the dentists (p &gt; 0.05). Practitioners belonging to Ministry of Health dental centres significantly differed from all other groups in preferring the antibiotic cephalosporin for dental infections of anaerobic origin.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Adherence to published guidelines for antibiotic prescriptions for anaerobic dental infections and dental trauma was low. Clearer, more specific guidelines and increased post-graduate education could lead to a reduction in the negative consequences of this issue’s resultant over-prescribed antibiotics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00The Evaluation of Medical Conditions in Patients Admitted to the Oral Diagnosis Clinichttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bjdm-2021-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Background/Aim:</bold> The aim of this study is to set forth the current systemic diseases of the patients admitted to the oral diagnosis clinic of the Faculty of Dentistry Sütçü İmam University, and the prevalence of these diseases.</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> This study will be conducted by retrospective evaluation of anamneses in the tooth information management system of patients admitted to the oral diagnosis clinic of the Faculty of Dentistry, Sütçü İmam University for dental treatment. The anamneses taken from the patients before their treatments will be obtained from digital medium.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Out of 4077 patients included in the study, 2554 were female, and 1523 were male. Of them, 25.6% had systemic diseases. The mean age of the patients was 35.24%+12.3. It was found that cardiovascular diseases were more common than the other systemic diseases. The most common cardiovascular disease was found to be hypertension (7.5%), while the most common endocrine system disease was diabetes mellitus (7.5%).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Dental practitioners must keep themselves up-to-date as they encounter patients with systemic diseases. They must pay attention while taking anamneses from patients. Therefore, they may apply medical consultation to prevent probable complications when necessary.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of Cyclic Fatigue Resistance of Heat-Treated Nickel-Titanium Reciprocating Instruments at the Intracanal Temperaturehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bjdm-2021-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Background/Aim:</bold> The aim of the present study was to compare the cyclic fatigue resistance of NiTi files running with reciprocal motion and having different characteristics (RPC Blue, WOG, EndoArt Wise Reciproc Gold, EndoArt Wise Reciproc Blue) at the intracanal temperature (35°C) by using NaOCl irrigation solution.</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> Totally 60 WaveOne GOLD (Dentsply-Sirona, Ballaigues, Switzerland), Reciproc Blue (VDW, Munich, Germany), EndoArt Wise Reciproc Gold, and EndoArt Wise Blue (Inci Dental Productions Co, Istanbul, Turkey) (n= 15) files were used. Each of the rotary files were tested at the intracanal temperature (35°C) using a dynamic model in a stainless-steel artificial canal with an inner diameter of 1.5 mm, 60° angle of curvature, and 2mm radius of curvature until fracture occurred. The device automatically stopped at the moment of fracture and the number of cycles to the fracture was calculated as per second. The lengths of fractured parts were measured using a digital microcaliper. The One-Way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s post-hoc tests were used for intergroup comparisons.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> In 2 mm Radius of curvature, the EndoArt Wise Reciproc Blue group had a significantly higher time to fracture followed by the EndoArt Wise Reciproc Gold, Resiproc Blue, WaveOne Gold. No significant difference was found between EndoArt Wise Reciproc Gold and Resiproc Blue groups (P&gt;0.05). Among the groups, there was no statistically significant difference in the lengths of fractured parts of the instruments (P&gt; 0.05).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> EndoArt Wise Reciproc Blue files exhibited significantly higher cyclic fatigue resistance compared with other files tested in a 2-mm radius of curvature and a 60° angle in an artificial canal at the intracanal temperature.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Cancer Stem Cells in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma-Treatment Modalitieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bjdm-2021-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) belongs to the most frequent cancer subtypes in the world. Mutations due to genetic and chromosomal instability, syndromes such as Fanconi anemia and the Bloom syndrome, environmental risk factors such as tobacco smoking, alcohol and human papillomavirus infection (HPV) subtypes 16,18,31,33,35,52,58 are implicated in its pathogenesis. The HNSCC belongs to the solid tumors of epithelial origin and consists of stromal, inflammatory, cancer cells and most importantly a fraction of them, the cancer stem cells (CSCs). The identification of the CSCs through their biomarkers such as CD44, CD10, CD166, CD133, CD271, ALDH, Oct4, Nanog, Sox2 and Bmi1, the maintenance of their subpopulation through epithelial to mesenchymal transition, the role of HPV infection regarding their prognosis and of their microenvironment regarding their resistance to therapy, all constitute key elements that must be taken thoroughly into consideration in order to develop an effective targeted therapy. There are already therapies in place targeting specific related biomarkers, important biochemical pathways and growth factors. The aim of this literature review is to illustrate the treatment modalities available against the cancer stem cells of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Perceptions of Smile Esthetics by Dental Studentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bjdm-2021-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Background/Aim</bold>: The aim of this study was to investigate in the esthetic perceptions of 2nd grade dental students before and after training.</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods</bold>: A total of 16 photographs which contain golden ratio, buccal corridor, midline deviation, incisal embrasure, lip line, midline diastema, dark triangles and smile arc were shown to 78 dental students (33 male, 45 female). Immediately after the training about the smile esthetics, the same photos were shown again. The effect of gender on esthetic perception was also examined, in addition to assessing the effects of education on esthetic perception. Pearson Chi-square, Fisher’s Exact test and McNemar test were used in the analysis of the results.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: According to the results of the analysis, it was found that the answers of the smile arc before and after the education were statistically significant (p&lt; 0.05). Accordingly, the rate of correct answers of women is statistically higher than that of men. A statistically significant difference was found between the responses to the gingival appearance in the smile before and after the education (p&lt; 0.05).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>: Based on the limited results of this study, professional dental education may affect the esthetic evaluation of smile. There were differences in the esthetic perception of women and men.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Hemostatic and Histopathological Effects of Local Mineral Zeolite and Tranexamic Acid in Experimental Femoral Artery Bleeding Modelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bjdm-2021-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Background/Aim:</bold> This study aimed to evaluate the effect of local zeolite and tranexamic acid application on hemostasis duration and histopathological changes in the experimental bleeding model, created by puncturing femoral arteries in rats.</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> A total of 36 Sprague Dawley female rats weighing an average of 240 ± 20 g were used in the study. The three main study groups were the zeolite, zeolite+tranexamic acid, and control groups. Each group was sacrificed on the seventh and fourteenth days of the study, using subgroups for histopathological findings. After piercing the femoral artery of each rat, one gram of the material assigned to the group was applied to the bleeding site after which a 100-gram scale weight was placed on the site for 30 sec intervals, during which temperature was measured. The same sequence of procedures was repeated for the control group, using only standard compression. Statistical analysis was performed using IBM Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) 15 statistical software. Significance was evaluated at the level of p&lt; 0.05.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: The bleeding stop time of the control group was significantly longer than the zeolite and zeolite+tranexamic groups (p&lt; 0.05). There was no statistically significant difference between the zeolite and zeolite+tranexamic groups’ bleeding stop times (p&gt; 0.05) or between the mean wound temperatures of the control and zeolite+tranexamic acid groups when bleeding stopped (p&gt; 0.05).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>: The effectiveness of the zeolite group and zeolite+tranexamic acid mixture is more than the control group in ensuring bleeding control. Their efficacy has been clearly observed in providing hemostasis. In addition, it has been determined that zeolite tranexamic acid mixture causes less exothermic reaction than zeolite group. We believe that this new formula should be developed and used to guide new studies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of Patients’ Satisfaction following Coverage of Gingival Recessions: Questionnaire-Based Case Serieshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bjdm-2021-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Background/Aim</bold>: One of the most important goals of periodontal plastic surgery constitutes the predictable root coverage. Despite the thorough documentation that several surgical approaches can be implemented for the successful treatment of gingival recession (GR), only limited papers reported data on the evaluation according to patient’s opinion. Thus, the forthcoming study is aiming in the patient-based assessment of the outcome of root coverage procedures.</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods</bold>: Sixteen subjects (eight male, eight female; mean age 43.75 years, range: 23-73 years), with twenty one GRs, constituted the sample of this study and the root coverage procedures were executed in the period from 2011 to 2019. A patient-based questionnaire was used to assess the level of subjects’ concern on various aspects related to the GR, preand post-operatively. Patient’s overall post-operative satisfaction was evaluated with a VAS.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: After a period of at least 6 months of the surgical treatment, the majority of the subjects indicated that they were not concerned for all the examined criteria. The criteria with the highest improvement (reported as improvement by at least two levels of concern pre- and post-operatively) were the following: 1) fear to lose the involved teeth and 2) esthetics of the area of the recession defect. With regard to esthetics’ criteria, the majority of the patients indicated post-operatively the examined criteria as not important. The esthetics’ criteria yielding the highest improvement were: 1) position of the teeth and 2) the fact that the teeth showed longer. Mean patient’s overall post-operative satisfaction was 82,3 (range: 0-100).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions</bold>: The majority of the subjects were satisfied from the implemented root coverage procedures. Few studies on the international literature have evaluated patient satisfaction following therapy. Comprehensive, multi-center studies, comprised of a large sample and a using a standardized approach are needed in future research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Esthetic Outcome and Oral Health-Related Quality of Life after Restoration with Single Anterior Maxillary Implantshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bjdm-2021-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Background/Aim:</bold> To evaluate the esthetic outcome of single implant restorations and the correlation of these esthetic results between patient satisfaction and oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL).</p> <p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> 15 patients with single-tooth implants in the anterior maxilla region were included in this study. Patients were clinically followed to evaluate the esthetic outcomes of implant prostheses and photographs of the implant site were obtained using a digital camera. A researcher evaluated the photographs according to the pink esthetic score/white esthetic score (PES/WES) index. Patients were asked to complete a questionnaire including 13 questions to evaluate their satisfaction with the overall implant and restoration treatments using by visual analogue scale (VAS). OHRQoL was evaluated by patients with the questionnaire Oral Health Impact Profile-14 (OHIP-14).</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The mean PES/WES was 13.6. In Ohip-14 questionnaire, the questions were answered ‘never’ generally. The mean VAS score was 9.01±0.9 and ranged from 7.6 to 9.7. There was no correlation between VAS and PES/WES (p= 0.484), similarly, there was no correlation between OHIP-14 and PES/WES (p= 0.763).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> All of the implant restorations’ PES/WES scores were clinically acceptable. Professionals evaluated the esthetic outcome more suspicious than patients. Patients were satisfied with the esthetic results.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-15T00:00:00.000+00:00Association between Self-Reported Bruxism, Peripartum Depression and Myogenous Temporomandibular Disorders among Postpartum Women in Turkeyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bjdm-2021-0022<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p><bold>Background/Aim:</bold> It is possible to find studies in the literature evaluating the relationship among self-reported bruxism, psychological factors, and myogenous temporomandibular disorder. In addition, the relationship between these issues has not yet been clarified. The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between peripartum depression, self-reported bruxism, and myogenous temporomandibular disorders among postpartum women in Turkey.</p><p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> This study included 220 women, whom were asked about their bruxism behaviour during day and during sleep. Besides, all of them assessed with Short-Form Fonseca’s Anamnestic Index for myogenous temporomandibular disorder and the Edinburgh postnatal depression scale for peripartum depression.</p><p><bold>Results:</bold> The results showed that, self-reported bruxism was observed at a statistically significantly higher rate (94.3%) in peripartum depression group. 86.5% of the patients with self-reported bruxism had myogenous temporomandibular disorder (p&lt;0.001). As a result, 80.0% of the patients with peripartum depression had myogenous temporomandibular disorder (p&lt;0.001).</p><p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> In conclusion, a significant relationship has been found between peripartum depression and self-reported bruxism, self-reported bruxism and myogenous temporomandibular disorder, and peripartum depression and myogenous temporomandibular disorder. The present study is the first to evaluate the relationship between peripartum depression, self-reported bruxism, and myogenous temporomandibular disorder so it could be considered as a pilot attempt, and further studies using more representative samples are encouraged.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Periodontal Management during COVID-19 Pandemic: Mini Reviewhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bjdm-2021-0021<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>A few cases of pneumonia were reported by Wuhan Municipal Health Commission in Wuhan, Hubei Province, Republic of China and this mysterious pneumonia was recognized as novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in the course of time on 31 December 2019. Based on the literature knowledge, COVID-19 outbreak was came into existence through an animal-to-human transmission, then continued human-to-human diffusion. Especially dentists among the medical professionals are at high-risk group of SARS-CoV-2 virus contamination because of several routine dental procedures having the risk to convey the SARS-CoV-2 virus via droplets and close contact. In this mini review, it was aimed to give information about patient management during COVID-19 pandemic for dental practitioners, periodontologists and dental hygienists.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-17T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Implant Survival by Analysing Dental Panoramic Radiographs: 10-Year Retrospective Studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bjdm-2020-0031<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p><bold>Background/Aim:</bold> Panoramic radiographs have been used widely for pre-implant evaluation and the preparation of treatment protocols. Panoramic radiography is often the first choice method for the implant placements because it gives information on the overall shape of the jaws, the position of the maxillary sinus floor and the nasal cavity floor, and vertical position of the mandibular canal and the mental foramen in relation to dental implants. The specific aim of the present study was to evaluate 10-year survival rate of dental implants by analysis of dental panoramic radiographs.</p><p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> This retrospective study was conducted on 507 panoramic radiographs of 156 implant patients. Initial oral health status, proceedings of Restorative/Endodontic treatments before implant placement, missing number of teeth and edentulism types, finalization of implant related prosthetic treatments during controls, implant quality scorings at baseline/ controls and implant fails were analyzed.</p><p><bold>Results:</bold> The study results reveal statistically significant difference between the performed R/E treatment rates, according to the need for R/E treatments (p= 0.008). During the initial radiograph 96.1% of the implants were successful and 3.9% had satisfactory survival. At last control 86% of the implants were successful, 10.3% had satisfactory survival, 1% had impairment in survival and 2.8% were unsuccessful. The change in the last control compared to the initial radiograph is statistically significant (p= 0.000) regarding satisfactory survival.</p><p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Long-term implant survival is not significantly affected by gender, age, type of edentulism, the presence of periodontal disease, R/E treatment needs, implant location, prosthesis type, and the presence of multiple implants.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00The Use of Photodynamic Therapy on Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws: Animal Studyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bjdm-2020-0034<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p><bold>Background/Aim:</bold> Bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ) was first introduced in 2003 and its scope was expanded by the name medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ), since 2014. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of photodynamic therapy (FDT) on tissue samples by histopathological and histomorphometric examination and serum TRACP-5b (Tartrateresistant acid phosphatase-5b) measurement in rats.</p><p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> 24 Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into 3 groups comprising 8 animals. Zoledronic acid was administered to groups 1 and 2 and 0.9% sodium chloride was administered to group 3 intraperitoneally. After the injections were completed, dental extractions were performed. Photodynamic therapy was applied to group 2, three times a weekfor the two weeks after the extraction. In the 16th week, sacrification was performed. Rats were undergone histopathologic and histomorphometric evaluations.</p><p><bold>Results:</bold> Photodynamic therapy has led to a decrease in epithelial opening and inflammation and an increase in the formation of new bone. Serum TRACP-5b values were shown to decrease significantly in the presence of osteonecrosis.</p><p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> PDT was shown to be useful in reducing MRONJ risk in rats. As a serum biomarker, Serum TRACP-5b could be a valuable marker. Additional studies should confirm the findings.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00The Proximity of Mental Foramen to Mandibular First Premolar Teeth: Cone Beam Computed Tomography Analysis in Turkish Populationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bjdm-2021-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p><bold>Background/Aim:</bold> The aim of this study was to evaluate the proximity of the mental foramen (MF) to the roots of the mandibular first premolar teeth in the Turkish population according to gender and different age groups.</p><p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> The study was conducted on 385 samples of 242 patients who presented at the Dicle University, Faculty of Dentistry, Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology. The proximity of the MF to mandibular first premolar teeth was examined on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. Two-way Anova variance analysis was used in the statistical analyses of the data.</p><p><bold>Results:</bold> According to the analysis results, no statistically significant difference was determined between the age and gender groups (p&gt;0.05). In the evaluation of the gender groups, the mean value was 6.6997 mm for females and 6.5445 mm for males.</p><p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> With 3-dimensional imaging technology, the CBCT system provides detailed information about the MF localization. This method has shown that the localization of the MF could change associated with variables such as age and gender.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Two Antibacterial Luting Protocols with and without Immediate-Dentin-Bonding on Microtensile Bond Strength of Glass Ceramic to Bur-Cut Cavity Floor Dentinhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bjdm-2020-0033<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p><bold>Background/Aim:</bold> The aim of this study was to evaluate the bond strength of glass ceramic inlay system using 2 antibacterial adhesive luting protocols with 2 cementation techniques to bur-cut dentin.</p><p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> Class I inlay cavities with 6-degree occlusal divergence and size of 6-, 3- and 2-mm in length, width and depth, were prepared on extracted human molars, randomly assigned to 2 main groups; each to 1 cementation technique, with or without immediate-dentin-bonding (IDB or NIDB) further divided into 3 subgroups; 2 to 2 antibacterial luting protocols, traditional (T) and experimental (E); and 1 to a control (C) group. In group IDBT, IDB-E and IDB-C dentin bonding was applied immediately after cavity preparation. In group NIDB-T, NIDB-E and NIDB-C dentin bonding was applied just before cementation of the restorations. The cavities in IDB-T and NIDB-T were treated with 2% chlorhexidine-digluconate (CHX) prior to dentin bonding application. The cavities in IDB-E and NIDB-E were treated only with dentin bonding system containing MDPB (12-methacryloyloxydodecylpyridinium bromide) active monomer featuring antibacterial effect. IDB-C and NIDB-C served as control. Dual-cure adhesive resin cement was used for the cementation of lithium disilicate-based ceramic inlay restorations. Fourteen test specimens per group were prepared for microtensile testing and consecutively subjected to tensile load at a crosshead speed of 1 mm/min. The mode of failure was observed under SEM and evaluated for each group. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to investigate the statistical difference between groups (α=0.05).</p><p><bold>Results:</bold> The microtensile load was 5.96 MPa (median: 5.99 MPa) for IDB-T, 7.23 MPa (median: 7.55 MPa) for IDB-E, 6.68 MPa (median: 6.56 MPa) for IDB-C, 7.24 MPa (median: 7.20 MPa) for NIDB-T, 6.98 MPa (median: 6.30 MPa) for NIDB-E, and 7.02 MPa (median: 6.99 MPa) for NIDB-C, with no statistical difference between the groups (p&gt;0.05). SEM monitoring for mode of failure revealed either cohesive (within resin cement) or adhesive-cohesive (mostly within resin cement along with partially involved areas between resin cement and ceramic restoration) character.</p><p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Within the limitations of the current study, none of the tested antibacterial luting protocols with either cementation technique was found to be superior in terms of bond strength.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Stress Distribution on all-on-four Concept and Conventional Implant Designs: 3D Finite Element Analysishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bjdm-2021-0004<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p><bold>Background/Aim:</bold> The objective of this study was to evaluate the stress distribution on implants and supporting bone tissue in All-on-Four and conventional designs in edentulous mandible by using 3D finite element analysis.</p><p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> The different five models were designed according to All-on-Four concept and conventional implant placement designs. While the first two models were involved in All-on-Four concept with two long implants, the remaining models were designed by conventional approaches with three implants in different location and length. After the modelling procedures, a load of masticatory force was applied and the stresses were evaluated.</p><p><bold>Results:</bold> It has been observed that principal stresses in both cortical and spongious bone tissue were concentrated in models of All-on-Four design. Less principal stress levels were found in models of conventional design. Similarly, von Mises stress values on implant surfaces were found to be higher in All-on-Four concept.</p><p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> In severely resorbed mandible, the use of conventional implant placement is recommended. Although All-on-Four design seems to be a reasonable alternative for edentulous mandible, evidence-based results of this approach should be supported by long-term follow-up studies.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Bosnian Version of Oral Health of Edentulous Patients (OHIP-EDENT-B&H) Questionnaire: Assessment of Reliability and Validityhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bjdm-2021-0006<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p><bold>Background/Aim:</bold> The aim of this study was to assess of the internal coherence of Bosnian translated version of the Oral Health Impact Profile for Edentulous Patients (OHIP-EDENT-B&amp;H), and evaluated the validity of this version.</p><p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> OHIP-EDENT-B&amp;H questionnaires were completed by 117 edentulous patients and specialists of prosthodontics in health institutions of central Bosnia.</p><p><bold>Results:</bold> Test-retesting analysis showed strong correlations, r ranging from 0.46 to 0.58, respecting complete dentures, with Kappa= 0.68, that indicated reliability of the questionnaire. The lowest reliability was obtained for Psychological disability (n= 117, α= 0.636) and the highest was obtained for Social disability (α= 0.859). The reliability of the summary scores for OHIP-EDENT-B&amp;H was good (α= 0.907). Content validity for the test group-retest group did not expose significant differences between the groups tested.</p><p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The OHIPEDENT-B&amp;H instrument for verifying of oral-health–related quality of life in edentulous patients demonstrated good reliability and validity in Bosnian patients.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Curtailing of Myths and Misconceptions Regarding Oral Health among Indian Adult Population through Health Education and Promotion -Cross Sectional Surveyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bjdm-2021-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p><bold>Background/Aim:</bold> Myths related to oral diseases and oral health-related practices are very common among the population. Inadequate knowledge along with the persisting myths regarding the etiology, course and outcome of oral diseases makes it difficult to initiate health behavioural changes. Present study scrutinizes various myths and misconceptions regarding oral health among the outpatients. The aim of this study was to assess myths and misconceptions about oral health and imparting education regarding the same.</p><p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> The calculated sample size was 200. A pre –tested closed ended questionnaire was prepared in both English and local language (Kannada). It comprised of four sections with 24 questions. The Content validity index value of 0.9 suggested a good validity. A Chi square test was applied and significance level was fixed at p&lt; 0.05.</p><p><bold>Results:</bold> We had 100% response rate. In our study half of the participants visited dental hospital for the very first time (57.5%). About 45.2% of subjects believed 3<sup>rd</sup> molar eruption is the sign of intelligence, while 64.8% had a notion that all dental procedures are painful.</p><p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Myths and misconceptions related to oral health are still prevalent among the population. However, small steps like compulsory education about oral health in the school curriculum, available and affordable oral care also effective use of mass media could be the steps to reduce oral health burden to the society.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of the Distance between the Mental Foramen and the Mandibular Edge: Cone Beam Computed Tomography Analysis in Turkish Populationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/bjdm-2021-0005<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p><bold>Background/Aim:</bold> The aim of this study was to evaluate the distance between the mental foramen and the upper and lower edges of the mandible in the Turkish population according to different gender and age groups.</p><p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> A total of 1756 samples of 878 patients who presented at the Dentomaxillofacial Radiology Department of the Dentistry Faculty of Dicle University were included in the study for evaluation of the distance between the mental foramen and the upper and lower edges of the mandible. The cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were taken using an I-CAT Vision device (Imaging Science International, Hatfield, USA). Multiple variance analysis was used in the statistical analyses of the data.</p><p><bold>Results:</bold> A statistically significant difference was identified between the genders in respect of the distance of the external edge of the mental foramen from the upper edge of the mandible (p=0,000). In the evaluations of the different age groups, no statistically significant difference was determined. A statistically significant difference was determined between the gender and age groups in respect of the distance of the mental foramen from the lower edge of the mandible (p=0,000).</p><p><bold>Conclusion</bold>s<bold>:</bold> The distance of the mental foramen from the upper and lower edges of the mandible can show variations according to age and gender. Therefore, the use of CBCT as a 3-dimensional imaging method with a low radiation dose is recommended.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-02-24T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1