rss_2.0Bulletin of Geography. Physical Geography Series FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Bulletin of Geography. Physical Geography Series of Geography. Physical Geography Series 's Cover relationship between landscape and meteorological parameters on COVID-19 risk in a small-complex region of Yogyakarta, Indonesia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As of the beginning of September 2021, the COVID-19 outbreak has lasted for more than 1.5 years in Indonesia, especially on Java and Bali islands. Yogyakarta Special Region, Indonesia, is one of the areas that continued to impose restrictions on community activities at the highest level for that period. This is due to the high rate of COVID-19 spread in this region. In this paper, the influence of landscape and meteorological parameters on the spread of COVID-19 risk in Yogyakarta is investigated. This study utilises primary and secondary data obtained from observation, remote-sensing-image interpretation, literature study and data documented by several agencies. The data were statistically analysed using simple linear regression and Geographic Information System (GIS) analysis utilising the average nearest neighbour. The results show that the variation in landscape and meteorological parameters in the Yogyakarta area does not have a significant impact on the spread of COVID-19. Ease of accessibility in various areas of Yogyakarta is able to overcome landscape barriers. This affects the random distribution pattern of COVID-19, clustering in plain areas that facilitate population mobility rather than in mountainous, volcanic or karst areas. Also, meteorological conditions with small variations do not impact the spread of COVID-19. In summary, this study shows that ease of mobility in a medium-wide area can encourage the spread of COVID-19 in various regions even though there are variations in its terrain and climate.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Geodiversity and geoheritage in the perspective of geography<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper states that geodiversity is the abiotic complement to biodiversity, and is considered to be the elements associated with the abiotic environment, e.g. geological diversity, geomorphodiversity, pedodiversity, hydrodiversity and climodiversity. Geoheritage is considered as the geological heritage of a site, but is here presented as the abiotic heritage of a site, and is related to geological heritage, geomorphoheritage, pedoheritage, hydroheritage and climoheritage. Thus, it is possible to talk about geological sites, geomorphosites, pedosites, hydrosites and climosites. Geodiversity and geoheritage are strongly linked to geology. However, it is also a new paradigm to geography, as physical geography classically works with abiotic and biotic environments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Variability of nephological conditions in 1971–2010 based on measurements made at Bydgoszcz-Airport weather station<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper contains a description of nephological conditions in the Bydgoszcz area based on data sourced from the Bydgoszcz-Airport weather station for 1971–2010. In the analysed forty-year period from 1971 to 2010 the average annual total cloud cover in Bydgoszcz – measured on a scale of 0–8 – was 5.5; for the warm season (April – September) it was 5.1, and for the cold season (October – March) 5.8. This corresponds to, respectively, 69, 64 and 72% coverage of the sky by cloud. Cloud cover was largest from November to February (6.1–5.8) and smallest in August (4.7). In 1971–2010, the average mean cloud cover value (scale 0–8) decreased from 5.6 in 1971–1990 to 5.4 in the multi-annual period 1991–2010 (by 0.05 per 10 years).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Microscale spatial variation of soil erodibility factor (K) in a young hummocky moraine landscape in Northern Poland<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Soil erodibility is one of the crucial parameters for modelling soil erosion, expressed as the K-factor. The presented study tries to illustrate the spatial variance of K-factor on a local scale through the investigation of soil properties and descriptive spatial analysis utilising GIS tools at microscale in a young hummocky moraine landscape in Northern Poland. The results of the interpolation of K-factor values illustrate their changing from high values in eroded pedons on the tops of hummocks to low values in kettle holes. The middle position is occupied by slightly and non-eroded pedons. The mean weight results were very similar to data that were found on the scale of Europe and Poland.</p> <p>In landscapes with heterogeneous soil cover, there are significant differences in maps based on different approaches to data visualisation. There are advantages and disadvantages to both (1) referring to mean values of the K index for soil contours representing different soil types and (2) interpolating the values obtained from individual points (GIS tool). Interpolation can be used for a thoroughly examined area with a high number of input points, while a map based on mean K index values for soil contours would be more effective in homogeneous areas.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The influence of benzene air pollution on leukemia incidence and mortality rates<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The following study identifies areas where adverse conditions related to benzene pollution are concurrent with leukaemia incidence and mortality (C91–C95). Moreover, it determines the similarities between benzene and leukaemia levels, as well and rules defining their co-occurrence. The analysis covered the period of 2015–2017. Data were obtained from (number of leukaemia cases), the Polish National Cancer Registry website (number of deaths), the Local Data Bank of the Central Statistical Office (population data) and the Chief Inspectorate of Environmental Protection and the Air Quality Portal (data on air quality). Based on the conducted analysis, it was concluded that the following poviat towns have an unfavourable epidemic situation related to leukaemia: Kielce (incidence), Rzeszów (incidence), Elbląg (mortality); meanwhile, high leukaemia incidence and mortality co-occurred with high average benzene concentration in 2015–2017 in the following poviat towns: Kielce, Rybnik, Płock and Rzeszów. It was found that leukaemias belonging to the three-character ICD-10 categories C94, C95 and C92 show the highest rate of co-occurrence with benzene concentration. In addition, two main rules for the co-occurrence of benzene pollution and leukaemia were identified. It was also noted that it is necessary to continue the research for a longer time period, especially in the poviat towns of Kielce and Rzeszów.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Application of geospatial technologies in constructing a flash flood warning model in northern mountainous regions of Vietnam: a case study at TrinhTuong commune, Bat Xat district, LaoCai province<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The model was constructed based on GIS spatial analyses, combined with Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) and Multi-Criterion Analysis method (MCA). The data gathered for the study were mainly from remote-sensing images, statistical data and surveys. Field experiments were conducted in Trinh Tuong Commune, Bat Xat District, Lao Cai province. This is a typical remote mountainous region of Vietnam in which flash floods often occur. The study analyzes and evaluates six primary factors that incite flash flood, namely: geomorphological characteristics, soil properties, forest and fractional vegetation cover types, local drainage basin slopes, maximum average rainfall of various years, and the river/stream density of the region. The zoning map showing flash flood potentials has determined that 19.91% of the area had an extremely high risk of flash flood occurrence, 64.92% of the area had a medium risk, and 15.17% had a low or very low risk. Based on the employment of daily maximum rainfalls as the primary factor, an online flash flood warning model was constructed for areas with a “high” or “very high” risk of flash flood occurrence.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Ice phenomena in investigations of Polish lakes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents nearly 150 years of history of ice research conducted on Polish lakes. In the first stage, these were observations and expedition studies that had an exploratory purpose. It was not until the 1920s that stationary measurements on several lakes were introduced. Unfortunately, the outbreak of World War II interrupted these observations. After the war, they were resumed in 1946, but the real beginning of investigations of ice phenomena on lakes is taken to be 1960. At present, stationary measurements of ice phenomena are conducted on about 70 lakes located mainly in northern Poland. Besides the purely explorative purpose, experimental research on ice phenomena on lakes has also contributed to the development of a measurement methodology. The author of this paper took part in numerous experimental studies conducted on over 30 lakes for which the ice results are partially presented below.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Meghna riverbank erosion on lives and livelihoods of rural people: impacts and coping strategies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Riverbank erosion is one of the most hazardous disaster types for Bangladesh. It has both a direct and a negative impact on people and their livelihoods. This study aims to explore the impacts of Meghna riverbank erosion and the coping strategies that have been adopted by the affected people to combat this calamity, considering four unions under Matlab Uttar of Chadpur District. The findings reveal that the occupational status, income and expenditure of the affected people have changed due to erosion. Ninety-one percent of the respondents’ houses were fully damaged and 48% of them are living in shelter houses. The results also show that a large portion of the affected populace lost their assets and most of them are suffering from psychological distress. Around 87% of people borrowed money to cope with this hazard, and a strict law against sand dredging is recommended as one of the effective strategies to prevent Meghna river bank erosion.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The spatial pattern of selected extreme precipitation indices for Turkey (1975-2012)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This paper analyses extreme precipitation characteristics of Turkey based on selected WMO climate change indices. The indices – monthly total rainy days (<italic>RDays</italic>); monthly maximum 1-day precipitation (<italic>Rx1day</italic>); simple precipitation intensity index (<italic>SDII</italic>); and monthly count of days when total precipitation (represented by PRCP) exceeds 10 mm (<italic>R10mm</italic>) – were calculated for 98 stations for the 38-year overlapping period (1975–2012). Cluster analysis was applied to evaluate the spatial characterisation of the annual precipitation extremes. Four extreme precipitation clusters were detected. Cluster 1 corresponds spatially to Central and Eastern Anatolia and is identified with the lowest values of the indices, except rainy days. Cluster 2 is concentrated mainly on the west and south of Anatolia, and especially the coastal zone, and can be characterised with the lowest rainy days, and high and moderate values of other indices. These two clusters are the most prominent classes throughout the country, and include a total of 82 stations. Cluster 3 is clearly located in the Black Sea coastal zone in the north, and has high and moderate index values. Two stations on the north-east coast of the Black Sea region are identified as Cluster 4, which exhibits the highest values among all indices. The overall results reveal that winter months and October have the highest proportion of precipitation extremes in Turkey. The north-east part of the Black Sea region and Mediterranean coastal area from the south-west to the south-east are prone to frequent extreme precipitation events.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-04T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effect of Using Multiple Coordinate Systems and Datum Transformations on the Calculated Coordinates in Palestine<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The recent developments in spatial data collection, management and software require the availability of proper geodetic infrastructures for integrating different types and sources of coordinates without causing effective changes in positions. Nowadays, positions are mostly collected by GNSS data collectors based on WGS84/ITRF reference systems. The data are then subjected to transformations and projections to a locally used system. Another possibility is direct data collection based on the local coordinate system by classical surveys using land surveying, photogrammetry, laser scanning, etc. The spatial data management is commonly operated using Geographic Information Systems (GIS) software for mapping, analysis, planning, and other services. The conversions between different coordinate systems should be well defined to guarantee the consistency of the coordinates on all systems and tools. In Palestine, the classical and local surveys are all based on the local coordinate system Pal1923Grid for engineering, cadastral and planning applications. The different GNSS RTK-service providers use different definitions and transformation methods between WGS84 or the International Terrestrial Reference Frames (ITRF) and the local Palestine1923Grid, whereas the Land authority has adopted a group of parameters to be implemented on the Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) data collectors, which do not fit with Palestine1923Grid properties. Additionally, different transformation methods are used in GIS applications for converting the coordinates between the different systems using WGS84 as an intermediate system. Here, the coordinates of a group of the geodetic network in the West Bank of Palestine are used to assess the accuracy of the different transformations and systems by comparing the transformed coordinates using the GNSS system and the originally registered coordinates. Furthermore, a grid of points covering the coordinate system extents is used to describe the differences between the transformations and systems. It was found that the parameters provided by GNSS service providers have results that are consistent with each other and the geodetic network in the West Bank of Palestine compared to GIS-software parameters. By contrast, all systems have extremely deteriorated coordinates in the Gaza strip and the further parts of the Pal1923Grid extents.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Contemporary state of glaciers in Chukotka and Kolyma highlands<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The purpose of this work is to assess the main parameters of the Chukotka and Kolyma glaciers (small forms of glaciation, SFG): their size and volume, and changes therein over time. The point as to whether these SFG can be considered glaciers or are in transition into, for example, rock glaciers is also presented. SFG areas were defined from the early 1980s (data from the catalogue of the glaciers compiled by R.V. Sedov) to 2005, and up to 2017: these data were retrieved from satellite images. The maximum of the SGF reduction occurred in the Chantalsky Range, Iskaten Range, and in the northern part of Chukotka Peninsula. The smallest retreat by this time relates to the glaciers of the southern part of the peninsula. Glacier volumes are determined by the formula of S.A. Nikitin for corrie glaciers, based on in-situ volume measurements, and by our own method: the average glacier thickness is calculated from isogypsum patterns, constructed using DEMs of individual glaciers based on images taken from a drone during field work, and using ArcticDEM for others.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-04T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysing flood history and simulating the nature of future floods using Gumbel method and Log-Pearson Type III: the case of the Mayurakshi River Basin, India<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Floods of the Mayurakshi River Basin (MRB) have been historically documented since 1860. The high magnitude, low-frequency flood events have drastically changed to low magnitude, high-frequency flood events in the post-dam period, especially after the 1950s, when the major civil structures (Massanjore dam, Tilpara barrage, Brahmani barrage, Deucha barrage, and Bakreshwar weir) were constructed in the MRB. The present study intends to find out the nature of flood frequency using the extreme value method of Gumbel and Log-Pearson type III (LP-III). The results show that the highest flood magnitude (11,327 m<sup>3</sup> s<sup>−1</sup>) was observed during 1957–2009 for the Tilpara barrage with a return probability of 1.85% and the lowest (708 m<sup>3</sup> s<sup>−1</sup>) recorded by the Bakreshwar weir during 1956–77 with a return probability of 4.55%. In the present endeavour, we have computed the predicted discharge for the different return periods, like 2, 5, 10, 25, 50,100, and 200 years. The quantile-quantile plot shows that the expected discharge calculated using LP-III is more normally distributed than that of Gumbel. Moreover, Kolmogorov–Smirnov (KS) test, Anderson–Darling (AD), and x2 distribution show that LP-III distribution is more normally distributed than the Gumbel at 0.01 significance level, implying its greater reliability and acceptance in the flood simulation of the MRB.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-05T00:00:00.000+00:00The Present-Day Climate of Eastern Europe as Viewed in The Context of Atmospheric Circulation Change<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Climate change over the territory of the Atlantic-European sector during the recent decades is studied with reference to changes in the largescale atmospheric circulation. The classification of synoptic patterns (from the class of most probably to the class of least probable fields) is given for winter and summer for the last three decades, starting from 1974-1983. The synoptic pattern of the most probable class of field sea-level pressure shows high pressure over Europe in 1974-2005, which from decade to decade occupies more and more territory in summer and winter. The high temporal stability of predominant synoptic patterns is responsible for long-lived events of extreme warm and dry weather in winter and in summer for heat waves and droughts. The synoptic patterns corresponding to such dangerous weather conditions as extreme cold, strong precipitation, glaze ice, strong winds, hail etc. are discussed as well.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Methods for the Design of Climate Change Scenario in Slovakia for the 21 Century<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> In this paper methods of climate-change scenario projection in Slovakia for the 21st century are outlined. Temperature and precipitation time series of the Hurbanovo Observatory in 1871-2007 (Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute) and data from four global GCMs (GISS 1998, CGCM1, CGCM2, HadCM3) are utilized for the design of climate change scenarios. Selected results of different climate change scenarios (based on different methods) for the region of Slovakia (up to 2100) are presented. The increase in annual mean temperature is about 3°C, though the results are ambiguous in the case of precipitation. These scenarios are required by users in impact studies, mainly from the hydrology, agriculture and forestry sectors.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00On the Role of Tropospheric Circulation in Recent Climate Changes in the Antarctic Peninsula Region<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The state of tropospheric circulation in the West Antarctic sector (WAS) is considered during 1990s, the warmest decade in the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) region. Regional warming has progressed almost coherently with the second phase of global warming and is related to oceanic variability, specifically PDO-ENSO conditions. Atmospheric circulation in 1990s comprises a prevailing cyclogenesis west of the Antarctic Peninsula sector along with frequent weather modifications (the winter season in particular is examined) and the ridge of high pressure to the east. Predominant atmospheric circulation types for the recent decade are found to be stable in time causing smaller air temperature oscillations on different time scales. The circulation background responsible for the stabilization of air temperature growth in the AP region immediately after the turn of the millennium is shown.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Long-Term Variability in the Course of Ice Phenomena on the Vistula River in Toruń<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Our first information of ice cover on the Vistula River in Poland dates from the Middle Ages. However, only since the 19<sup>th</sup> century have continuous observations been available. This study makes use of a data series, obtained mainly from IMGW (Institute of Meteorology and Water Management), covering the years 1861-2003 for ice phenomena and 1814-2003 for ice cover. Considerable shortening has been observed in the duration of both ice phenomena (from 60-120 days to 30-80 days) and ice cover (from 40-100 days to 20-60 days). These trends correspond well with the trend in winter temperatures becoming warmer. However, the transformation of the ice regime on the Vistula River in Toruń has also been affected by the river control, the construction and operation of the Włocławek Dam and (to a lesser degree than at Korzeniewo) icebreaking activities.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Phenology of Social Wasps (Hymenoptera: Vespinae) in the Kujawy Region (Northern Poland) under the Influence of Climatic Changes 1981–2000<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Duration of flight periods were determined for most numerous species of social wasps for two decades 1981-1990 and 1991-2000. The tendency to shorten the duration of wasps’ flight periods by 12-18% was observed during 1990s. An attempt was undertaken to associate this phenomenon with observed climatic changes that shape nutritional resources of Vespinae.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Changeability of the Ice Cover on the Lakes of Northern Poland in the Light of Climatic Changes<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The study is based upon instrumental observations of ice covers which formed on the lakes in northern Poland in the period 1956-2005 and records of air temperature measured at 9 meteorological stations in the period 1960-2005. Relations between mean dates of ice cover freeze-up, ice cover duration, maximum ice thickness, and also other properties of ice regime indicate obvious dependency upon air temperatures in winter months (December-February). Both air temperatures and main properties of ice covers revealed definite trends, showing the increase in air temperature in winter (0.04-0.06°C year<sup>-1</sup>), earlier disappearance of ice cover (0.5-0.6 day year<sup>-1</sup>), its shorter duration (0.6-0.7 day year<sup>-1</sup>), and decreases in maximum thickness of the ice cover (0.2-0.25 cm year<sup>-1</sup>). The author shows considerable statistical relations between main properties of the course of the ice cover, air temperatures in winter and the NAO winter indexes. Therefore, changeability of the ice covers on the lakes in northern Poland in the latter half of the twentieth century may be treated as another proof and an indirect indicator of climatic changes undergoing in this part of Europe.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of Atmospheric Circulation on Air Temperature and Precipitation in the Bydgoszcz–Toruń Region in the Period from 1921 to 2000<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The following article presents the results of research on the influence of atmospheric circulation on air temperature and atmospheric precipitation in the Bydgoszcz-Toruń region (Poland) in the period 1921-2000. In order to do this, we have constructed a daily calendar of synoptic situations using criteria proposed by Niedźwiedź (1981). Daily values of air temperature and atmospheric precipitation were collected from the meteorological station in Toruń. Research results show that weather conditions in the study area are influenced predominantly by the direction of air mass advection and, to a lesser extent, by the prevailing type of isobaric system.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Frosty, Freezing and Severe Freezing Days and Their Synoptic Implications in Małopolska, Southern Poland, 1951–2000<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>This study discusses the occurrence of days with unique thermal characteristics for the period 1951-2000. The authors investigated longterm variability, probability of occurrence and synoptic conditions favourable to frosty (t<sub>min</sub>≤0˚C ∧ t<sub>max</sub>&gt;0˚C), freezing (t<sub>max</sub>&lt;0˚C) and severe freezing (t<sub>max</sub>&lt;-10˚C) days at six stations in the southern part of Poland. The occurrence of frosty days is characterized by the highest diversity, both in spatial and temporal terms and these days depend on the landform to the highest degree. The number of freezing days ranged from 28-30 in the foothills of the Carpathians to 147 at 2000 m a.s.l. in the Tatra Mountains, with severe freezing days from ca. 2 to ca. 18 days respectively, though no distinct trends were noted in their long-term progression. The anticyclonic situations and air mass advection from the southern sector (frosty days), from the east, south-east and north (freezing and severe freezing days) were the most favourable for the days examined.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-04-13T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1