rss_2.0Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria Universitatis Sapientiae, Alimentaria 's Cover potential of lactic acid bacteria<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Acidification in lactic-fermented foods is realized by lactic acid bacteria as an added starter culture or by autochthonous strains. These microbial strains possess different prominent features that define the technological, organoleptic, nutritional, and microbial safety aspects of the product. The bioprotective effect of the bacterial strains may be related to antagonistic properties against food spoilage and/or pathogenic strains. The aim of the present study is to determine the antimicrobial properties of three different food-grade lactic acid bacteria in order to use them as bioprotective cultures. Our findings show that the <italic>Lactobacillus pentosus</italic>, <italic>Enterococcus faecalis</italic>, and <italic>Pediococcus parvulus</italic> exerted a bacteriostatic effect on <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> and <italic>Bacillus cereus</italic>, whereas the <italic>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</italic> growth was not inhibited, which made them susceptible agent for co-culture systems.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Antibacterial activity of plant extracts against isolated from ready-to-eat salads<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Ready-to-eat salads are becoming more and more popular. However, due to their ingredients, they represent a suitable growth environment for different microbes. In the prevention of foodborne diseases, hygienic food preparation and appropriate storage conditions are very important. During this study, ten different ready-to-eat salads were analysed for the presence of <italic>Listeria monocytogenes</italic>. Five different selective agar mediums were used for the enumeration and isolation of <italic>Listeria monocytogenes</italic>. The isolated bacterial strains were subjected to morphological and biochemical confirmation tests. The antibacterial effects of five different freshly squeezed vegetable juices (carrots, celery, beets, horseradish, and onions) and of five essential oils (dill, thyme, oregano, lemongrass, and sage) were determined against <italic>Listeria monocytogenes</italic>, <italic>Listeria innocua</italic>, and <italic>L. monocytogenes</italic> strains isolated from ready-to-eat salads. Based on the results obtained from fresh vegetable juices, carrot juice exerted the highest antibacterial effect, while the others showed no or slight inhibitory effect (horseradish, beets, onions) against <italic>Listeria</italic> species. Among the essential oils, thyme, lemongrass, and oregano showed the strongest antibacterial effect against the studied <italic>Listeria</italic> species.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Functional and pasting characteristics of and analogues from cassava () and breadfruit () blends<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><italic>Pupuru</italic> and <italic>pupuru</italic> analogues are fermented, smoked food products usually produced from cassava or cassava substituted with a varying ratio of breadfruit. This study aims at determining and comparing the functional and pasting characteristics of <italic>pupuru</italic> and <italic>pupuru</italic> analogues with a view to expanding the utilization of breadfruit as <italic>pupuru</italic> analogue. The functional properties (water absorption capacity (%), swelling power (g/g), solubility (%)) and pasting characteristics were determined using standard methods. The results showed that the yield of the products ranged between 24.66 and 29.65%, and it was not affected by the amount of breadfruit substituted. The water absorption capacities of the <italic>pupuru</italic> and <italic>pupuru</italic> analogues ranged between 216.0 and 449.0%; this parameter increased with temperature increase. Both swelling power and solubility had a rapid increase from 80 °C to 90 °C. Pasting temperature ranged between 73.15 and 83.66 °C, with peak time between 4.58 and 5.33 min. The final viscosity ranged between 94.08 and 391.83 RVU, and it decreased with increase in breadfruit substitution. The study concluded that adding breadfruit to cassava in <italic>pupuru</italic> analogue production improved some of the functional and pasting properties of the product.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Biotic and abiotic risks of soil biochar treatment for food safety and human health<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Pyrolysis technology facilitates the heating of organic waste biomass in a very low oxygen environment to temperatures over 400 °C. The high carbon content and surface area of the char produced via slow pyrolysis makes it suitable for a range of purposes that would sequester the carbon it contains. For example, there is a growing interest in its use as a soil amendment, which enhances plant growth and nutrient use efficiency.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Characterization of some bottled Romanian mineral waters on the basis of the total mineral content<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Romania has many mineral water sources due to its geological features. In the present study, bottles of 26 Romanian mineral water brands were purchased from the market to make a characterization based on the pH, conductivity, and fixed residue content. Focusing on the total fixed residue, the distribution of low, medium, and highly mineralized water was 43.9%, 41.46%, and 14.63% respectively. The mean of fixed residue concentration was 763.3 mg/L, ranging from 40.37 mg/L to 2,603 mg/L. The pH values of the still mineral waters varied between 6.86 and 7.91, while the pH values of the sparkling mineral waters were the lowest (4.7). The conductivity was strongly related to the concentration of the ions, so the maximum measured conductivity for the still waters was 573 <italic>μ</italic>S/cm, for the partially sparkling waters 2,133 <italic>μ</italic>S/cm, and for the sparkling mineral waters 3,079 <italic>μ</italic>S/cm. The chemical composition of the mineral waters was highly dependent on the rock types. Using the hierarchical cluster analysis, two different clusters were detected according to the main characteristics of mineral waters.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00The aflatoxin content of milk and dairy products as well as breast milk and the possibilities of detoxification<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Aflatoxins are fungal toxins produced by <italic>Aspergillus</italic> species, which, due to increasing temperature and climate change in the temperate zone, appeared in the most important feeding plant and food ingredients. The most toxic of them is aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), which hydroxylates to aflatoxin M1 in the body of dairy animals and humans, and excretes in the milk. With the development of analytical methods, researchers are now able to detect toxins with a concentration of ng/kg. It was found that in most countries in Europe both breast milk and cow’s milk may contain AFM1, and therefore increased attention should be paid to the toxin content of milk, and that those above the limit should be excluded from consumption. In addition to cow’s milk, the AFM1 toxin content of breast milk can also be significant, the precursors of which are introduced into the mother’s body with food. Aflatoxins are highly resistant to physical, chemical, and microbiological effects, so the detoxification of foods, especially milk, is almost impossible. The best solution appears to be feeding the animals with toxin-free feeds or feeds containing toxins below the permitted limit, without giving opportunity to the toxins to enter the milk from the feed and from there into the human body.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Physico-chemical and sensory properties of and analogues from co-fermented cassava () and breadfruit () blends<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The physico-chemical and sensory qualities of <italic>pupuru</italic> analogues produced from co-fermented cassava and breadfruit blends were investigated. Cassava and breadfruit were processed separately and cofermented at different proportions to produce <italic>pupuru</italic> and <italic>pupuru</italic> analogues. Seven different samples were produced with the ratios of 100:0, 90:10, 80:20, 50:50, 20:80, 10:90, and 0:100 cassava:breadfruit respectively. The proximate composition, bulk density, hydrogen cyanide, pH, TTA, and sensory properties of the sample were determined using standard methods. The results showed that the protein (2.86–6.41%), fat (0.43–2.05%), ash (0.36–1.17%), crude fibre (0.68–2.83%), and energy values (393.84 to 399.38 kcal/100 g) increased together with breadfruit substitution. The bulk density, pH, total titratable acidity, and hydrogen cyanide content of the sample was in the ranges of 0.47–0.60 g/ml, 4.30–5.30, 0.18–0.31%, and 0.56–1.68 mg/100 g respectively. The <italic>pupuru</italic> analogues had lower hydrogen cyanide content than <italic>pupuru</italic>. The <italic>pupuru</italic> analogues up to 50% breadfruit substitutions had acceptable sensory attributes, comparable to <italic>pupuru</italic>. The study concluded that <italic>pupuru</italic> analogues of acceptable quality can be produced from co-fermented cassava and breadfruit; this entails increasing the utilization of breadfruit.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of refrigerated storage on the bioactive compounds and antioxidant capacity of two Algerian carrot varieties ( L.)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Carrot (<italic>Daucus carota</italic> L.) is one of the main root vegetables rich in bioactive compounds with appreciable health-promoting properties, largely consumed in Algeria. In the current study, the storage effect (at 4 °C throughout 12 days) on bioactive compound stability and the antioxidant activity of two Algerian orange carrot varieties (Supermuscade and Touchon) were investigated. Total phenolic content of samples was determined by the Folin–Ciocâlteu method. Antioxidant capacity was determined spectrophotometrically, based on the evaluation of Free Radical Scavenging Activity (FRSA) using DPPH radical and Ferric Reducing Power (FRP). The results showed that the Touchon variety is richer in phenolics, flavonoids, and carotenoids and presents higher antioxidant activity in comparison with the Supermuscade variety. At the end of storage, the bioactive compound content and antiradical activity increased significantly (p &lt; 0.05). Also, an extremely significant correlation (p &lt; 0.001) was observed between the antioxidant contents and the antioxidant capacities of aqueous carrot extracts.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-11-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of oil-seed pressing residue on bread colour and texture<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Cold-pressing residue of walnut kernel (WKR) and brown linseed (BLR) was applied in wheat flour blends at 100:0, 95:5 and 90:10 ratios, of which enriched breads were baked, then stored for 3 days at ambient temperature. Colour parameters and firmness of bread crumb were measured daily. Bavarian rye-bread (BR) and wholemeal multigrain bread (WMMG) were used as competitive, marketable breads for comparing tests.</p><p>The studied oil-seed pressing residues (OSRs) resulted brown colour with different characteristics, depending both on the type of OSR and in comparison with marketed breads, too. The type and the ratio of OSR applied had no influence on the varying of crumb texture (P = 0.107). WKR and BLR enrichment provided stable texture for breads with a 3-day shelf-life, independently from their addition ratio. BLR resulted in softer crumb than WKR; however, this difference was considered to be negligible (P = 0.128). The WKR- and BLR-enriched breads stayed significantly softer at the end of storage time than the marketed breads (P = 0.000). Our results indicate that competitive bakery goods can be produced using oil-seed pressing residue/wheat flour blends.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Examination of the selenium content of wheat grasses produced in different soil types in Csik Basin<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> In the course of the research, we determined selenium and dry matter content of 35 wheat grass and 35 wheat seed samples. The selenium content of the preparation plant probes was measured by spectrofluorimetric determination (λ<sub>excitation</sub> = 380 nm, λ<sub>emission</sub> = 519 nm) of the resulted piazselenol complex. It was established that between the selenium content of the wheat grass and wheat seed the correlation coefficient was 0.36 at p = 0.05 level, which indicates a medium-close correlation. Similarly, there was a medium-close correlation between the selenium content of the wheat grass calculated on dry-matter basis and total selenium content of the wheat, with a correlation coefficient of 0.40 at p = 0.02 level. Afterwards, beside the selenium content, we measured the selenomethionine content by ion-exchange chromatography and highperformance liquid chromatography, and the organic selenium content was calculated. A very close correlation was established between the total selenium, selenomethionine and calculated organic selenium content of wheat (the correlation coefficients were between 0.92 and 0.99 at p = 0.01 level). The correlation between the selenomethionine content of wheat grass and wheat seed was very weak (r = 0.23).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Aluminium toxicity in winter wheat<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Aluminium is the most frequent metal of the earth crust; it occurs mainly as biologically inactive, insoluble deposit. Environmental problems, industrial contaminations and acid rains increase the soil acidity, leading to the mobilization of Al. Half of the world’s potential arable lands are acidic; therefore, Al-toxicity decreases crop productivity. Wheat is a staple food for 35% of the world population. The effects of Al-stress (0.1 mM) were studied on winter wheat; seedlings were grown hydroponically, at acidic pH. After two weeks, the root weight was decreased; a significant difference was found in the P- and Ca-content. The shoot weight and element content changed slightly; Al-content in the root was one magnitude higher than in the shoot, while Al-translocation was limited. The root plasma membrane H<sup>+</sup>-ATPase has central role in the uptake processes; Al-stress increased the Mg<sup>2+</sup>-ATPase activity of the microsomal fraction.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Role of the farinograph test in the wheat flour quality determination<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Most objectively, the dough rheological methods can characterize the quality of winter wheat. The Farinograph test is the traditionally used one in Hungary, but the importance of other methods, such as Alveograph and Extensograph tests, are getting more widely known due to the interest and requirements of the industry and export markets. The Hungarian Standard on wheat quality follows the changes in the global markets; this is why the falling number appeared in the MSZ (Hungarian Standard) 6383 in 1998. As the interest in the results of other rheological test increased from our accession to the European Union, the evaluation of these parameters on different varieties has become an important issue of qualification and in 2012 limit values for Alveograph and Extensograph parameters appear in the Hungarian wheat quality standard. Additionally, while the baking value was the only evaluated parameter of the Farinograph test earlier, the standard was supplemented with limit values for water absorption capacity and stability too. </p><p>In this study, we revised different diagrams of Farinograph tests again from the previous years to reveal whether the new limit values for these Farinograph parameters change the valuation of wheat flour samples, therefore whether the quality groups in which the samples were ranked change considering the new requirements.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Lycopene and flesh colour differences in grafted and non-grafted watermelon<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The experiment was carried out in three regions in Hungary (Jászszentandrás, Cece, Újkígyós) in 2013 to determine the fruit quality of grafted watermelon (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.). The “RX 467” seedless watermelon variety was grafted on two commercial rootstocks “FR STRONG” [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.] and “RS 841” (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne × Cucurbita moschata Duchesne). The lycopene and flesh colours are important quality characteristics even of the selfrooted and grafted watermelon. Some differences can be attributed to different environments, technological methods and to the type of rootstockscion combination. Lycopene is a strong antioxidant; therefore, we considered to examine the content change. Regardless of growing location, the lycopene concentration and the chroma (C*) showed the best result in the case of interspecific rootstock. The result also showed that in two regions (Jászszentandrás, Cece) we can find negative correlation between the lycopene concentration and the L* value of the flesh colour.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Experiences of using the fruit waste of the modern Hungarian pálinka fermentation technology for the foraging of extensively kept grey cattle<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> In this article, the authors report on the experiences of six years of foraging, describing how the fruit wastes generated in the Pannonhalmi Pálinkárium are utilized for foraging Hungarian grey cattle. The goal is not the control or improvement of the cattle’s growth indices but the problem-free, continuous and eco-friendly disposal of the fruit waste. They have found that the fruit waste or pomace is virtually nothing else than protein-enriched sugar-free fruit, and that during the utilization of this they have to maximally adapt to the cattle’s life-cycle, biological nature and environmental factors, and they will repay you by eating the pomace. They conclude that the grey cattle are a skin-and-hairs-covered bioreactor, which provides an economical service for the distillery through the utilization of the fruit waste. Nowadays, 150,000-200,000 tons of fruit waste is produced every year, and only a few percent of this is utilized in ruminant forage. By writing this article, the authors would like to expand our very scarce knowledge on this topic.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Production of selenium-enriched milk and dairy products<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Until the middle of the last century, selenium was considered to be toxic, but recently it turned out to be a micronutrient with important physiological effects, whose lack impedes the functioning of several enzymes, while in the case of a prolonged deficiency, disease processes can also occur in the body. Hungary belongs to the selenium-deficient regions in Europe; therefore, our aim was to contribute to the improvement of selenium supply of the population through increasing the selenium content of milk and dairy products. A daily supplementation of 1-6 mg organic selenium to the feed of dairy cows increases the selenium content of milk from the value of 18 μg/kg to 94 μg/kg in 8 weeks, decreasing again to the initial value in 6 weeks after stopping the supplementation. </p><p>After producing various products from the control milk (18 μg/kg selenium content) and the selenium-enriched milk (53 μg/kg) obtained from dairy cattle fed on a feed supplemented with 2 mg selenium/day, we concluded that the selenium content of selenium-enriched milk compared to the products produced from the control milk increased from the value of 18.6 to 58.5 μg/kg in the case of yogurt, from 66.0 to 138.1 μg/kg in the case of telemea, from 80.8 to 163.7 μg/kg in the case of orda (urdă) and from 88.6 to 200.0 μg/kg in the case of semi-hard cheese obtained by mixed-coagulation. The selenium content of whey also increased significantly (from 8.8-9.7 μg/kg to 20.1-25.8 μg/kg), which could also be used as a food for people or feed for animals. According to our calculations, the selenium requirements of the developing organism could be satisfied by the consumption of 2-3 dl selenium-enriched milk until the age of 8 and with 4-6 dl selenium-enriched milk until the age of 20.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Somatic cell count of milk from different goat breeds<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> There is no standard limit value for somatic cell count (SCC) of raw goat milk in the EU despite that excellent hygienic quality milk is needed for the manufacture of fermented milk products or cheese varieties. Mastitis often results such high SCC - besides the potential risk for humans - that the clotting of milk will not be perfect, resulting slack curd with higher whey releasing; furthermore, wrong structure, ripening, bad sensory properties of cheese can also be its consequences. In this paper, we report the SCC of milk samples from five different goat breeds bred in Hungary, measured with two fast methods compared with the results from the reference method. Furthermore, we investigated the applicability and the accuracy of the MT-02 (Agro Legato Ltd., Hungary) instrument. We determined that the White Side test and the instrument MT were suitable for the estimation of possible risks and consequences in the case of the use of high SCC milk before production. The general summarized average milk SCC was 6.64 × 10<sup>5</sup> ml<sup>−1</sup>. The highest difference between the results from MT-02 and the fluorometric (reference) method was 5 × 10<sup>5</sup> ml<sup>−1</sup>, but it was a singular, extreme value. The r<sup>2</sup> of the calculated linear calibration equation was 0.7819; consequently, this method seems to be applicable in the measurement of SCC with MT-02 instrument. Furthermore, the SCC of samples did not differ significantly by genotypes and by seasons (spring: 5.85 × 10<sup>5</sup> ml<sup>−1</sup>, autumn: 6.22 × 10<sup>5</sup> ml<sup>−1</sup>).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00High hydrostatic pressure: Can we trust published data?<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> There are numerous new technologies whose implementation in food industry is hampered by the fact that people hesitate to invest in expensive systems which they cannot be sure will work or at least are questionable in terms of a given product. Until recently, preservation by HHP, high hydrostatic pressure, was such a technology, and still is today in some branches of the food industry. Investigations were conducted to answer the question of whether the literature, the laboratory, and the industrial (or at least pilot plant) measurements and results agree with one another. We compared the literature data with two HHP systems which were significantly different in terms of treatment capacity, but their efficiency in killing microbes was studied under the same treatment parameters. Our results show that in nearly all cases only minimal differences exist between the data in the literature and the measurements taken on the two appliances.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Colour characteristics of winter wheat grits of different grain size<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Nowadays, wheat has spread all over the world due to its extensive usability. The colour of wheat grits is very important for the milling and baking industry because it determines the colour of the products made from it. The instrumental colour measuring is used, first of all, for durum wheat. We investigated the relationship between colour characteristics and grain size in the case of different hard aestivum wheats. We determined the colour using the CIE (Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage) 1976 L*, a*, b* colour system measured by MINOLTA CR-300 tristimulus colorimeter. After screening the colour of the wheat fractions of different grain size, grits was measured wet and dry. We determined the L*, a*, b* colour co-ordinates and the whiteness index, too. To evaluate the values we had obtained, we used analysis of variance and regression analysis. We pointed out that the colour of wheat grits of different grain size is dependent on the hardness index of wheat. The lightness co-ordinate (L*) of grits of the harder wheat is smaller, while a* and b* co-ordinates are higher. We also found that while grain size rises, the L* co-ordinate decreases and a*, b* values increase in the case of every type of wheat. The colour of grits is determined by the colour of fractions of 250-400 μm in size, independently from the average grain size. The whiteness index and the L* colour co-ordinate have a linear relation (R<sup>2</sup> = 0.9151); so, the determination of whiteness index is not necessary. The L* value right characterizes the whiteness of grits.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Milling technological experiments to reduce Fusarium toxin contamination in wheat<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> We examine 4 different DON-toxin-containing (0.74 - 1.15 - 1.19 - 2.14 mg/kg) winter wheat samples: they were debranned and undebranned, and we investigated the flour’s and the by-products’ (coarse, fine bran) toxin content changes. SATAKE lab-debranner was used for debranning and BRABENDER lab-mill for the milling process. Without debranning, two sample flours were above the DON toxin limit (0.75 mg/kg), which are waste. By minimum debranning (and minimum debranning mass loss; 6-8%), our experience with whole flour is that the multi-stage debranning measurement significantly reduces the content of the flour’s DON toxin, while the milling by-products, only after careful consideration and DON toxin measurements, may be produced for public consumption and for feeding.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of colour agent content of paprika powders with added oleoresin<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The paprika oleoresin, that is an oil soluble extract from the fruits of Capsicum Annum Linn or Capsicum Frutescens, is used often to raise the colour agent content of paprika powders. We investigated how the colour agent content of paprika powder samples with added oleoresin change in the course of storage. The colour agent content of 7 different quality powders was increased with 7-75% using two types of oleoresin. The initial colour agent content of the samples changed between 41 and 169 ASTA units. The powders were made from Chinese, Peruvian and Hungarian paprika. The colour agent content of the samples was measured throughout 10 months. The measured values were analysed using ANOVA. The decrease of colour agent content varied between 22 and 51 percent, while the average reduction was 33 percent. The initial colour agent content of the paprika powder samples did not influence the colour agent content decrease significantly. The effect of the quantity of added oleoresin did not influence either the colour agent content decrease significantly. The decrease of the colour agent content of the Hungarian paprika samples significantly differs from the Chinese and Peruvian paprika samples colour agent content decrease.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1