rss_2.0Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology Universitatis Cibiniensis. Series E: Food Technology 's Cover of Selected Winter Cultivars of Wheat from Production of Wheat Beer<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study investigated the feasibility of three winter cultivars of wheat – <italic>Elixer</italic>, <italic>Rockefeller</italic> and <italic>Gimantis</italic>, for production of wheat beer. Reference samples were produced from commercially available wheat malt. The findings showed the beer produced from commercially available wheat malt presented the best sensory and physicochemical parameters, including real final fermentation of 70.11%. The results related to the investigated wheat cultivars showed good quality properties in the beer produced from malts obtained from <italic>Gimantis</italic> cultivar (content of CO<sub>2</sub> – 0.58%), and from <italic>Rockefeller</italic> cultivar (alcohol content - 4.62% v/v). A similar relationship was observed in the sensory assessment. The findings related to beer produced from malt of <italic>Elixer</italic> wheat cultivar showed relatively low effectiveness of the production process (69.7%) and final beer fermentation (65.52%), and at the same time high contents of polyphenols (210 mg/dm<sup>3</sup>) and antioxidant activity. Wheat malts produced from <italic>Gimantis</italic> and <italic>Rockefeller</italic> cultivars can effectively be used as a raw material in beer production; on the other hand, malt from <italic>Elixer</italic> cultivar, found with higher antioxidant contents, may be used as an additive to be applied in a small quantity in the mashing process in order to enhance the beer in terms of its potential health benefits.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Biochemical Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Different Preparations from Microbial Waste of the Beer Industry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The purpose of this research was to evaluate the biochemical composition and antioxidant activity of different natural preparations obtained from the yeast biomass of beer industry waste. It was found that the preparations had a valuable biochemical composition, high antioxidant activities, a broad spectrum of immunoactive and essential amino acids, and that their protein and carbohydrate contents varied depending on the extraction stage and solvent. In conclusion, the varied biochemical composition, significant antioxidant and enzymatic activities, the innocuousness of <italic>Saccharomyces</italic> yeasts for living organisms, suggest that the obtained preparations can be an excellent source of biologically active substances and that their high biological activity presents a considerable potential for animal husbandry, food industry and cosmetics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00The Analysis of Correlations Between Terpene Transformations and Fermentation Type of Apple Musts<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>We measured the concentration of 13 terpenes in musts of 3 different apple cultivars fermented spontaneously, with Ethanol RED yeast (<italic>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</italic>) or Cider Yeast (<italic>Saccharomyces bayanus</italic>). Then we analysed obtained data with PCA with various packages in R to assess how different types of fermentation and apple cultivars affected terpene profile. The most informative results of PCA were obtained in ‘psych’ package and they indicated that there were groups of terpenes which concentrations increased simultaneously, while for some other groups the content of particular compounds was negatively correlated. This suggests that the first group of terpenes originated from different substrates while the latter group could be obtained from the same compound. Our findings indicated new possible pathways of terpene transformation, e.g. linalool, citral and geraniol could transform into one another. Moreover, the role of <italic>S. bayanus</italic> in those processes remains unclear and it requires further consideration.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Convection Drying Influence on Thermo-Physical Properties, Bioactive Substances, Color and Texture Profile of Red Pepper (<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This work aimed to study the effect of convection drying on bioactive substances and on the texture profile of red pepper. Four mathematical models were used to model the drying kinetics, as a function of the temperature and the thickness of slices. These models are largely in agreement with experimental data. Effective diffusivity, Arrhenius constant, activation energy and thermal properties changed with temperature of dry process. The two varieties of pepper used in this work demonstrated a very high degree of spiciness (144799.37-160899.37 SU). This property is related to the high contents of capsaicin (39.60-44.01 mg/g) and dihydrocapsaicin (32.33-35.95 mg/g). Our results revealed that brittleness, hardness 1 and 2, firmness, chewiness, gumminess appearance and Young’s modulus are very important attributes in determining the textural profile of dried red pepper. Also, drying causes a strong degradation of natural pigments of red pepper and consequently decreases attractiveness of the texture profile. To avoid that, red pepper should be pretreated before the application of hot air drying.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Pomegranate ( L.) Peel Flour as Functional Ingredient for Chorizo: Effect Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics of Functional Meat Products<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Functional meat products are necessary to improve the health of consumers without detrimental effects on high biological value protein consumption. The incorporation of natural antioxidants and dietary fibre from agro-industrial coproducts is a good alternative to improve the nutritional characteristics of meat products. Pomegranate peel flour was employed as a functional ingredient to replace part of the fat, in a raw meat product like chorizo, determining changes in instrumental colour and texture, sensory acceptation, and neophobia. Pomegranate peel flour presented high content of polyphenols with considerable antioxidant activity, and high content of dietary fibre as well. Fibre retained moisture, decreasing water activity of the chorizos, decreasing pH during storage. Pomegranate peel flour increased the colour tone of the chorizos and decreased colour intensity, with a tough but easy to crumble texture. Sensory acceptation of chorizos with pomegranate peel flour was higher than control, although taste and texture were scored lower than the control sample. Results show that incorporation of pomegranate peel flour decreased A<sub>w</sub> and pH, besides increased the samples luminosity and tone. Chorizo with pomegranate peel flour were harder than control. Nonetheless, as a functional ingredient improved health benefits with a positive consumers’ acceptance, non-neophobic, particularly in older consumers (40-50 years old). Pomegranate peel flour is a viable ingredient in the formulation of functional meat products.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Differences in the Pollen Content of Varieties of Polish Honey from Urban and Rural Apiaries<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The value of honey as a natural food product is influenced by its pollen content, with the dominant type of pollen conferring specific medicinal properties. The present study examines the pollen spectra of 31 honeys from urban (linden, acacia, polyfloral, honeydew) and rural (rape, acacia, polyfloral, honeydew) apiaries in Poland. The pollen in content in honey ranged from 0.2 to 88 %. In total, 76 plant taxa were identified, 21 of which were assigned to forms A, B and C. Higher pollen grain content and a greater diversity of honey plant taxa were found in the urban honey, particularly polyfloral honey; this could be attributed to the rich variety of plants found in urban green areas compared to rural areas ones.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Mineral Composition, Antioxidant, Anti-Urease, and Antibiofilm Potential of Leaves and Unripe Fruits<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The leaves and unripe fruits from 5 walnut clones were tested in terms of mineral composition, antioxidant activity, and the inhibitory effect on model urease. It has been shown that the leaves are richer in minerals and also have higher antioxidant potential than unripe fruits. HPTLC polyphenolic profiles of leaves extract were found more abundant in flavonoids regardless of the sample origin. Only green walnut extracts showed an effect as urease inhibitors. Higher antibacterial activity was observed against <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> in comparison with <italic>Staphylococcus epidermidis</italic>. Both leaf and fruit extracts showed antibiofilm activity, up to 95% of biofilm inhibition. It was shown that all tested <italic>Juglans regia</italic> extracts can serve as a valuable antibacterial agent against staphylococci infections.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of Fermentation on Content of Selected Macronutrients in Seeds and Beans<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In this study, five plant matrices (pea, mung bean, lentils, soy and sunflower) were fermented using <italic>Bacillus subtilis</italic> var. natto. Then the process influence on the content of fatty acids and proteins was evaluated, depending on the fermentation length. Fermentation was conducted for 144 hours in controlled conditions of temperature and relative humidity (37°C, 75%). Samples for tests were collected every 24 hours. Gas chromatography coupled with triple quadrupole tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) was used to evaluate fatty acids content in fermented seeds. Their composition was expressed as a percentage of the total quantity of fatty acids. The protein content in plant matrices was analysed with the modified Bradford protein assay, using the TECAN apparatus with the i-Control software, of the wave length of ʎ=595 nm. Studies showed that the prolonged fermentation time influenced an increase of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) content in all studied seeds. Promising results were obtained for soy, sunflower, and lentil seeds, amounting to 3.6%; 68.7% and 67.7%, respectively. This proves that the process of seed fermentation can be effectively used to increase their nutritional value.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Microbiological Quality and Organoleptic Property of Meat and Fish Preserved with Oil from Seed<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The bioactive compounds contributing to aroma and natural antimicrobial potential of oil from <italic>Dacryodes edulis</italic> seed can be harnessed in food industries as food preservatives. This study therefore, reveals the preservative effect and organoleptic property of meat and fish preserved with oil from <italic>D. edulis</italic> seed. Proximate and mineral analysis of oil were carried out using standard methods. Preservative quality of oil on fish and meat was investigated at 4<sup>°</sup>C and 37<sup>°</sup>C. Organoleptic property of preserved fish and meat was determined using trained panellists. Fat, protein, carbohydrates, crude fibre, ash and moisture content of oil from <italic>D. edulis</italic> seed are 55.7%, 18.7%, 10.8%, 7.1%, 4.6% and 3.1%, respectively. Potassium (106.5 µg/g) and phosphorous (102.5 µg/g) have the relatively highest values compared (p&lt;0.05) to other minerals like zinc, iron, calcium, magnesium, and sodium. Better preservative property of oil was observed on fried fish and meat kept at 4<sup>°</sup>C with no microbial growth. The highest microbial load (3.95 × 10<sup>6</sup> cfu/g) occurred in fresh chicken coated with oil from <italic>D. edulis</italic> seed after 7 days of preservation. Fish and meat fried with oil from <italic>D. edulis</italic> seed were well accepted (9.00) than those fried with groundnut oil (3.50). Oil from <italic>D. edulis</italic> seed is an edible oil that can be utilized as alternative vegetable oil with natural preservatives and embedded nutrients.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Biotransformation of Hops-Derived Compounds in Beer – A Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Besides providing bitterness to beer, hops also impart a whole range of aromas, such as herbal, spice, floral, citrus, fruity and pine to this beverage. Although hops are usually added in relatively small amounts, they have a significant impact on the sensory characteristics of the product. Raw hop aroma significantly differs from the aroma resulting from its addition to the beer. The final aroma of the beer arises from substances in the malt, hops, other additives, and yeast metabolism. The biochemical transformation of hop compounds by yeast has become more and more popular in recent years. Knowledge of this process may allow more precise control over the final sensory characteristics of the beverage. The article describes the chemical composition of hops and discusses the influence of the hopping regime on the concentration of volatile compounds in the finished product. Moreover, the article describes the biotransformation of hop-derived compounds by traditionally used <italic>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</italic> yeast, as well as less commonly used non-<italic>Saccharomyces</italic> yeast. The paper outlines the current state of knowledge on biotransformation of hop-derived hydrocarbons, terpenoids, esters, sulfur compounds and glycosidically bound aroma precursors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Quality and Technological Properties of Flour with the Addition of and<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study of alternative food sources or ingredients that can partially replace or enrich today’s food is a perspective direction. The possibility of using horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum) and chestnut (Castanea sativa) fruits in the baking industry as an admixture to wheat flour has been determined. The addition of flours from these fruits at a level of 10% increases the number of minerals in the flour mixture and also enriches the mixture in saponins, coumarins, and tannins. However, it is necessary to remove excess saponins from horse chestnut. The amylograph has shown that flour from horse chestnut fruit has optimal parameters for baking mixed bread. Farinograph tests showed that a 10% addition of ground horse chestnut to wheat flour had the best baking properties. Mixtures with 10 and 15% chestnut addition showed the best baking characteristic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-07-09T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of two types of ozone treatments on the quality of apple fruits<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this research was to demonstrate the effect of the ozonation process (exposure to ozone in gaseous form and rinsing in water saturated with ozone) on selected apple parameters. The scope of the study included: conducting the ozonation process under controlled conditions at a concentration of 1 ppm and exposure times of 1, 5 and 10 min (ozone in gaseous form) and 10, 15 and 30 min (ozonated water), respectively; polyphenols research; determining antiradical activity using ABTS radicals; and determining the influence of the applied method on the volatiles that give rise to odor chemicals (fragrance and aroma). In both cases, measurements were taken 24 hours after the ozonation process. Both exposure to ozone in gaseous form and washing in ozonated water did not adversely affect the appearance of the fruit. The rinsing process in ozonated water did not significantly affect the composition of the compounds responsible for the fruit’s odor. The proposed washing conditions affected the biochemical balance of the fruit. Differences in polyphenol content and antioxidant potential were noted. The mean content of polyphenols expressed as gallic acid equivalent in the control sample was determined to be 15.22 mg/100 g. In comparing the content of polyphenols with the control sample, insignificant changes in their content were noted, except for the sample with the longest ozonation. In the case of fruit washed within 30 minutes, a significant increase by 53% in antioxidant potential was noted. α- Farnesene was identified as the main component established by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) procedure. The proposed ozonation conditions made it possible to keep the volatile compounds influencing the sensory properties of apples unchanged.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Use of in wheat bread: impact on antioxidant, proximate, minerals and sensory properties<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study is designed to evaluate the effect of wheat flour substitution with <italic>Clerodendrum volubile</italic> at different level (1, 3, 5 and 10%) on antioxidant, proximate, mineral and sensory acceptability of wheat bread. The wheat flour was substituted with CVLP at different level (1, 3, 5, and 10%) in the baking of the wheat bread. The inclusion of CVLP led to significant (p &lt; 0.05) and dose dependent increases in the polyphenol contents and antioxidant properties of the CVLP-substituted bread. Also, there were significant (p &lt; 0.05) increments in the crude fibre, crude ash and many mineral elements of the CVLP-substituted breads. Antinutrient (tannins and oxalate) contents of the wheat bread substituted with 10% CVLP were significantly higher (p &lt; 0.05) than the wheat bread. Consumer acceptability of the substituted breads showed that wheat bread with 5% CVLP inclusion has the best acceptance. Therefore, 5% CVLP inclusion is recommended as a suitable level in the bread making.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Prediction of the thermo-physical properties of deep-fat frying plantain chips () using artificial neural network<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study uses artificial neural network (ANN) to predict the thermo-physical properties of deep-fat frying plantain chips (<italic>ipekere</italic>). The frying was conducted with temperature and time ranged of 150 to 190 °C and 2 to 4 minutes using factorial design. The result revealed that specific heat was most influenced by temperature and time with the value 2.002 kJ/kg°C at 150 °C and 2.5 minutes. The density ranged from 0.997 – 1.005 kg/m<sup>3</sup> while thermal diffusivity and conductivity were least affected with 0.192 x 10<sup>−6</sup> m<sup>2</sup>/s and 0.332 W/m°C respectively at 190 °C and 4 minutes. The ANN architecture was developed using Levenberg–Marquardt (TRAINLM) and Feed-forward back propagation algorithm. The experimentation based on the ANN model produced a desirable prediction of the thermo-physical properties through the application of diverse amount of neutrons in the hidden layer. The predictive experimentation of the computational model with R<sup>2</sup> ≥ 0.7901 and MSE ≤ 0.1125 does not only show the validity in anticipating the thermo-physical properties, it also indicates the capability of the model to identify a relevant association between frying time, frying temperatures and thermo-physical properties. Hence, to avoid a time consuming and expensive experimental tests, the developed model in this study is efficient in prediction of the thermo-physical properties of deep-fat frying plantain chips.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00The influence of meteorological conditions during traditional smoking on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in traditional Polish pork ham<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study was to examine the influence of meteorological conditions observed during the process of traditional smoking on polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon content in traditional Polish pork ham. The material of the study comprised traditional Polish pork ham, one of the most frequently purchased and consumed meat products in Poland. The analysed ham was smoked with the traditional method using beech chips and pieces. Smoking time was four hours. During laboratory research the basic chemical composition of the product was examined. Using the HPLC method, the level of 15 selected Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs). The obtained results show that the level of selected polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in the examined material depended on atmospheric pressure and relative air humidity. Atmospheric pressure significantly influenced the content of benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(a)anthracene and indeno(c,d)pyrene. Relative humidity impacted the absorption level of 5-methylchrysene, benzo(a)pyrene, benzo(b)fluoranthene, benzo(g,h,i)perylene, benzo(j)fluoranthene and indeno(c,d)pyrene. An influence of air temperature during the smoking process on PAHs content in the product was not observed. The results indicate that traditional smoking should be conducted under conditions of high relative humidity – ideally above 75%, and high atmospheric pressure – above 1000 hPa.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Sheep’s milk cheeses as a source of bioactive compounds<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Since ancient times, sheep`s milk cheeses have been a part of a human diet. Currently, their consumption is of great interest due to its nutritional and health values. The aim of the article was to review the chemical composition of sheep’s milk cheeses and its main bioactive ingredients in the context of nutritional and health values. Sheep’s milk cheeses are rich in functionally and physiologically active compounds such as: vitamins, minerals, fatty acids, terpenes, sialic acid, orotic acid and L-carnitine, which are largely originate from milk. Fermentation and maturation process additionally enrich them in other bioactive substances as: bioactive peptides, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) or biogenic amines. Studies show that sheep’s milk cheese consumption may be helpful in the prevention of civilization diseases, i.e. hypertension, obesity or cancer. However, due to the presence of biogenic amines, people with metabolic disorders should be careful of their intake.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of medium composition on cell envelope proteinase production by LP69<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cell envelope proteases (CEPs) can break down milk protein into peptides with different functions, which are of great benefit to human health. Therefore, the high-yield CEPs of <italic>Lactobacillus plantarum</italic> have the potential to produce functional dairy products. In previous experiments, we found that Na<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub>, inulin, casein peptone and leucine have significant effects on CEP production by <italic>Lactobacillus plantarum</italic> LP69. So we proceeded to optimize the composition of the CEP-producing culture medium of <italic>L. plantarum</italic> through Box-Behnken design and response surface methodology. The protease activity, protein content and specific activity of CEPs produced by <italic>L. plantarum</italic> by inulin (0.2, 0.3, 0.4 %), casein peptone (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 %), Na<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub> (0.50, 0.52, 0.54 %) and leucine (14, 16, 18 mg/L) were evaluated. The optimal ratio of medium is 0.4 % inulin, 0.66 % casein peptone, 0.5 % Na<sub>2</sub>HPO<sub>4</sub> and 14.04 mg/L Leucine. The final enzyme activity reached (24.46±0.81) U/mL, and the specific activity reached (1.41±0.46) U/mg.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of infant meal home preparation temperature on surviving of : A case of Bechar city, Algeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This work aimed to enumerate the <italic>Bacillus cereus sensu lato</italic> from infant’s flour sampled at Béchar city and evaluate its resistance to different heating conditions during meal preparation patterns at home. Our findings revealed a prevalence of 74% with 2.4 to 3.9 CFU/g in the analyzed samples. Regarding the heat resistance at 90 °C to 98 °C, our results showed heat resistance variability which depends on the isolate, for example, D<sub>90 °C</sub> and z<sub>T °C</sub> values varied from 3.24 to 5.52 min and 11.56 to 89.74 °C respectively. Then, the decimal reduction (n) was calculated at all preparation temperatures (50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 °C). Low “n” was observed with the preparation at T≤50 °C as recommended by the fabricant. However, at the other temperatures, high “n” was observed at 100°C with median and 95<sup>th</sup> values of 2.22 and 12.36 respectively. Therefore, bacterial concentrations (99<sup>th</sup>) were estimated at 0.124 log CFU/g for 100 °C. These concentrations could be increased with bacterial growth during meal storage and then achieve critical concentrations. Thus, the results of this work highlight the interest to establish a risk assessment for babies and to improve the production, preparation, and storage conditions of the infant’s flour.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Alterations in health-related fatty acids in buffalo milk after processing to traditional dairy products<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Milk provides some beneficial fatty acids which in dairy processing are subjected to pasteurization and fermentation. With the aim to assess such changes, aliquot parts of milk from 12 buffaloes were pooled and processed to germinated yoghurt and brined cheese, and to non-germinated curd – the respective samples of raw and dairy material subjected to lipid analysis. The results show that in cheese positive and negative changes are generally balanced, rumenic acid decreasing and other CLAs altered but not total CLA and PUFA; omega ratio and atherogenicity index worsened to little extent, due to adverse change in n-3, myristic and lauric acid. In yoghurt and curd CLA dramatically decreased, excluding rumenic acid; but vaccenic acid increased, though total <italic>trans</italic> isomers decreased; the worsened n-6/n-3 ratio and atherogenicity index is mostly because of the adverse effect on PUFAn-3 but also on myristic and lauric acid. In all products SFA and MUFA did not change, including palmitic, stearic, and oleic acid. It can be concluded that the decrease of CLA in yoghurt and curd is partially compensated by the increase in the vaccenic acid, while cheese making altered individual isomers but not groups of beneficial acids.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Screening of lactases suitable for the preparation of low-lactose prebiotic liquid milk and optimisation of their combination<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Lactose intolerance is an important factor restricting the consumption of dairy products. Lactase is used to hydrolyze lactose in milk while generating galactooligosaccharides (GOS), thereby reducing the incidence of lactose intolerance. We used cow milk as raw materials, and selected enzyme preparations with high lactose hydrolysis rate and strong GOS generation ability from 14 commercially available lactase enzymes. The lactose hydrolysis rate is 5.85%-81.38%, and the GOS content is 0.03 g/L- 13.10 g/L. The mixing experiment design determined the two lactase enzymes (E10 and E11) ratio and the optimal enzymatic hydrolysis process of low-lactose prebiotic milk: compound lactases (E10:E11=0.756:0.244) addition 0.11%, 55℃for 5h, lactose hydrolysis rate and GOS content were 98.02% and 19.69g/L, respectively, and the remaining lactose content was about 0.97 g/L.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-30T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1