rss_2.0Acta Educationis Generalis FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Educationis Generalis Educationis Generalis 's Cover Primary School Students’ Creative Writing and Social-Emotional Learning Skills through Collaborative Digital Storytelling<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> It is stated that digital storytelling (DST) involves a process in which students develop many skills such as searching for information, writing scripts, organisation, presentation, communication and problem solving (Robin, 2006). In this process, it is seen that recent studies have started to focus on collaborative digital storytelling (CDST) to support students (Liu, Huang, &amp; Xu, 2018; Nishioka, 2016; Perez, Martinez, &amp; Pineiro, 2016; Perez, Martinez, &amp; Pineiro, 2018; Rubino, Barberis, &amp; Malnati, 2018). Building a digital story as an artefact with a group and examining its effect on creative writing skills can help gain insight into the potential of the CDST. Also, it can be stated that CDST has the potential to provide a suitable environment for social-emotional learning skills. In this regard, this study aims to examine the effect of collaborative digital storytelling on the creative writing and social-emotional learning skills of elementary school fourth grade students.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> In the study, a quasi-experimental design, was used, with pre-test and post-test control groups. A process in which the experimental group was assigned a collaborative digital story, and the control group the task of preparing a visual presentation was designed. 60 students attending the fourth grade of a primary school participated in the study. The control group consisted of 30 students (14 females and 16 males), and the experimental group was also 30 students (15 female and 15 male students). The research was carried out in the 2017-2018 academic year and the implementation process lasted 11 weeks. Writing activities of the students were scored with the Creative Writing Rubric developed by Öztürk (2007). The Creative Writing Rubric is composed of eight sub-dimensions: (a) originality of ideas, (b) fluency of thoughts, (c) flexibility of thoughts, (d) word richness (selection), (e) sentence structure, (f) organisation (introduction to writing, development and outcome), (g) writing style, (h) compliance with grammar rules. The Social-emotional Learning Skills Scale developed by Kabakçı and Owen (2010) was used to measure social-emotional learning skills. There are 40 items on a 4-point Likert scale which consists of four factors: problem solving, communication, increasing self-value and coping with stress. In the study, paired samples t-test and single factor ANCOVA analysis were used and effect size (η2) and Cohen’s d were calculated.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> According to the t-test results for dependent groups, an increase between pre-test and post-test scores was found significant for creative writing in both the experimental (t(29)=8.623; p=0,000) and the control group (t(29)=5.259; p=0,000).When the calculated effect size values are examined, it is seen that there is a large effect size for the experimental group (Cohen’s d=0.88) and a medium (Cohen’s d=0.54) for the control group (Cohen, 1988). For social-emotional learning skills, a statistically significant difference was found between pre-test and post-test scores in both experimental (t(29)=2.518; p=0.018) and control groups (t(29)= 3.934; p=0.000). The effect size is small for both in the experimental (Cohen’s d=0.42) and control groups (Cohen’s d=0.42) for social-emotional learning. When pre-test scores were kept constant, a single factor covariance analysis (ANCOVA) was conducted to examine whether the collaborative digital story preparation process had a significant effect on the post-test scores of the groups. According to the ANCOVA results, there was a significant difference between the creative writing post-test scores of the groups, F(1, 57)=7.09, p&lt;0.05. In other words, the experimental process had an impact on creative writing. It is seen that the effect size value is calculated as η2=0.111. According to the ANCOVA results, there was no significant difference between the social-emotional learning skills post-test scores of the groups, F(1, 57)=0.137, p&gt; 0.05.</p> <p><bold>Discussion:</bold> When the experimental and control groups were compared, it was concluded that the experimental process had a moderate effect in favour of the experimental group on the creative writing skill. When the related literature is examined, studies-support these results. Schmoelz (2018) stated that the specific stages of digital storytelling are very important for providing co-creativity, especially the story production stage enables the co-creative flow experience. According to Daigle (2008), digital storytelling requires writing skills and creativity. It can be used effectively where DST is considered as a means of developing narrative knowledge (Garcia &amp; Rossiter, 2010). When the social-emotional learning skills were examined, it was seen that there was an improvement in both the experimental group and the control group when the implementation process was completed. However, it was concluded that the experimental process did not have a significant effect on social-emotional learning skills. This may be because the students in both groups performed a collaborative study. Future studies may focus on an in-depth understanding of the process by conducting a qualitative study within the context of CDST and social-emotional learning skills. As a result of this study, it can be concluded that CDST improved students’ creative writing skills and can be used in language lessons.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> In the study, it was observed by the researchers that CDST was more advantageous in terms of time and application. Future research may focus on comparing individual and collaborative digital storytelling. Other research may examine the effect of CDST on the attitudes of students towards collaborative work. This study was designed with a quantitative method, and research can be conducted in the future using a qualitative or mixed method that addresses students’ experiences, difficulties, teachers and parents’ views in the process.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Nursery School Cooperation with the Family in the Field of Media Education in Children<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> The paper focuses on a narrowly specific topic of the family cooperation with an institution of pre-school education - the nursery school (or also just the nursery), concentrating on a specific topic of “media education”. It considers the determining factors and presents partial findings of a research survey aimed at the field of media education in nursery schools.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> The paper contains the results of our own questionnaire research, which was carried out online in nursery school teachers. It also contains a theoretical definition of media literacy and media education in the context of the target group.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The result is an analysis of the obtained findings and formulated proposals for measures in the given field, which are usable and applicable in practice.</p> <p><bold>Discussion:</bold> The individual presented results are continuously discussed with regard to the findings from the field of media education in the nursery school. Today, the world of the media is a common part of life even for children of pre-school age, and therefore it is necessary to teach them to orient themselves in it, which should be one of the tasks of the nursery school. In the Czech Republic, this issue has not yet been addressed at a significant level or to an appropriate extent. Our results are therefore closely linked not only to the discussion comments, but also to the conclusions drawn from them.</p> <p><bold>Limitations:</bold> The results of the empirical research may be influenced by the attitudes and prejudices of nursery school teachers in relation to media in pre-school children.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> An early intervention can teach children to use media for their benefit and prevent media from negatively affecting them. The negative consequences of unrestrained effects of e.g. the television or mobile phones have been empirically proven. This information about the negative consequences is very general, distorted or superficial for the general public (parents), though. We consider the implementation of media education into the “teaching” process in nursery schools to be inevitable, even with regard to a closer cooperation between the institution and parents. However, this also places increased demands on training pedagogical staff in nursery schools in the subject area, creating methodological materials, etc.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-13T00:00:00.000+00:00An Overview of Social Studies Articles in Turkey: Bibliometric Mapping Analysis<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> This research applies a bibliometric analysis to articles that have been published in Turkey in the field of social studies. “Social studies” is a discipline that aims to develop a human model with certain features applicable both for researchers’ own countries and globally. In this context, individuals’ social, work, and domestic lives are considered fundamental. Thus, discovering the characteristics of studies on social studies could be useful to interested scholars or policy-makers for determining trends in the field.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> In this context, 168 articles from the Web of Science database were analyzed in bibliometric terms. Here, the keywords “social studies teaching,” or “social studies,” or “social studies education” were used when searching the Web of Science database, and Turkey was selected as the study location.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Results of the bibliometric analysis showed that the most productive universities in Turkey are Anadolu, Marmara, and Gazi Universities, and the most frequently used keywords on the topic are “social studies,” “social studies education,” and “citizenship education.” Moreover, the most-used words in the manuscripts’ abstracts are “level,” “Turkey,” “participant,” and “impact.” The most-cited authors (judged using co-citation analyses) are Yıldırım, Öztürk, and Creswell, and the most-cited journals (judged using co-citation analyses) are The Social Studies, Journal of Educational Psychology, and Eğitim ve Bilim.</p> <p><bold>Discussion:</bold> When the articles in the field of social studies were analyzed by years, it was seen that the first one is published in 2007 and citations have occurred since 2009. It can be understood from the research results that words such as academic success, motivation and social justice keywords also have been recently used. It is understood that most of the journals are not specific to social studies and are general educational journals.</p> <p><bold>Limitations:</bold> The only articles examined within the scope of the study were those found in the Web of Science database. This can be considered a limitation of this research.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> Considering that the most-cited authors, according to the results of the study, are included in the bibliographies of the studies related to this field, examining their works may be a useful guide for interested scholars. The majority of the journals included in the study were general education journals. It was also noted that the majority of the most-cited journals were based in Turkey.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Online Learning on Transfer Student Success<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Online learning increased rapidly during the 2020 school year due to COVID-19. While online learning was perhaps the only realistic response to the health crisis, students differ in terms of their success with online learning. One particular group which may be vulnerable to problems with online learning is transfer students. Transfer students may be coming from smaller, in-person classes and are now put into fully online environments. This paper studies the performance of transfer students in online classes versus in-person classes.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> This study compares the success of transfer students for an in-person semester to an online semester. A simple statistical test was performed to compare results for transfer students to control students.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Transfer students appear to be performing worse than control students in the fully online learning environment.</p> <p><bold>Discussion:</bold> There may be a variety of reasons for the poorer performance of transfer students. They may be switching from smaller, in-person learning environments to more impersonal online environments.</p> <p><bold>Limitations:</bold> Pre-existing differences in individual students could not be controlled for.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> These results suggest that transfer students may not be adapting to fully online learning as well as control students. Further research is needed to clarify this.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Difficult Situations in Educational Management<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> The scholarly paper focuses on addressing selected issues related to the forms of managers’ behaviour in coping with difficult situations in managerial work.</p> <p><bold>Purpose:</bold> The aim is to enrich human knowledge in the field of coping with difficult situations in managerial work both at the methodological level and at the level of theory development in this area.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> The most commonly used method was quantitative-qualitative content analysis of the text of various types of communicants in order to systematise, analyse and describe various phenomena and situations in educational management. We describe the objects and subjects they have a quantitatively and qualitatively differentiated essence and characteristics (manager’s personality, demanding working environment, specific environment of class or school, processes at work, at school or during teaching, management style, workplace culture, etc.).</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> In terms of the specific application of the mentioned knowledge in managerial work, we can assume a positive impact on increasing the effectiveness of managerial work, in the context of which this can be used to increase the quality of selection of suitable people for managerial positions, education and training of managers, as well as prediction of possible risk factors in coping with difficult situations in managerial work.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Exploration of PYP Practitioner Preschool Teachers’ Science Teaching Practices: The Effect of Pedagogical Beliefs<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> The aim of this study was to investigate PYP practitioner preschool teachers’ science teaching practices in terms of their pedagogical beliefs.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> In this mixed method study, the quantitative data were first collected and analyzed, and then the qualitative data were collected and detailed. Accordingly, Pedagogical Belief Systems Scale (PBSS) was first implemented to 39 preschool teachers. Then, teachers were selected based on their scores from PBSS and included in the qualitative data processes. Data sources in this study are PBSS, Science Teaching Construction Task (STCT) and Classroom Observations. On the other hand, data analysis consisted of three steps. In the first step, quantitative data analysis was performed. Qualitative data analysis was performed in the second and third steps. In the first step of the qualitative data analysis, inductive content analysis was performed based on the constant comparative method on the responses of the teachers in the lower and upper groups to eight questions in STCT. Then, teachers’ science teaching practices in their own classrooms were analyzed through analytic rubric and enriched with field notes</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The results revealed that PYP practitioner preschool teachers had child-centered pedagogical beliefs. They also performed science teaching activities based on question-answer and deliberative interactions representing child-centered orientation, independently of their pedagogical beliefs.</p> <p><bold>Discussion:</bold> According to the results in this study, the quality of PYP practitioner preschool teachers’ theoretical orientations and practical applications for science teaching was independent of their pedagogical beliefs. However, preschool teachers with high pedagogical beliefs put more emphasis on inquiry in their theoretical conceptualizations about science teaching.</p> <p><bold>Limitations:</bold> The most important limitation in this study is the population. The first limitation occurs because PYP practitioner preschool education institutions were very limited in Istanbul; PYP practitioner preschool teachers were difficult to reach. The second limitation is that this research relied on only teachers’ self-reported views and practices.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> Findings in this study is important in terms of describing the quality of preschool science teaching in the context of PYP and how teachers’ pedagogical beliefs serve it. Hence, based on the results obtained in the study, it was revealed that PYP practitioner preschool teachers were generally based on child-centered teaching and tended to use inquiry-based pedagogical strategies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Social-Emotional Health and Psychological Well-Being among Church School Students<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> This study aims to determine the level of social-emotional health of church school students and relationships among the variables of social-emotional health and psychological well-being.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> The research group consisted of 73 church school students in Presov Region. The data collection tools were the Social – Emotional Health Survey for secondary education (SEHS-S) and the Scale of Psychological Well-Being (PWB). The presented quantitative study has a correlation character with the comparative questions and exploratory - verification design.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> The findings of the study showed that there is a strong positive correlation between overall social-emotional health referred to covitality and psychological well-being. Strong and moderate correlations were found among domains and psychological indicators of social-emotional health and dimensions of psychological well-being. A domain belief in others strongly correlates with positive relations with others. A strong correlation has been found between the indicator of peer support and the dimension of positive relations with others. The findings showed a moderately large, statistically significant difference in the level of belief in self in favor of males compared to females. Small and medium-sized differences between males and females were also found at the level of psychological indicators. The level of overall social-emotional health increases with the increase in the mastery of the environmental mastering and positive relations with others, which explains 35% of the data variance.</p> <p><bold>Discussion:</bold> Research indicates relationships between the social-emotional health and psychological well-being as well as among dimensions, domains and indicators. The results support previous findings of other authors. Furthermore, the results showed a significant difference in the level of belief in self domain in favour of males compared to females. This finding indicates that males have higher self-confidence while compared to females.</p> <p><bold>Limitations:</bold> There are certain limitations in the research, which include usage of non-standardized methods on Slovak population and a low level of reliability for Psychological Well-being Scale. Among other limitations, we include the time of data collection, which took place during the last class at the end of the week.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> Mental Health is about more than mental illness. Being mentally healthy and feeling well is important. To measure and identify elements of mental health may be useful to comprehend and promote psychological strengths of a person. A value of the paper lies in findings concerning social-emotional health of church school students, which contributed to the standardization of SEHS-S in Slovakia. Nevertheless, social-emotional health of Slovak students should not be neglected and further research on a larger sample is needed.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Pre-Service Teachers’ Perceptions of ICT and TPACK Competencies<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> The competencies needed for information and communication technologies (ICT) integration in the teaching-learning process are related to the use of technology, pedagogical attitudes, and content planning. These qualifications are all interrelated and should not be seen separately (Becuwe et al., 2017). In this context, ICT and TPACK competencies are important for ICT integration. The standards of ISTE for educators define the ICT skills that teachers should have as designers and facilitators (International Society for Technology Education [ISTE], 2020). These standards are gathered within the framework of ICT literacy, digital literacy, and ICT competence (Tondeur et al., 2017). The concept of ICT competence discussed in this study refers to the integrated and functional use of digital knowledge, skills and attitudes (Hatlevik et al., 2015). In this study, the ICT integration competencies of pre-service teachers (PSTs) were examined as ICT competencies and TPACK competencies in terms of a range of variables. For this purpose, the following question was asked: “Is there any significant difference in the ICT integration competencies of PSTs according to a range of variables?”</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> This study is based on causal-comparative research. The research was conducted in the autumn term of the 2019-2020 academic year. A convenience sampling method was used. In this regard, 413 PSTs, who are students of faculties of education at ten state universities located in different cities in Turkey, participated voluntarily in the study. The “Pre-service Teachers’ ICT Competencies Scale” developed by Tondeur et al. (2017) and the “TPACK-Deep Scale” developed by Kabakçı Yurdakul et al. (2012) were used to collect the data in the study. In addition to the scales, seven questions were asked about gender, grade, department, GPA, ICT course grade, owning a computer for educational purposes, and one’s perceived ability to use technology. Two methods have been adopted to collect data. The first was to collect the printed forms that were completed in pen by the PSTs, and the second was to prepare the electronic form and deliver it to the PSTs via e-mail and social media applications and then collect the data. To analyse the data, descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> ICT and TPACK competencies of PSTs differ according to grade, having one’s own computer for educational purposes, and one’s perceived ability to use technology, but do not differ by gender. There is no significant difference in ICT and TPACK competencies according to the gender of PSTs. There is a significant difference in ICT and TPACK competencies according to the grade of PSTs and this difference is in favour of fourth grades. There is a significant difference in terms of ICT competencies and TPACK competencies according to computer ownership for educational purposes. This difference is in favour of PSTs who have their own computers. According to the perceived ability to use the technology of PSTs, there is a significant difference in ICT competencies and TPACK competencies. This difference is in favour of PSTs who think they can use technology at the advanced or expert level.</p> <p><bold>Discussion:</bold> In the face of constantly developing and changing technology, an important consideration is the competencies teachers and PSTs should have for ICT integration. Factors contributing to the explanation of the ICT integration process such as skills and competencies, pedagogical beliefs and self-efficacy, professional development and teacher experiences, ICT infrastructure, and access and tools are seen to have a positive effect on ICT use (Kaya &amp; Usluel, 2011). It has been suggested that competence and pedagogical knowledge regarding ICT integration as perceived by teachers are important when starting to integrate ICT into teaching practices (Aslan &amp; Zu, 2015). In this study, it was found that there is a difference in ICT integration competencies of PSTs in favour of those who have their own computers and those who think they can use technology at the advanced or expert level. As the PSTs experience an increase in their perceived level of skill in their use of technology, their ICT integration competencies increase. This study also shows that PSTs’ computer ownership has an impact on their education and improves their technological skills, making a difference in terms of ICT integration competencies.</p> <p><bold>Limitations:</bold> This study was limited to PSTs who studied at the faculty of education at state universities in Turkey. In addition, two scales related to ICT integration and one demographic questionnaire were used. Also, the convenience sampling method was used and the sampling was confined to 413 PSTs.</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> There is a need for educational processes that emphasise technology’s educational value and enable teachers to improve themselves pedagogically and plan more effective teaching-learning processes using this pedagogical knowledge. To meet the needs of the learners of this century, teachers must first be equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills in their educational processes (Yıldırım, 2000; Zhou et al., 2010). PSTs should experience this process in their teaching-learning process, and should receive training in the integration of ICT in the teaching-learning process (Çubukçu et al., 2017). Research shows that the learning experiences of PSTs in this sense and the integration of ICT with their subject areas are closely related to understanding the educational value of ICT (Mumcu &amp; Usluel, 2015). Academics, who take a role in teacher education, should use technology effectively in their lessons, and PSTs should experience the educational uses of technology through their education (Başal, 2015). In this sense, academics who take part in teacher education have important duties.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Metaphoric Perceptions of Preschool Teachers towards Inclusive Education<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> The purpose of this study is to determine the metaphorical perceptions of preschool teachers in regard with the concept of inclusive education.</p> <p><bold>Methods:</bold> In this study, phenomenology design, which is one of the qualitative research methods, was used. The study group of this research consists of preschool teachers, who have students either received or currently receiving inclusive education in their classrooms. In the research, the content analysis was conducted in order to analyze the data obtained from preschool teachers.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Of the 113 preschool teachers participated in the study, the answers given by 101 teachers to the research question were included in the evaluation. At the end of the evaluation phase, it was determined that preschool teachers developed a total of 53 different metaphors in regard with the concept of inclusive education and 53 valid metaphors developed by preschool teachers were analyzed by gathering them under 9 different categories according to their common characteristics.</p> <p><bold>Discussion:</bold> In accordance with the data obtained from the research, the distribution of metaphors developed by preschool teachers regarding the concept of “inclusive education” by categories is observed as follows: inclusive education as the riches of nature, inclusive education depending on the soil and inclusive education as work and living areas. However, the metaphor of the “rainbow” draws attention as the most developed metaphor for inclusive education in all categories by the participants.</p> <p><bold>Limitations:</bold> Due to the COVID-19 virus pandemic, data were collected from participants using an online interview form.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> The study also concluded that the perceptions of the participants towards inclusive education were generally positive.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-13T00:00:00.000+00:00Examining Socio-Demographic Factors in Workplace Deviance among Selected University Workers<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Despite studies on workplace deviance globally and in an emerging country like Nigeria, the role of socio-demographic factors on dimensions and overall workplace deviance have been largely neglected in the literature. This lacuna hopes to be filled by this present study through examining the role of socio-demographic factors (gender, staff category and university type) on dimensions and overall deviance among university workers in Southwest, Nigeria.</p><p><bold>Methods:</bold> The study adopted a cross-sectional survey design and a sample size of 384 university workers whose ages range from 22 to 63 years with a mean of 46.88 (SD=9.36) were conveniently selected from four universities. Data were sourced through the Workplace Deviant Behaviour scale and selected demographics which was analyzed using t-test for independent samples.</p><p><bold>Results:</bold> The results found that there was no gender difference in workplace deviance among university staff [t(382)=-0.37, p&gt;.05]. The study also found that academic workers have a higher tendency to engage in workplace deviance than their non-academic counterparts [t(382)=2.38, p&lt;.05]. Finally, workers from private institutions reported significantly higher workplace deviance than workers from public universities [t(382)= -2.20, p&lt;.05].</p><p><bold>Discussion:</bold> We can deduce from the study that gender did not have any influence on work deviance as reported by previous study. Also academic staff has higher work deviance than non-academic staff which could be as a result of academic autonomy. Also, staff from private university has higher work deviance than public university which could be as result of the poor job security of private university in Nigeria.</p><p><bold>Limitations:</bold> One limitation of the study is that some respondents might fake their responses and not disclose their true feeling about the subject matter.</p><p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> Based on these findings, we concluded that there was no gender difference on work deviance, also there was staff category difference on work deviance and finally, employee from private universities exhibited higher work deviance than their counterpart from public universities.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Exploring Turkish EFL Instructors’ Perceptions on Learner Autonomy through Metaphor Elicitation Technique<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><bold>Introduction:</bold> This study analysed Turkish instructors’ metaphors identifying learners in terms of learner autonomy.</p><p><bold>Methods:</bold> In the present study we proposed a mixed methods approach to the investigation of the images created by the participants.</p><p><bold>Results:</bold> The metaphors produced by the participants showed that instructors see both themselves and learners as active agents in teaching and learning process.</p><p><bold>Discussion:</bold> The variety of metaphors grouped into eight categories reflected the broad range of perception of instructors have for learners.</p><p><bold>Limitations:</bold> 80 non-native English-speaking Turkish instructors were the participants of the study. Their qualifications were varied from graduate degree to doctoral degree on ELL or ELT and their teaching experience varied from recent graduates with one year of experience to considerable veteran instructors with 27 years of experience in teaching English.</p><p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> We observed that instructors perceive learner autonomy in many perspectives while they assign themselves some main roles in teaching and learning process. The findings also revealed a variety of teacher conceptualization of learner metaphors such as sponge, tree, traveller, puppet, cone, and empty canvas most of which are positive. The information may shed light on the attempts to promote learner autonomy, to understand teachers in practice better and to support teacher development.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Appearance and Development of Short-Term Higher Education Vocational Training in Hungary<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><bold>Introduction:</bold> This article examines the first level of the European higher education system, namely the short-cycle higher education trainings related to the ISCED 5 whose Hungarian characteristics, and its historical changes were described.</p><p><bold>Methods:</bold> We examined participation rates among OECD countries. As there are large differences in the short-cycle higher education trainings in Europe, we have relied on data that makes the different systems comparable.</p><p><bold>Results and discussion:</bold> The interpretation, definition and practical orientation of the trainings varies from country to country, we presented the Hungarian form in connection with the results of international comparative studies and data. To understand the role of trainings, it is essential to get to know their history, especially because short-term higher educational trainings were transformed in several European countries.</p><p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> Prioritising or effacing the social-political role of short-cycle higher education trainings depending on the political orientation of the government and as a part of this, prioritising the disadvantaged regions instead of the disadvantaged students.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Primary School Students’ Performance Orientation - The Czech Republic Research<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><bold>Introduction:</bold> The current school is strongly focused on student performance. Each student faces a large number of learning tasks, which place considerable demands on them, arouse in them a different degree of interest, evoke a different degree of commitment to work, are associated with different expectations or have a different degree of attractiveness. Performance situations are associated with pleasant experiences but also with experiences of failure, which in their essence affect the activity or passivity of the student, and thereby affect the prioritization of the necessity to excel or the need to avoid failure. These needs are the basis of performance orientation, which is analysed in the paper. The aim is to verify whether the motivational orientation of students is related to their beneficial outcomes.</p><p><bold>Methods:</bold> The quantitative nature of the paper made it possible to use both indicators of descriptive statistics (mean, median, mode, standard deviation) and inductive statistics (Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson's Chi-square test, Shapiro-Wilk normality test). The surveyed sample of 363 respondents consisted of an available selection of students from 14 primary schools in five regions of the Czech Republic in 2019. The data were collected physically at schools using a standardized questionnaire. Students were acquainted with its purpose and content. Statistical analysis of the data was carried out electronically, both in terms of methodology in accordance with the research design of Hrabal and Pavelková (2011).</p><p><bold>Results:</bold> The analysis of the data of the sample of respondents revealed that the performance orientation of problem students differs statistically significantly from that of the performance motivation of non-problem students in two cases: 1) the need for successful performance, where differences were verified using hypothesis H1 and 2) in the ratio of performance needs, where the differences were verified using hypothesis H4. In other cases, no statistically significant difference was found between the two groups.</p><p><bold>Discussion:</bold> The presented findings correspond to current domestic (Krykorková &amp; Váňová, 2010) and foreign research (Weiner, 2000). They draw attention to the importance of a positive motivation of the student in terms of his degree of involvement in the development of his own dispositions, which affects the benefit of the student. Positively motivated students achieve better results with a comparable intellect than non-motivated students (Man &amp; Mareš, 2005). The role of the teacher and his knowledge of motivational types of students is of paramount importance in this respect.</p><p><bold>Limitations:</bold> The sample under examination of respondents does not bring a representative sample in terms of the representation of students according to school years, regions of the Czech Republic or according to the representation of so-called problem or non-problem students. The outcomes of the survey can thus be applied only to a given sample of respondents.</p><p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> The benefitting for students in the sample showed lower positive motivation than their intellectually comparable non-problem classmates. It is a question of reserves, the use of which is a challenge not only for themselves, but also for the school and parents. The largest differences between the two groups were recorded in the specific ratio of positive and negative motivation 4: 2 within the T1 type and in the ratio 1: 3 within the T6 type. The attempt to determine the causes of this fact, especially proposing a remedy, is a topic for further research in this area.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00The Attitude of University Students with Special Educational Needs to the Inclusive Environment at Their University<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><bold>Introduction:</bold> In order to build a quality inclusive environment (not only in education) it is not enough to have material and personal capacity. The students themselves also need to be included via quality assessment of this environment. Research focused on the attitudes of university students with special educational needs (SEN students) towards the inclusive environment quality at a specific educational institution in Slovak conditions has never been done before.</p><p><bold>Methods:</bold> The research team aimed to identify SEN students’ attitude (N=20) to the quality of inclusive university environment. To maintain anonymity, university will not be specified; as for students, only their degree of study and gender will be listed instead of their age (65% were females). An attitudinal questionnaire developed by the authors was used to identify how the respondents perceived the quality of inclusion in the respective university environment.</p><p><bold>Results:</bold> SEN students’ attitudes show the highest score in emotional components (AM=3.607; SD=0.602). Additionally, there is a statistically significant relation between their attitudes and the coordinator’s work quality. A statistically significant difference was measured between the attitudes of those SEN students who were satisfied with the work of their coordinator and those who were not (p-value 0.008). We noted a strong deviation in favour of the satisfied students.</p><p><bold>Discussion:</bold> SEN students generally perceive the inclusive environment at the faculties at which they are currently studying as positive, which can result from the fact that coordinators are appointed specifically to cater to their needs. A distance course has also been created to improve the inclusive environment for students; it helps to improve the effectiveness of communications between coordinators and students, and quickly resolve any issues related to education.</p><p><bold>Limitations:</bold> Both the size of the research sample and the fact that the survey was conducted at only a single university were limiting factors. Thus, we cannot generalize our findings to the entire university SEN student population nor to all Slovak universities.</p><p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> In the conditions of the institution in question no research of this nature has ever been done before. In order to increase the internal quality of the school environment a reflection on the inclusive environment quality from SEN students is necessary. Looking forward, we recommend carrying out a more detailed observation of the inclusive environment quality in relation to the coordinator for students with special educational needs (hereinafter SSEN coordinator), their work quality and expertise.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00The Importance of Sociocultural-Based Reflective Picture Storybook Media to Increase Reading Interest and Social Skills of Elementary School Students<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Issues of urgency in learning include interest in reading and social skills in primary schools. Interest in reading and social skills are some of the basic things that are always integrated into all learning. Therefore, learning requires appropriate media to overcome these problems, one of which is a sociocultural-based reflective picture storybook (SRPS) media.</p><p><bold>Purpose:</bold> The purpose of this article is to know the importance of SRPS media to increase the reading interest and social skills of elementary school students.</p><p><bold>Methods:</bold> In the paper, the method of a comparative literature review is applied.</p><p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> This concludes that SRPS media is important to increase the reading interest and social skills of elementary school students. To improve social skills and reading fondness, a media that is suitable for the characteristics of students is needed. Students’ interest in pictorial stories can be used as a solution to overcome the problem of low social skills and students’ fondness of reading characters that need to be improved. SRPS media is important to be developed in future research.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Parents’ Perceptions of School Climate as a Predictor of Parents’ Participation in Their Children’s Education<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Parent involvement, which is defined as the attitudes, values and behaviors of parents supporting their children’s learning and education outcomes, has an important place in the education process of children. Many researchers acknowledge the important role that the strong positive link between home and school plays in children's development and education. However, many factors affect the participation of parents. School climate is one of these factors. Parent support and participation are considered important in a positive school climate. Thus, in schools with a healthy and open climate, school members can express their views more easily and contribute more actively to the educational process. Based on these thoughts, in this study, the extent to which parents’ participation in their children’s education is predicted by their perceptions of school climate.</p><p><bold>Methods:</bold> The research participants comprised 513 parents in Turkey, 413 women (80%) and 102 men (20%). Parental Participation Scale and Parents’ Perception of School Climate Scale were used in the study. Descriptive statistics, correlation and multiple regression (stepwise) analysis were used to analyze the data.</p><p><bold>Results:</bold> Findings obtained from the study showed that the level of parents’ participation in the educational processes of their children and their perception of school climate is high. As a result of the correlation analysis, it was found that only the Parent Participation Scale's “supporting child's socio-cultural development sub-dimension”, and School Climate Scale's “safety climate and academic climate” sub-dimensions had a significant and moderate relationship. In addition, as a result of the stepwise regression analysis, it was found that the safety climate and academic climate sub-dimensions significantly predicted the sub-dimension of supporting the socio-cultural development of the child. It was found that there were significant but low level relationships among the other sub-dimensions of the scales.</p><p><bold>Discussion:</bold> School climate refers to the social, physical and academic environments of the school, and in terms of school climate, activities in the school encourage students to feel comfortable and realize the learning process. In this respect, it is important that safety, and academic climate sub-dimensions are a significant predictor of the child's socio-cultural development support dimension.</p><p><bold>Limitations:</bold> The data in this study were collected from parents whose children are studying in primary schools in Pendik district of Istanbul/Turkey. In addition, variables with medium and higher correlation values were included in the regression analysis.</p><p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> School administrators and teachers should organize activities that will involve the parents in the education process in order to get the support of the parents during the education process. School administrators should create an open and healthy school climate while administrating the school, and should never ignore the impact of this climate on stakeholders.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Vocabulary Learning Autonomy and Vocabulary Size of Turkish ELT Student Teachers: A Correlational Study<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><bold>Introduction:</bold> In the related literature, knowledge of vocabulary is mentioned to be crucial as one of the crucial parts of language learning. Measuring learners’ vocabulary knowledge is regarded to be essential in that it provides both teachers and learners knowledge of the problematic areas and suggests some practical ways to improve the vocabulary learning process. It could be said that an autonomous learner is a leading actor in his own language learning process because, as stated by Nation (1998), learning is performed by the individual learner. Little (1995) asserts that learner autonomy should be set as an explicit goal in language learning contexts in that autonomy on the part of the learners plays a vital role in student success. So, we hypothesize that vocabulary learning autonomy has a significant influence on the learners’ vocabulary size.</p><p><bold>Methods:</bold> This study aims to investigate Turkish ELT student teachers’ vocabulary learning autonomy, vocabulary size, and the potential relationships between these two variables. Ninety-five student teachers in an ELT teacher education program at a university in Turkey participated in the study. The data were collected via two quantitative data collection instruments: Vocabulary Learning Autonomy (VLA) questionnaire and The Vocabulary Size Test (VST). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and correlations. As for the VST, the correct answers were counted, and an overall score was found. The participants’ scores were multiplied by 100 to get their total vocabulary size up to the 14th 1000 word-family level. As for the questionnaire, descriptive statistics (mean, frequency, standard deviation) were conducted.</p><p><bold>Results:</bold> The findings revealed that student teachers held a moderate level of vocabulary learning autonomy. The vocabulary size mean score was 77.14, which means that the participants had approximately enough vocabulary to deal with unsimplified written texts, and enough vocabulary to deal with unsimplified spoken texts. Additionally, there were significant and positive relationships between the responsibility and ability dimensions of the VLA scale. However, the findings revealed non-significant correlations among all the VLA’s dimensions and the vocabulary size.</p><p><bold>Discussion:</bold> The findings regarding the participants’ vocabulary learning autonomy showed that the participants held a moderate level of vocabulary learning autonomy. This finding is essential in that one of the most important goals of education is encouraging learners to work more independently both in and out of the classroom (Moir &amp; Nation, 2002). There were significant and positive relationships between the responsibility and ability dimensions of the VLA scale. This finding, which is in line with Koller (2015), suggests that the participants feel capable of learning vocabulary items when they perceive themselves as responsible people instead of a teacher. Based on the results regarding vocabulary size, it is reasonable to conclude that the participants had approximately enough vocabulary for comprehension of unsimplified written texts and enough vocabulary for spoken texts based on Nation’s (2006) research reporting that learners need 8000 to 9000 word-family vocabulary for comprehension of unsimplified written texts and 6000 to 7000 word-family vocabulary for unsimplified spoken texts.</p><p><bold>Limitations:</bold> The research is limited to only first-year student teachers of English and the data consist of only quantitative data.</p><p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> The findings of the present study imply the need to foster vocabulary learning autonomy of learners in teacher education programs. Student teachers hold two identities as learners and teachers of the future. It is crucial to examine their readiness because there is a bulk of evidence in the literature that teachers’ readiness for autonomy affects their ability to foster their students’ autonomy. The findings of the present study imply the need to foster vocabulary learning autonomy and utilizing some strategies to improve vocabulary size.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Perceived Teachers’ Justice and Perceived Teachers’ Authority<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><bold><italic>Introduction:</italic></bold> The presented study discusses the issues of teacher’s authority, its building and maintaining in the context of teacher’s justice. The main question to be answered is how high school students perceive teachers as authorities in relation with their perception of teacher’s justice.</p><p><bold><italic>Purpose: </italic></bold>The aim of the present article is the identification of the relationship between perceived teachers’ justice and perceived teachers’ authority among Slovak high school students.</p><p><bold><italic>Methods: </italic></bold>159 Slovak high school students (120 males and 39 females) have participated in our study. Their average age was 17.2 years. The students have attended 3 kinds of high school - technical (49.7%), services (31.4%), and general (18.9%). Two questionnaires were administrated - Teacher Justice Scale (Dalbert &amp; Maes, 2002) and Measurement for Omnisicient Authority Beliefs (Zhou, 2007). Data were examined by Pearson correlation, t-test and ANOVA.</p><p><bold><italic>Results: </italic></bold>The results have shown the significant positive relationship between perceived teachers’ justice and perceived teachers’ authority. No gender differences were identified. There are significant differences in general perceived teacher’s authority among secondary school students depending on their specialization - technical, services and grammar.</p><p><bold><italic>Discussion: </italic></bold>Results of the study support previous findings of Cseri (2013) and Gavora (2007) who point out the importance of teachers’ justice in building positive learning environment that support students’motivation to learn.</p><p><bold><italic>Limitations: </italic></bold>The proportion of male and female participants was not equal. Also the proportion of participants divided by school specialization was not equal.</p><p><bold><italic>Conclusion: </italic></bold>Accessing students fairly is not an easy task for any teacher, since perception of oneself as righteous may differ greatly from the perception of this apparent righteousness by individual students, who naturally dispose interindividual differences. It is extremely important that teachers pay attention to this fact not only at secondary schools but at all levels of the educational system, which is one of the basic pillars of public administration.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00An Anthropocentric Evaluation of the New English Language Teaching Program for Lower Secondary School in Turkey<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><bold><italic>Introduction:</italic></bold> The earth has entered a new geological epoch: the Anthropocene. The Anthropocene demonstrates how human activities have changed the world negatively by causing several environmental issues such as global warming. Therefore, it has become an important problem for people. Education should be reconsidered according to the new epoch to deal with it. There is a trans-disciplinary call for this issue. In relation to this call, the present study has aimed to evaluate the new English language teaching program (ELTP) for lower secondary school (5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th grades) in terms of the Anthropocene in Turkey.</p><p><bold><italic>Methods:</italic></bold> The present study was designed as a qualitative study. The data collection tools were the new ELTP for lower secondary school and the 5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th-grade English language course books prepared according to the new program. The data were analyzed through documentation analysis. Triangulation and thick descriptions were used to make the study trustworthy.</p><p><bold><italic>Results:</italic></bold> The documentation analysis of the data has showed that there are six themes related to the nature in the new ELTP for lower secondary school: theme 9 (the animal shelter) in the 5th grade; themes 4 (weather and emotions) and 9 (saving the planet) in the 6th grade; themes 4 (wild animals) and 9 (environment) in the 7th grade; theme 10 (natural forces) in the 8th grade. The learning outcomes and language skills of each theme were prepared according to the contents of the themes. Theme 9 in the 5th grade shows how human activities can affect the environment positively. Theme 4 in the 6th grade indicates how the environment can affect people. The rest demonstrate how human activities have affected the nature negatively and how people can save the nature.</p><p><bold><italic>Discussion: </italic></bold>Theme 9 (saving the planet) in the 6th grade, themes 4 (wild animals) and 9 (environment) in the 7th grade, and theme 10 (natural forces) in the 8th grade explain how several environmental issues have occurred owing to human activities, how these issues have affected the nature and human lives negatively, and how people can deal with these issues. Theme 9 (the animal shelter) in the 5th grade informs students about how human activities can affect the nature positively, and theme 4 (weather and emotions) in the 6th grade about how the environment can affect people. Through these themes, the new ELTP for lower secondary school can enable English language students to understand that people are a part of the nature, have the power to change the environment, and can live with the environment in balance.</p><p><bold><italic>Limitations: </italic></bold>The curriculum evaluation is only related to the new ELTP for lower secondary school (5th, 6th, 7th, and 8th grades) in Turkey.</p><p><bold><italic>Conclusion: </italic></bold>The Anthropocentric evaluation of the new ELTP for lower secondary school has shown that it can raise English language students’ awareness of the relationship between people and the nature and their effects on each other.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Fairness in Resource Distribution: Relationship between Children’s Moral Reasoning and Logical Reasoning<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><bold><italic>Introduction:</italic></bold> The aim of this study is to examine children’s moral reasoning and logical reasoning processes and the relationship between these two mechanisms. In the present study the focus is on the relationship between the factors such as fair sharing, equality, merit, ownership, opportunity in the resource allocation and logical reasoning among the children aged 5-7.</p><p><bold><italic>Methods:</italic></bold> In this study, which aims to examine how the logical thinking skills differ according to the children’s moral reasoning process, a survey design approach was used. Participants were 92 children aged 5 (female N=13, male N=14) and aged 6 (female N=17, male N=18), aged 7 (female N=17, male N=13). The data collected from the moral and logical reasoning tasks were analyzed in two steps. At the first step the answers of the participants were scored. At the second step their justifications were categorized. To test out hypotheses we used two general linear models to examine the age effects of Age (5-7 years) and Reasoning (equality, ownership, merit, opportunity) on children’s evaluations of the vignette characters’ actions. Age-related changes in children’s evaluation and their logical reasoning skills related to initial distribution and transfer status were analyzed by the variance analysis.</p><p><bold><italic>Results:</italic></bold> Based on the findings of the study it can be stated that the children in the age group of 6-7 evaluated negatively the reward distribution based on the outcomes due to their concerns about the inequality in the opportunities and the violation of the principle of equality. The findings of the study indicate that there is no significant difference in children’s logical thinking skills depending on their age. As a result of the study, it is found that although there is no direct relationship between the moral and logical reasoning processes of children, the children who can reject the AC type inference predominantly emphasize the principle of equality. Although there is no significant relationship between moral reasoning and logical reasoning processes, it can be said that children with higher levels of logical reasoning much more frequently emphasize the principle of equality in moral reasoning process.</p><p><bold><italic>Discussion: </italic></bold>Research indicates that children aged around 5 consider the reward distribution based on the outcomes fair. Older children, on the other hand, evaluate the inequalities in resource distribution as unfair. These findings support the results of the study suggesting that older children consider inequal source distribution both at the first case and at the transfer cases unfair. The children’s approval or disapproval of the transfer varies based on their reasoning processes. They support transfer if they emphasize the principle of equality, but they do not support it if their focus is on the principle of ownership. Older children are found to have a commitment to the principle of equality, and the difference between the 5-year age group and the 6-7-year age group is remarkable in this regard. Similar findings are reported in the previous studies, and it is generally stated that younger children are more selfish and that the tendency to distribute resources equally becomes dominant due to the increase in the age of children. Although there is no significant relationship between moral reasoning and logical reasoning processes, it can be said that children with higher levels of logical reasoning emphasize the principle of equality in moral reasoning process much more frequently.</p><p><bold><italic>Conclusion:</italic></bold> Cognitivists argue that cognition and particularly reasoning have significant roles in making moral decisions. It suggests that children whose logical thinking skills are higher than others understand the necessity of equality to ensure fairness. The basic information on logic should be taught and introduced to the children from an early age. In addition, children should be ensured to use these methods through connections with both daily life and other courses at schools. It is thought that having basic logic knowledge by children will affect positively their cognitive, affective and social development. In order to examine this effect, a logic program including simple logic rules and basic inference types should be developed and the effects of such programs on the cognitive, affective and social development of children should be examined.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-12-28T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1