rss_2.0Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Architectura FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Scientiarum Polonorum Architecturahttps://sciendo.com/journal/ASPAhttps://www.sciendo.comActa Scientiarum Polonorum Architectura 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/619fd99a32fa2f51bbbfe243/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20211128T044824Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20211128%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=573ec7573ab859ae1010095c3bac7266ee4dba482f100c05a98879277de18c11200300Mathematical Modeling of the Adhesion of Reinforcement with High Strength Concretehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.22630/aspa.2021.20.3.20<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the results of experimental researches of the bond between steel and high strength concrete. According to the results of the experiment planned, the regression equation can be used in aim to analyze an impact of specific factors on the limit stresses on the surface of concrete and a steel bar, as well as to normalize the limit stresses of the bond. The adequacy of the mathematical models of bonds to the experimental data has been proved by the statistical methods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Modal Analysis Quality Identification Methodology Applied to Wall-Elementshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.22630/aspa.2021.20.3.24<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>New recommendations and norms in civil engineering show a need to control the quality of wall elements; the quality control demands guidelines to fit requirements of mass-production of wall elements. This article develops an approach which applies advanced calculating techniques used for wall-structural analysis. The paper proposes a diagnostic methodology which can be added to regulations and standards based on experimental modal analysis methodology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Architectural, Material and Constructive Solutions in Dwelling Houses of Selected Organic Farms in Lublin Voivodeshiphttps://sciendo.com/article/10.22630/aspa.2021.20.3.28<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents investigations performed in selected organic farms in the west part of the Lublin Voivodeship. The subject of the investigations were dwelling houses in these farms. Their architectural, material and constructive solutions have been analyzed and conclusions concerning connections between organic farm itself and the dwelling house situated in it have been drawn.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Dilatometer Test Calibrations for Evaluating Soil Parametershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.22630/aspa.2021.20.3.23<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Strength and deformation parameters are used on every step of a foundation engineering design. They are necessary for the initial estimation of the subsoil bearing capacity and also for acceptance of the final method of the construction foundation. There are many effective <italic>in situ</italic> methods for the evaluation of these parameters. Based on data from the Marchetti dilatometer (DMT) tests obtained from the experimental Stegny site and the planned WULS-SGGW stadium, analysis and interpretation of results was performed. The uncertainty obtained from DMT tests is shown by mathematical methods. Selection criteria of the testing technique are presented. Limitations concerning the applied methods and the complex interpretation of the results of <italic>in situ</italic> investigations are shown.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Problems of Early Large Panel Structures in Polandhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.22630/aspa.2021.20.3.25<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The first buildings composed of prefabricated elements appeared in Poland in the 1960s and large housing estates were constructed in this technology already in the 1970s. Rising housing demands had impact on the rapid development of factory-produced structures and the creation of a series of technologies, such as W<sub>k</sub>-70, Wrocław Large Panel (WWP) or the Szczecin system (Sz-s). Over the years, several defects of this technology have surfaced on different levels of building erection or exploitation. Part of these flaws was related with the aesthetics of the structures, without influence in their construction, whereas others required fast actions for maintenance of safety to the residents. The paper presents an overview of the most important Polish systems of large panel structures, as well as the sources of defects and flaws that may appear in buildings constructed in this technology.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00The Use of the Surface Location Approach in the Modeling of Periodically Nonhomogeneous Slender Visco-Elastic Beamshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.22630/aspa.2021.20.3.22<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the study is to develop an analytical reformulation the known theory for thin periodically non-homogeneous viscoelastic beams, which should to form the basis for the planned research of the full beam dispersion relation. The methodology applied in the paper is similar to that described in paper <italic>Tolerance Modelling of Vibrations and Stability for Periodic Slender Visco-Elastic Beams on a Foundation will Damping. Revisiting</italic> by Jarosław Jędrysiak, published in scientific journal “Materials” in 2020, but it differs in the way of the use of tolerance modeling in the beam theory. The mathematical tool of considerations is a special choice of the micro-macro decomposition of the beam deflection. It is based on a certain regularization of the displacement field (in the small neighborhood of discontinuity surfaces) and results a certain reformulations of the classical beams theory. Obtained model equations is an alternative proposal for model equations ob- tained in mentioned paper by Professor Jędrysiak as a certain approximation for periodically nonhomogeneous viscoelastic beams theory as a result of the original tolerance modeling developed. The standardization of the beam deflection field proposed in the presented paper allows us to use the infinite Fourier expansion for deflection field in any region occupied by a homogeneous periodic composite material, which can be modeled in a typical way using the virtual work principle for commonly used beam constrains. The deflection field of the beam is written in the form of an infinite Fourier series, using periodically distributed region of material homogeneity of the beam. Applied method can be viewed as an attempt to use an infinite number of shape functions in the tolerance modeling but at the same time as an equivalent reformulation of the equations of the beam vibration theory. The obtained system of equations is an infinite system of ordinary differential equations for infinitely many Fourier coefficients in the mentioned Fourier expansion of the beam deflection field with respect to the base described in the surface location method.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Matrix of Risk Factors for Railway Construction Projectshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.22630/aspa.2021.20.3.26<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents main assumptions of an original method for scheduling railway investments in Poland, taking into account the risk factors during their implementation. The risk factors were identified by the authors during extensive research and analysis. Based on the proposed method, a future user will be able to determine the most likely cost and duration of a planned investment. The article also presents the implementation of the method in a real investment process (construction project) in terms of its implementation time. When designing the method, it was assumed that the method which is not complicated to implement and is supported by an appropriate computational program will motivate teams planning railway projects to implement them in real implementation processes and increase the credibility of their schedules.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Typology of Urban Agriculture Architecturehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.22630/aspa.2021.20.3.27<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The subject of the paper is contemporary urban farming architecture, defined as urban spaces and objects which are located within cities and dedicated to growing of edible plants. This study aims to investigate design that facilitate urban development integrating the life of the city with the food production. To examine it the following methods were used: literature review, case studies, projects descriptions and analysis based on comparison. The urban agriculture architecture typology and selected examples of each type are presented herein.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Approximated Calculation of the Kirchhoff Plate Resting on the Vlasov Foundation with Selected Boundary Conditionshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.22630/aspa.2021.20.3.21<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents the problem of bending of the Kirchhoff plate resting freely on the elastic Vlasov subsoil with additional external load <italic>g</italic> to the subsoil applied near the transverse edge of the plate. The presented example is a special case of a plate resting freely on an elastic subsoil, it is common in construction industry. It was considered approximately, how an additional soil load <italic>g</italic> applied along the y-axis affects the deflection of a plate resting freely on the Vlasov foundation. Deflection diagrams of the plate and the surface of the elastic foundation outside the plate boundaries have been obtained. The diagrams of deflection of the plate middle surface and the displacements of the soil surface beyond the plate boundaries (in the transverse and longitudinal directions, taking into account the additional load <italic>g</italic> beyond the plate boundary) depending on the distance in the x-axis direction of this load were calculated.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-20T00:00:00.000+00:00Influence of Solar Radiation to the Temperature Inside a Three-Layer Partition in Winter Seasonhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.22630/aspa.2021.20.2.16<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents an analysis of the impact of solar radiation on the temperature changes in the external three-layer partition of a smart building. Data for analysis were taken from temperature sensors located in individual layers of the wall and from a weather station on the roof of a building. The data were recorded 24 h in 5- and 15-minute intervals. The analysis period was one month in a winter season. The purpose of the analysis was to determine the correlation between the solar radiation measured as the illuminance and the temperature inside the wall. In the analysed period of one month the correlation was very weak. Also, considering only the illuminance over 10,000 lx, the correlation was noticeable, but still very weak. The use of innovative fiber optic technology with fibre Bragg grating was proposed to avoid incorrect measurements.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Digital Survey of Damages on the Façade of a Historical Buildinghttps://sciendo.com/article/10.22630/aspa.2021.20.2.13<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study discusses the application of 3D terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) in the evaluation of the technical condition of a historical building – a brewery located in the town of Szczytno (Poland). The digital database was obtained entirely by means of a Leica ScanStation C10 laser scanner. The works involved obtaining and connecting the scanning data, followed by their application in determination of the extent of damages on a virtual model of the building. The study discusses the efficiency of a laser scanner in surveying damages to a historical building. The measurements were hampered by numerous factors, such as the location of measuring points, street traffic, by standers and adverse weather conditions. However, application of TLS method using an impulse scanner allows quick digitization of an entire object, what is of great importance when it comes to examining large buildings. It should be pointed out that this is one of the few methods which allow points located in poorly accessible places, e.g. on top of a roof or a tower, to be recorded from the ground level. A laser scanner is ideal for digital capturing of details of historical buildings. It is particularly useful in measuring damages or architectural details. Digital data so obtained can then be analysed using a computer in comfortable conditions. A disadvantage of the laser scanning is a large amount of accidental and undesired data, which requires a time-consuming filtration of a point cloud. Digitized data facilitates the research procedure as it allows detailed measuring of complex objects in comfortable conditions.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Static Analysis of a Variable Cross-Section Element Under Loadhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.22630/aspa.2021.20.2.12<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An incremental solution of a member in bending and compression by displacement method with shear force impact is presented, wherein individual incremental steps, both the geometrical characteristics of the cross--section and the position of the neutral axis, can be changed. Functions of loads, internal forces and displacements are represented by trigonometric series. In every load step internal forces and deformation state is memorised, therefore history of the load and stiffness is taken into account. This solution is useful both in static calculations of structures being strengthened as well as in structures, in which degradation of stiffness under load occurs as a result of wall stability loss. The member may be loaded by uniformly distributed load, any number of concentrated forces and nodal moments.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Renovation of Buildings Having Damp and Salted Walls – Case Analyseshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.22630/aspa.2021.20.2.14<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This article discusses the issue of renovation of buildings having damp and salted walls. The results of conservation research on the walls of two historical buildings from the beginning of the 20th century are presented. It was determined that the walls of the buildings are burdened with moisture and salts. The use of traditional cement and limestone plaster for renovation of such walls, due to their low diffusivity, is a temporary and short-term solution. A suitable material is a renovation plaster, which should be selected depending on the properties of the wall. Various approaches to the renovation of these two buildings were presented. Where moisture was caused by capillary rise, the moisture barrier was first restored and a system of renovation plasters consisting of rough coat, undercoat plaster, hydrophobic plaster and paint coating was used. In the second case, due to only a partial replacement of the plasters, after protection of the facade against rainwater, the plasters will be supplemented with renovation rough coat and hydrophobic renovation plaster. Before applying the paint coating, the entire surface will be covered with a renovating lime putty.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Problem of Selection of Suitable Geosynthetics for the Strengthening of Subgrade in Road Construction, Selection of Assessment Criteriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.22630/aspa.2021.20.2.18<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The introduction of geosynthetics into road construction significantly facilitated fulfilment of the set of requirements for modern road building technologies. The fact that geosynthetic materials can be implemented at all stages, from earthwork through land drainage to the construction of layers of roads, new, repaired or strengthened ones, means that geosynthetics now occupy an important place in contemporary road building technologies. Industry supplies numerous materials classified as geosynthetics. In line with the standard PN-EN ISO 10318:2007, we distinguish four principal groups of these products: geotextiles, geotextile derivatives, geosynthetic barriers and geocomposites. The industrially produced materials have various properties, which means they have different applicability. This paper analyses basic characteristics, which decide how geosynthetics can be used. Because of a large number of features and factors that could apply to an evaluation of specific solutions, it is necessary to include a large group of criteria. Their analysis might be cumbersome, and therefore an approach is suggested which will greatly facilitate making a complex assessment and selection of a solution which will best meet the customer’s expectations. The assessment of the extent to which specific criteria are met by the geosynthetic materials selected for an analysis allows us to gain better understanding of their suitability and proper choice, supported by multifactorial analytical methods. The theme of the article is a preliminary step which is to prepare and organize the relevant characteristics of geosynthetics and define the major groups of criteria and sub-criteria.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-19T00:00:00.000+00:00On the Method of Calculation of Buckling and Post-Buckling Behavior of Laminated Shells with Small Arbitrary Imperfectionshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.22630/aspa.2021.20.2.11<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the present paper the variant of computational methods of stability and initial post-buckling behavior of isotropic shells was generalized with respect to laminated composite shells. Using methods of the asymptotic analysis of the Timoshenko–Mindlin theory, the relationships for calculation of shells with the small geometrical imperfections of the different shapes have been produced. On the basis of obtained equations, the technique of calculation of a non-linear pre-buckling state, limiting loads and bifurcation, and also initial post-buckling behavior of laminated cylindrical shells at an axial compression and external pressure have been worked out. The results of calculation for the shells made of glass fiber-reinforced plastic and carbon fiber-reinforced plastic with multimodal imperfections and dimple imperfections have been presented. The features of transformation of the interacting modes of imperfections have been researched.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Ecological Material Solutions with Use of Compositeshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.22630/aspa.2021.20.2.19<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to the global problem related to the excessive amount of waste, measures are also taken in the construction industry to protect the environment and implement recycled waste for the production of building materials. Due to the high popularity of composite materials in construction, a brief overview of modern ecological solutions using recycling was presented. The presented solutions are divided into three groups: the use of recycled aggregates for the production of concrete, the use of recycled aggregates for structures reinforced with geo-synthetics, and the use of recycled plastic for the production of wood-plastic composites (WPCs). The division into these three groups was determined on the basis of the selection of solutions most widely discussed in scientific articles in the field of recycling. The strength of the elements was mainly analyzed. The most widely used and showing the best strength values is the solution based on the use of recycled aggregate. The use of plastic waste is possible, but requires further research.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Circular Economy in Housing Architecture: Methods of Implementationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.22630/aspa.2021.20.2.15<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the article is an analysis of the possibility of introducing housing construction into a more sustainable and ecological level, through the concept of circular economy (CE) in the construction industry. Housing is an important part of the economy and construction sector. Development of this sector results from a growing population in urban areas and the need of modernization of existing residential buildings. Contemporary realizations of housing environments should consider the reduction of the negative impact on the natural environment. This is possible to achieve by reducing the use of natural resources and start using recycled materials. This assumption belongs to the basic CE task, which allows a recirculation of building materials. To discuss the basic work, the assumptions used a non-reactive desk research method. The review of scientific publications and reports included a subject: (i) concept of CE, (ii) CE in construction sector, (iii) CE in housing construction. The second part of the study analysed innovative ways of using recycled materials and their implementation in new building materials (used in residential construction). Eco-innovation overview includes: (i) bricks from plastic waste, (ii) 3D printing of buildings from recycled materials, (iii) facade plates made of recycling materials. In discussion, the research revealed a number of barriers preventing the effective implementation of CE in the construction industry. The discussion indicates three potential barriers to the implementation of CE in housing environments: (i) social responsibility of the construction industry, (ii) recycling of building materials, (iii) building material resulting from recycling. Final paper conclusions confirming the rightness to implement CE concept in housing construction, thanks to which it will be possible to reduce the negative impact on the environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Verification of Determination of Hydraulic Conductivity for Coarse Soils by Empirical Formulas Based on the Density Indexhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.22630/aspa.2021.20.2.17<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper examines the importance of empirical formulas for estimating the hydraulic conductivity of non--cohesive soils, taking into account their compaction. Empirical formulas are often used in practice to quickly and cost-effectively determine hydraulic conductivity of soil. Verification of calculation of this parameter was performed for five formulas taking into account the characteristic diameters of grains and porosity. The results obtained by calculations were compared with the results of laboratory tests performed on soil samples with the same porosity coefficients (at different density index) as assumed in the calculation method. An empirical formula has been proposed to correct the hydraulic conductivity of soils obtained from the Hazen formula by taking into account the density index of a given soil.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Optimizing the Spatial Configurations of an Urban Open Space: Syntactic Analysis of the Restored Hatirjheel Wetland, Dhakahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.22630/aspa.2021.20.2.10<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Due to rapid urbanization, urban open spaces are becoming increasingly significant, both in the inhabitants’ daily and societal lives. This significance is even more applicable for the densely populated city of Dhaka, which has historically overseen numerous urban migrations. Regretfully, the inhabitants of Dhaka can access only a few urban recreational facilities, public open spaces in particular. Due to illegal encroachment, low maintenance, and rigid policymaking, those limited number of open spaces are becoming gradually deteriorated and are in the potential danger of greater extinction soon. The Hatirjheel wetland area inside Dhaka has recently been restored as an important public open space to connect the city’s green-blue network. Accessibility is a significant spatial parameter to judge its potential success. This research analysed how accessibility would optimize the multi-scalar relationship between neighbourhoods and urban activities. With use a series of syntactic analyses, it was also searched for the Hatirjheel wetland’s potentials as an active urban open space to accelerate local and global activity. The possible weaknesses behind those open spaces’ inactiveness were investigated both theoretically and practically. Finally, some recommendations were suggested by analysing these circumstances in aim to improve the current conditions and obtain optimum benefits from the existing open space.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of Load Capacity of Roof Trusses with Imperfections and the Issue of Equivalent Load Adoptionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.22630/aspa.2021.20.1.7<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The internal forces and stresses were analyzed and utilization of the design resistance in selected members of the roof structure with local and global geometrical imperfections was evaluated. Values of these imperfections were based on the information given in the standards EN 1090-2 and EN 1993-1-1. Besides the basic reference model with imperfections, models without imperfections, with different equivalent load arrangements by the authors’ own concept and comparatively according to the standard EN 1993-1-1 were analyzed. The calculations were made using the 1<sup>st</sup> and the 2<sup>nd</sup> order analysis. Conclusion concerning accuracy of the internal forces estimation and limit states check by use the equivalent load system proposed in the standard EN 1993-1-1 are presented. Deficiencies in the provisions of this standard in terms of adopting equivalent loads in roof structures with imperfections, resulting in underestimation of the stresses in the bottom chords of the roof trusses, has been demonstrated.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-30T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1