rss_2.0Acta Scientifica Naturalis FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Scientifica Naturalishttps://sciendo.com/journal/ASNhttps://www.sciendo.comActa Scientifica Naturalis 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/610e3aff1af5e367e4cd1df4/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220522T204726Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20220522%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=ba8d8b836573c01ed4fa443315e7b72eece31b26ca2875e2bb01e6505554ff01200300Editorial Note: Lakes on the Northern Black Sea coast of Bulgariahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/asn-2022-0001ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00The medicinal plants in Bulgaria: list of species, usable parts, fields of application, toxicity and contraindicationshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/asn-2022-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this survey is to present an up-to-date list of medicinal plants on the territory of the Republic of Bulgaria and to systematize the information on: usable parts, the number of medicinal plants used in various fields of medicine, in cosmetics, the degree of toxicity and availability of information on contraindications for all wild medicinal plants that are found in the Republic of Bulgaria. As a result, we identified a total of 845 species of wild medicinal plants. Most of them are described in a special annex to the Medicinal Plants Act of the Republic of Bulgaria. In the literature on the use of medicinal plants in Bulgaria we found information about another 115 species of wild medicinal plants. In the present survey we did review of the usable parts of medicinal plants. We made a comparative analysis of the use of medicinal plants in the official, popular and veterinary medicine. The method of application of medicinal plants in medicine is discussed: externally and internally. Attention is paid to the use of medicinal plants in aromatherapy, dentistry and cosmetics. Considered are the poisonous plants among the medicinal plants and their degree of toxicity. A review of the available data on contraindications for the use of medicinal plants has been made.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00An ontological model to support citizen science in the field of invasive species researchhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/asn-2022-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Advances in information technology developments have led to improved ways and means of sharing information and good practices in various areas of social development. Providing the necessary tools enables Citizen Sciences (CS) to play an important role in raising awareness and engaging various stakeholders in the prevention of invasive alien species (IAS). In Bulgaria, up until this point, it is poorly developed, and this is largely due to the lack of information to the general public regarding the categorization of species, pathways of introduction and their negative impact. The article examines the possibilities for introduction and use of an advanced ontological model in the area of invasive alien species research, which will aid the process of involving a wide range of stakeholders in various initiatives that will contribute to preventing the introduction and spread of IAS. The researched approach using the advantages of modern information and communication technologies includes acquaintance with the basic concepts in the area of IAS, the processes related to their introduction and spread, as well as taking into account the existing interrelationships, which would provide opportunities for early detection and the rapid eradication of IAS. The developed model will also be applied to measures and policies put in place to change the attitudes of the general public to the problem of IAS.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Antimicrobial drug resistance against the background of the COVID-19 pandemic in Bulgaria and Europe: A profound review of the available literature sourceshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/asn-2022-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Improper use of antibiotics is an extremely worrying trend worldwide. This leads to the development of resistance to these drugs. As a result, antibiotics stop working and bacteria continue to grow. The highest levels of resistance, both in our country and worldwide, are to second and third-generation cephalosporins, some aminoglycosides, and others. The reason is that these antibiotics have been used most irrationally over the years. The pandemic of COVID-19 and Antimicrobial drug resistance (AMR) are parallel and interrelated serious health situations, between which there is a causal link, manifested in high mortality among the human population. This review highlights relations between growth rates of antimicrobial resistance and the Covid-19 pandemic situations in Bulgaria and Europe in this fast-growing research area.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Geomorphology of the Beqaa Valley, Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountainshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/asn-2022-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Geomorphology of Lebanon presents a unique pattern of contrasting landforms. These include two notable mountain ranges, the Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon Mountains, the Beqaa Valley, the elongated coastal area and a significant amount of karst relief forms. This study focuses on the investigation of the topographic and geologic setting of Lebanon by visualizing datasets covering Lebanon and Anti-Lebanon mountains and the Beqaa Valley. Data were collected using the open source repositories of the high-resolution data (GEBCO, ETOPO1, DEM embedded in R). Three 3D models of the relief of the country are presented based on the ‘grdview’ package of GMT with azimuth rotations of the view point at 205°/30° and 165°/30°. The geologic map is based on the compiled datasets of the USGS. The R based modelling allowed division of the raster grid into several geomorphological zones according to the slope steepness and aspect orientation. The extreme elevations of the study area range from -2007 m and 2973 m. The key contribution of this work is the topographic and geologic data synthesis for 2D and 3D modelling of Lebanon. Another aspect concerns technical integration of GMT and R scripting approaches with QGIS mapping into the cartographic framework for visualizing of the Lebanese topography as a multi-tool approach. For the future similar studies on Lebanon this paper can serve as a guide for completing a project on the multi-source 2D and 3D data mapping as a conceptual foundation for research on Lebanese environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Late spring frost effect on the reproductive traits of late nectarine cultivar-rootstock combinations ( var. )https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/asn-2022-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The study was conducted during the period 2017 – 2018 at the Agricultural Experimental Station – Khan Krum, Shumen region. The experimental orchard was established in the spring of 2011. The following nectarine cultivars were studied: Fantasia, Golden Grand, Morsiani 51, Cassiopeia and Fairlane grafted on a seedling rootstock (Elberta) and clonal GF 677, as well as the frost – resistant dessert-type cultivar Redhaven. In the period 2017 – 2018, negative temperatures were reported, at the end of March and at the beginning of April (-3.6°C and -5.0 °C respectively)which coincided with the full blooming phenological phase; as a result of which the blossoms froze (76 – 100%). A relatively low percentage of frozen blossoms was observed in cultivars grafted on rootstock GF 677. In 2017, the blossom damage was relatively low and yields were obtained, unlike in 2018. Negative spring temperatures had a negative impact on productivity if blossom damage percentage exceeded 80%.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Short peptide analogs of LfcinB synthesized by Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis as an alternative to global microbial resistancehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/asn-2022-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Antibiotics are the main therapy in the treatment of infections caused by pathogenic bacteria. Their frequent and prolonged use leads to the development and spread of resistant microorganisms. According to the WHO, there is a worrying increase in global resistance to conventional antimicrobial therapy. This in turn poses a serious risk to public health and requires the search for an alternative to traditional pathogen therapy. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are of great interest in this regard. They are produced naturally in all living organisms and are the first line of defense against fungi, viruses and bacteria. An example ofAMP with proven antimicrobial action are lactoferricins. They are cationic amphipathic peptides and have been found in both humans (LfcinH) and other mammals (cattle (LfcinB), mice (LfcinM) and goats (LfcinC). The most powerful antibacterial effect among them shows LfcinB. Using SPPS methods, short peptide molecules were obtained, analogs of LfcinB, which show a stronger antibacterial effect compared to the native peptide. In recent years, lactoferricins have been the subject of a number of scientific studies and represent a potential alternative for the development of new therapies to combat antimicrobial drug resistance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Characterization of Cr(III) interaction with kaolinite – Effect of the presence of Cr(VI)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/asn-2021-0024<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In the present study, experiments were performed to characterize the effectiveness of kaolinite in Cr(III) removal from water in the absence and in the presence of Cr(VI). The results of batch experiments, show that the efficiency of Cr(III) removal by kaolinite increases with the increase of pH and temperature in both cases. The effect of the presence of Cr(VI) on the adsorption of Cr(III) by kaolinite depends on the solution pH and on the concentrations of the two ions. Whatever the system, the removal kinetic of Cr(III) is well described by the pseudo-second order model. Spectroscopic analyses reveal that Cr(III) interaction with kaolinite is mainly electrostatic.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Ethnomycological research in the field of wild mushrooms and medicinal plantshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/asn-2021-0029<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During the recent years, there is an increased interest in the problems of wild mushrooms and medicinal plants in all over the world. An intensive research is currently performed in order to further clarify the peculiarities of numerous edible, toxic and cultivated wild mushrooms and medicinal plants. Both traditional and contemporary knowledge of the population is assessed by means of a variety of ethnomycological and ethnobotanical methods. The manners of usage by the population of wild edible mushroom and medicinal plants are intensively studied in many countries, too. In the present review article, the results from some recent investigations by Bulgarian and foreign authors devoted to the knowledge and use of some popular wild mushrooms and medicinal plants are summarized. The necessity for the intensification of the collaborative ethnomycological and ethnobotanical research in Europe is outlined.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Phytochemical screening and hemolytique activity of some leaves extracts of L.https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/asn-2021-0023<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Medicinal plants have several therapeutic properties; they have been used for a long time to treat different diseases. Lantana camara L. has been widely used by man for healing these diseases. In this study, four leaves extracts of L. camara were subjected to preliminary phytochemical screening to determine the presence and/or the absence of phytochemical constituents; In addition, they were tested for hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes. This activity is performed using the UV-Vis spectrophotometer method at 520 nm and at five different concentrations (125 µg/ml, 250 µg/ml, 500 µg/ml, 750 µg/ml, and 1000 µg/ml). The phytochemical screening showed the presence of various phytochemical groups such as phenolic compounds, saponins, sterols, tannins, flavonoids, reducing compounds and the absence of alkaloids in the four extracts. These same extracts showed average hemolytic activity sequentially: chloroformic extract, petroleum ether extract, aqueous extract and then methanolic extract. This activity is dependent on the concentration of the extract.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Allergenic potential of L. species in urban environmenthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/asn-2021-0026<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The species of the genus Platanus L. are widely used in urban green infrastructure in Bulgaria and abroad, but are proven to be a serious source of allergen pollen emissions. The number of people, affected by pollinosis, is increasing every year and this affects the world economy and health of the population in a high level. The pollen of the plane tree is light, very small and spreads anemophilically. This is one of the genera that produce the largest amount of pollen per inflorescence. This makes Platanus a tree of a high allergy potential that has the tendence to get higher in time, because of its increasing use in urban green spaces. The aim of this study is to collect data for allergy potential of the three species of plane tree in some of the European countries, where the allergy is a significant problem, and to compare the sensitization of patients to its pollen in Bulgaria.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Distribution of edible, toxic and medicinal wild mushrooms in Europe and Bulgariahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/asn-2021-0028<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The scientific interest in wild mushrooms continuously increases worldwide. In the present review article, the results from some recent investigations by Bulgarian and foreign authors devoted to the current distribution of some edible, toxic and medicinal wild mushroom species in Bulgaria and some European countries are summarized. Some newly-recognized mushrooms are indicated. The examinations of wild mushroom safety under the conditions of environmental contamination deserve special attention, too. The scientists from European countries and Bulgaria have essential contributions to the field of the mushroom identification and distribution.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Natural tourist resources in Rhodope tourist regionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/asn-2021-0030<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Rhodope Tourist Region is one of the most attractive tourist regions in Bulgaria and one of the few that stand out with almost uniform year-round development of tourist activities. The outlines of the tourist area largely coincide with the outlines of the mountain of the same name. This fact predetermines the exceptional richness and diversity of natural tourist resources. Here are the largest coniferous forests in the country, some of the largest dams, the largest number of caves used for tourist purposes, many mineral springs, bizarre rock formations, etc. The relatively well-preserved natural environment is a prerequisite for the presence of extremely high biodiversity, as well as a large number of protected areas. The region is specialized in mountain tourism, incl. ski tourism and hiking. In connection with the available natural tourist resources, the tourism product is increasingly enriched with various specialized types of tourism, incl. balneotherapy tourism, ecotourism, rural tourism, etc. In connection with the increasingly intensive tourist load, the problem of protecting the natural tourist resources from the growing anthropogenic pressure, as well as the prospects for sustainable development of the tourist industry in the region are becoming especially relevant. The aim of the present paper is to valorize the natural tourist resources of the Rhodope tourist region and to give guidelines for their sustainable use.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Invasive alien plant species distributed as weeds in arable land in Bulgariahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/asn-2021-0027<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>26 species of invasive alien plant species enter the arable land in Bulgaria as weeds. Some of these species are already causing economic damage and are included in the list of the 100 most economically important weeds. For others, it is only a matter of time before they are included in this list. Possessing a complex of qualities, they spread quickly and aggressively, occupying new areas and settling permanently in them. As artificial habitats in which there is no permanent vegetation, arable land is one of the easiest terrains to invade. The study examines the biological characteristics that determine the invasive nature of this group of plants, their origin, distribution routes, weed crops and control measures that can be taken. Particular attention shall be paid to the additional effects that these species may have on human health, on cultivated crops and on natural habitats located in the neighborhood.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial Note: Black Sea - a pearl in the crown of Bulgaria. Part III. Futurehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/asn-2021-0022ARTICLE2021-11-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of antioxidant diet on the RBC indices in fructose-induced obesity rat modelhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/asn-2021-0025<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The oxidative stress is one of the known and discussed culprits for development and progression of the disturbances in Metabolic syndrome (MetS). In our study, we are investigating the effects of antioxidant additives as additional treatment and prophylaxis in a model of MetS.</p> <p>We are using a fructose-induced metabolic syndrome rat model to examine the effects of antioxidant preparation ZellSchutz. Four experimental groups were formed using male Wistar rats (n = 60). The control group received standard rat chow, the other groups received either ZellSchutz (Z), fructose (F), or fructose and ZellSchutz (ZF).</p> <p>Our results showed an unexpected increase in the RBC indices in rats with dual treatment. There was a significant increase in hemoglobin concentration, MCHC, and MCV in those animals (p&lt;0.001).</p> <p>The preliminary data shows the important role of antioxidants as supplementary therapy in metabolic syndrome. Further investigations will be carried on to reveal the molecular mechanisms of the observed changes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Technological qualities of common winter wheat ( L.) grown in conditions of unconventional agriculturehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/asn-2021-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During the period 2019 - 2020, a study was conducted on soil type calcic chernozem with Venka 1 common winter wheat variety. The experiment is based on the block method, in four replications with a size of the experimental plot of 10 m2. Sowing was carried out in October with a sowing rate of 500 sprouts/m2 after the predecessor sugar beet. In the appropriate periods, treatments were made in 4 variants: 1) Control - untreated variant, 2) Treatment with biodynamic preparations: 500 + Fladen preparation + preparation 501, 3) Treatment with biological preparations: Heliosulfur + Free N. 4) Combined treatment with the same biodynamic and biological preparations.</p> <p>Preparation 500 was applied in the phase of autumn and spring wheat tillering - 5% solution. Preparation 501 was applied in the phase ear formation - 1.5 g for 30 l of water/da. Fladen preparation is applied in the phase of autumn and spring tillering - 1.5% solution. Heliosulfur was applied in the ear formation phase - flowering at a dose of 50 ml/da, at an appropriate date on the biodynamic calendar. Free N was applied to the soil in the phase of autumn and spring tillering at a dose of 50 ml/da, at an appropriate date on the biodynamic calendar.</p> <p>The analysis of the technological qualities is made according to the respective ISO methodology. The statistical data processing was performed with the STATGRAPH program.</p> <p>The application of biodynamic and biological preparations and their joint use leads to an increase in the yield of wet gluten, as well as an increase in the content of N, P, K and protein in wheat grain. It has been proven that the combined use of biodynamic and biological preparations increases the content of dry matter, organic matter and the content of nitrogen-free extracts in wheat grain. The content of crude proteins has been shown to increase only in the varieties treated with biodynamic and biological preparations.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Hepatotoxicity and mitochondrial dysfunction after lead (Pb) exposure and the protective effect of fennel essential oil of this toxicity in Wister ratshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/asn-2021-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The present work focuses on evaluation of the toxic effects of an exposure to lead (Pb) on the liver mitochondria function in Wistar rats and the protective role of the fennel essential oils (FEO).</p> <p>The experiments were conducted on Wistar rats, which were treated daily through orally gavages during 21 days. 24 animals were divided into four groups of 6 rats each one: the control group received water, while group II received FEO (0.5 mg/kg); group III received Pb (25 mg/kg), and group IV received Pb + FEO in the doses of (0,5 + 25 mg/kg). The mitochondrial dysfunction induced by lead is expressed by reducing mitochondrial respiration (O<sub>2</sub> consumption) associated with an increase in mitochondrial swelling and permeability compared to the control group. A disturbance in the rates of oxidative stress biomarkers was also observed. This disturbance was expressed by an increase of the MDA rate and the Cytochromes C activity associated with depletion in the GSH rate and GPx activity compared to the control group. The rat’s co-treatment with FEO restored all these parameters to values similar to the Control.</p> <p>The whole of these results shows well that the exposure to the lead causes disturbances on the level mitochondrion, which are attenuated by fennel essential oils.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparative ethnobotanical analysis of the used medicinal plants in the region of the Northern Black Sea coast (Bulgaria)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/asn-2021-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The current ethnobotanical study summarizes the use of medicinal plants by locals in the region of the Northern Black Sea Coast, Bulgaria. The survey was conducted in the period between 2014 and 2020. After prior informed consent, 709 local residents from 32 settlements were interviewed. The interviews with the local population were conducted using the “face to face” technique with the help of pre-prepared original questionnaires. The study presents quantitative ethnobotanical information on the use of medicinal plants in the study area. The results were analyzed using quantitative indices: Respondent Consensus Ratio (F<sub>IC</sub>), Loyalty Level Index (FL) and Significance Value Index (IVs). A total of 332 species of medicinal plants belonging to 250 genera of 90 families have been identified for the region of the Northern Black Sea Coast. The largest number of citations are registered for the use of medicinal plants for culinary purposes and for use in human medicine. The use of medicinal plants in other household applications has been studied.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Technological properties of triticale ( L.) grown under unconventional agriculturehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/asn-2021-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>During the period 2019 - 2020, a study was conducted on soil type calcic chernozem with Kolorit triticale variety. The experiment is based on the block method, in four replications with a size of the experimental plot of 10 m<sup>2</sup>. Sowing was carried out in October with a sowing rate of 500 sprouts/m<sup>2</sup> after the predecessor sugar beet. In the appropriate periods, treatments were made in 4 variants: 1) Control - untreated variant, 2) Treatment with biodynamic preparations: 500 + Fladen preparation + preparation 501, 3) Treatment with biological preparations: Heliosulfur + Free N, 4) Combined treatment with the same biodynamic and biological preparations.</p> <p>Preparation 500 was applied in the phase of autumn and spring triticale tillering - 5% solution. Preparation 501 was applied in the phase of ear formation - 1.5 g for 30 l of water/da. Fladen preparation was applied in the phase of autumn and spring tillering - 1.5% solution. Heliosulfur was applied in the ear formation phase - flowering at a dose of 50 ml/da, on an appropriate date on the biodynamic calendar. Free N was applied to the soil in the phase of autumn and spring tillering at a dose of 50 ml/da, on an appropriate date on the biodynamic calendar.</p> <p>The analysis of the technological qualities is made according to the respective ISO methodology. The statistical data processing was performed with the STATGRAPH program.</p> <p>The application of biodynamic and biological preparations and their joint use leads to an increase in the content of Nitrogen-free Extracts, an increase in the content of Minerals and Ca in the variant treated with a combination of biodynamic and biological preparations. Treatment with biodynamic preparations has been shown to increase the dry matter and organic matter content of the grain, while when compared to the control one, a difference in the same indicators has been observed only in the second year of the experiment with biological preparations. Treatment with biodynamic and biological preparations and their joint use did not affect the content of N, P and K.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-05T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1