rss_2.0Advanced Research in Life Sciences FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Advanced Research in Life Sciences Research in Life Sciences 's Cover and Growth Performances of Improved Genetic Types of Chickens (Gallus Gallus) Raised in Cameroon<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>From July to November 2019, a study has been carried out in the locality of Ngaoundéré in order to contribute to a better knowledge of exotic hens. For this purpose, 190 improved strain chicks of one day-old with an average weight of 35.49±3.78g were distributed according to the type of feather. They were fed an iso-energetic and iso-proteic feed. Data on phenotype characteristics, growth performance, biometric data and carcass were determined. The main results show that three types of feathering were recorded with 16.4% of hens with bare necks and with feathered pits, 78.1% of hens with feathered pits and 5.5% of hens with normal feathers. The majority of hens were recorded with a single comb (75.3%), round mumps (71.2%), white pits (76.4%), black beaks (47.9%) and brown eyes (75.3%). In terms of zootechnical performance, the highest live weight (1758.00±322.20g) was recorded with naked-necked hens and feathered pits. The highest weekly average weight gain was recorded with yellow eyed hens (111.77±16.63g) followed by bare-necked and feathered pits (107.83±20.06g). Hens expressing the Na and Pti genes showed the best growth performance although carcass yield was not significantly affected by feather type. It was concluded that there is a very high phenotypic diversity in the so-called improved hens. However, despite their great potential, responsible management of this genetic resource should be encouraged in order to avoid genetic erosion of local poultry resources.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Splenic and Leucocytic Responses in Wistar Rats Exposed to Chronic Doses of Hydromethanol Extract of Leaf in Feed<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>To evaluate the effects of the hydromethanol extract of <italic>Helianthus annuus</italic> on leucocyte profile and spleen histology after prolonged exposure to Wistar rats. This study involved the incorporation of varied concentrations (2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 mg/10 g) of hydromethanol extract of <italic>H. annuus</italic> in feed and feeding same to Wistar rats for 90 consecutive days. Blood samples were collected from the retro-orbital plexus of the rats on days 30, 60 and 90, for leucocyte count. Histopathological examination of the spleen was also conducted. The extract treatment did not cause a significant (p &gt;0.05) change in the leucocyte profile and the spleen histology in the treated rats when compared to the normal control rats. On day 90, the total leucocyte counts of 15.24 ± 1.47, 12.69 ± 0.84 and 16.29 ± 3.36 for the groups that were treated with extract 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00 mg/10 g feed respectively, were not significantly (p &gt; 0.05) different when compared with the total leucocyte count (12.01 ± 0.77) of the control group. The findings suggest that hydromethanol extract of <italic>H. annuus</italic> do not have a significant effect on the leucocyte profile and the histology of spleen.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Antimicrobial Effect of Medicinal Plants on Microbiological Quality of Grape Juice<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The safety of plant-based food of plant origin is a priority for producers and consumers. The biological value of food products enriched with herbal ingredients is getting more popular among consumers. The present study was aimed to evaluate microbiological quality of grape juice enriched with medicinal plants. There were two varieties of grapes -Welschriesling and Cabernet Sauvignon and six species of medicinal plants used for the experiment: Calendula officinalis L., Ginkgo biloba, Thymus serpyllum, Matricaria recutita, Salvia officinalis L., and Mentha aquatica var. citrata. A total of 14 samples of juice were prepared and two of them were used as controls and 12 samples were treated with medicinal plants. Total microbial count, coliforms, lactic acid bacteria and yeasts and microscopic fungi for testing the microbiological quality were detected. All the samples were negative for lactic acid bacteria. There were neither coliform bacteria nor yeast and fibrous microscopic fungi present in some of the treated samples apart from the control samples. Coliform bacteria of 1 log cfu/mL were detected during the first testing and identified Proteus vulgaris in the control sample of grape juice of the variety Welschriesling. The yeast of the genus Candida was present in 2 log cfu/mL and it was detected during first and second testing in the control sample of Cabernet Sauvignon, unlike the other samples. The sample of grape juice with the addition of sage had the most significant inhibitory effect on total count of bacteria. The most common microorganisms in all samples were Bacillus cereus and Acinetobacter johnsonii, however, those microorganisms were absent during second testing due to the action of naturally occurring antimicrobials in the grapes.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Isolation and Characterization of a New strain LG10 from an Unexploited Algerian Saharan Atlas<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An actinobacterial strain named LG10 was isolated from a Saharan Atlas soil (Laghouat, Algeria). The aerial hyphae were yellowish-white on all culture media with <italic>rectiflexibiles</italic> spore chains, suggested that this bacterium attached to <italic>Streptomyces</italic>. Furthermore, LG10 contained chemical characteristics that were diagnostic for the genus <italic>Streptomyces</italic>, such as the presence of LL-diaminopimelic acid isomer (LL-DAP) and glycine amino acid. The hydrolysates of whole-cell included non-characteristic sugars. Comparative analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence displayed a similarity level of 100% with <italic>Streptomyces puniceus</italic> NRRL ISP-5058<sup>T</sup>. The antimicrobial activity of the LG10 strain was better in the culture medium MB5. <italic>Streptomyces</italic> strains are good sources of bioactive compounds with multiple biological activities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of Pomace Fertilization on some Phenological, Morphological and Biochemical characters of the Cherry tree in the Region of Tlemcen (Algeria): Case of the Black Bigareau and Sunburst<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Pomace is the solid residue by-product resulting from the extraction of olive oil. Their high content of organic compounds gives them the possibility of being used also as green manure. We have tried this amendment approach on two varieties of cherry grown in the Tlemcen region. The Sunburst and the Black Bigarreau. Its use in combination with N.P.K fertilizers increases the carbon content of the soil, boosts the formation of May bouquets, and improves the water-holding capacity of the clay-humic complex. The results of this study showed that olive pomace used as a fertilizer, alone or in combination with N.P.K mineral fertilizers creates an advantage on the phenological and biochemical aspect, especially on the Black Bigarreau variety.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Constrains of the Multi-Sectoral Partnerships in Romania - Are Local Action Groups Sustainable?<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Local Action Groups (LAGs) are responsible for promoting social and economic development in their territories, by creating local development strategies (LDSs) funded through LEADER Programme. They are area-based multisectoral partnerships, formed from public, private and social stakeholders. The aim of this paper is to study the governance and sustainability of Romanian LAGs, using evidence from the Nord-West Development Region from Romania. Structured interviews with LAGs managers were used as a primary method for collecting data. The results show that LAGs are struggling to remain active during the transition periods between two editions of the program, questioning their capacity to function without LEADER funding. However, they report fewer major changes compared to the last transition, mostly focusing on partnership and territorial structure.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Antimicrobial Activity of Selected Essential Oils against Bacteria Isolated from Freshwater Fish<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of study was to determine the antimicrobial activity of ten essential oils against ten microorganisms isolated from fish. The following essential oils were tested: <italic>Cymbopogon nardus</italic> Rendle, <italic>Citrus limon, Leptospermum petersonii</italic> Bailey, <italic>Gaultheria procumbens, Pelargonium graveolens, Citrus paradisi, Citrus aurantifolia, Litsea cubeba</italic> Pers., <italic>Citrus reticulata</italic> Blanko, <italic>Vetiveria zizanoides</italic>. The disc diffusion method and microdilution method were used for determination of antimicrobial activity. <italic>Rhodotorula</italic> spp., <italic>Aerococcus</italic> spp., <italic>Aerococcus viridans</italic>, <italic>Enterococcus faecium</italic>, <italic>Enterococcus moraviensis, Aeromonas</italic> spp., <italic>Delftia acidovorans</italic>, <italic>Pseudomonas gessardii</italic>, <italic>Yersinia</italic> spp., <italic>Yersinia ruckeri</italic>, <italic>Yersinia enterocolitica</italic> were tested in the present study. The best antimicrobial activity of <italic>Leptospermum petersonii</italic> Bailey were found against <italic>Aerococcus</italic> spp., <italic>Enterococcus faecium, E. moraviensis, Delftia acidovorans, Pseudomonas gessardii, Yersinia ruckeri</italic> and <italic>Y. enterocolitica</italic>. <italic>Litsea cubeba</italic> Pers. was effective against <italic>Delftia acidovorans, Yersinia enterocolitica, Enterococcus faecium</italic> using the disc diffusion method. The best minimal inhibition concentration (MIC 50 - 1.5 µL/mL resp. MIC 90 - 1.6 µL/mL) was found for <italic>Litsea cubeba</italic> Pers. against <italic>Aerococcus</italic> spp. and <italic>Yersinia</italic> spp. using microdilution method.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The Analysis of Production and Culling Rate With Regard to the Profitability in a Dairy Herd<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> As milk prices move away from production costs, dairy farms are under increased pressure to find ways to protect profitability on the farm. Producers have some problems that they can improve. Improve the milk production, produce more milk to sell focused on quality (reduce the amount of high level of somatic cell count). The deterioration of animal health status (lameness, mastitis and different metabolic disorders) can have a serious impact on cow productivity, causing pain and discomfort, production losses and might result in a decision to cull the animal. Improving herd reproductive performance is an important aspect of profitable farm management. The aim of this work is to analyse milk production, reasons of culling and culling rate in different lactation on a dairy cattle farm.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00In Vitro Assessment of Gentamicin Cytotoxicity on the Selected Mammalian Cell Line (Vero cells)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro cytotoxicity of different concentrations (500-7500 μg/mL) of gentamicin - GENT (aminoglycoside antibiotic) on the selected mammalian cell line (Vero - cell line from African green monkey kidney). Analysis of the cell morphological changes was microscopically evaluated (magnification × 400). Quantification of Ca, Mg and total proteins was performed using spectrophotometry on device Rx Monza (Randox). Quantification of Na, K and Cl was performed on the automatic analyzer EasyLyte. The cell viability was assessed using the metabolic mitochondrial MTT test. Vero cells were able to survive at concentrations of 500 (89.21 %), 1000 (79.54 %) and 2000 μg/mL (34.59 %). We observed statistically significant decrease of vital cell content at concentrations of 2000, 4500, 7500 μg/mL against control group. Vero cell line slightly reacted to the presence of GENT but total proteins and mineral parameters were not significantly affected. Vero cells were highly sensitive to GENT with a significant decrease of viability at concentrations of 2000 and 4500 μg/mL (P &lt; 0.001). Our data reveal that GENT has a significant cytotoxic and adverse effect on the cell viability.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-12-29T00:00:00.000+00:00The Determine of Sugar Beet Nutrition Problems in Konya Plain’s Soils<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> This study was aimed to determine the deficiency or excessivity of nutrients for sugar beet crop in Konya plain. The results showed that the pH value was found as 7.65 and soils were classified as sodic; the organic matter was 1.59% and 92.9% of the soil samples was poor in terms of the organic matter. The mean lime content (CaCO<sub>3</sub>) was determined capacity was 26.07 and 97.1% of the soil samples was limy and the mean cation Exchange capacity was 26.07 me/100g, and it was varied between 10.72 me/100g and 44.7 me/100g. The mean available NH4+NO3 nitrogen content, phosphorus and potassium for crop were as 0.059%, 10.21 ppm and 1.39 me/100g, respectively. According to the these results, NH<sub>4</sub>+NO<sub>3</sub> nitrogen and potassium amounts were sufficient while the phosphourus content was sufficient in 65.8% and insufficient in 34.2%. Cu and Mn content in soil samples were adequate. The sufficient amounts of Zn, B and Fe were 85.7%, 45.8% and 95.7% and their insufficient amounts were 14.53%, 54.2% and 4.3%, respectively. According to the result of leaf analyses, the content of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sodium were sufficient. The deficiencies of iron, zinc and bor were found in 4.3%, 14.3% and 38.6% of the total samples, respectively.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effect of Storage and Age of Hens on the Quality of Table Eggs<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Quality of poultry products, especially eggs, is a very important issue for the consumers and for the processing industry. The aim of the present study was to examine the interaction between the storage time and age of laying hens and their effect on the quality of table eggs. Eggs from 34 and 59- wk-old Bovans Brown hens were sampled and stored in the refrigerator for 1, 2, and 3 weeks. Significant effect of hen age (P&lt;0.01) was found on egg weight, shell strength, albumen height and Haugh units (HU). Eggs from older hens had 2.58% higher mass compared to the eggs of young hens. Eggs from 59-weeks old hens had significantly lower shell strength (3.63 kg vs. 4.31 kg). Albumen height and HU were lower in eggs from the older hens compared to the young ones (5.7 mm vs. 7.11 mm for albumen height; 70.35 vs. 81.77 for HU). Significant negative effect of storage time was found on egg weight, albumen height, HU and yolk colour (P&lt;0.01). The results indicated that egg quality characteristics monitored in this study decrease by hen age and during storage. The interaction effects between storage time and age of hens were significant only for yolk colour (P&lt;0.05).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Functioning of the Local Groups of Action (LAG) in the Aspects of Sustainable Rural Development Policy<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> In recent years rural areas of the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodship have seen very significant changes, especially with the participation of the Rural Development Program 2007-2013. The aim of the article was to diagnose the factors determining the implementation and management of the Leader 2007-2013 program in the institutional and personnel aspect in the Kujawsko-Pomorskie voivodeship, and to diagnose the functioning of the Local Action Groups as the actors responsible for shaping the regional and local sustainable rural development policy, RDP 2007-2013 program. As a result of the research, there is a need to continue research leading to an assessment of the effectiveness of LAG activities and the creation of local leaders, which may have a significant impact on local community participation in moderating local development.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of Different Anesthetic Protocols for Morphometric Measurements of Carp (Cyprinus carpio)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Measurement of growth performances in fish is carried out in stressful and unnatural environment. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the effect of four different water-borne anesthetic agents. The fish (Ave. wt. 400.3±7.12 g) were divided into four groups in the glass tanks (80×48×30 cm) containing 80 L of dechlorinated bore water. For the first group we used clove oil (CO) and anesthetic agents used for other three groups were as follows: second group- lidocaine 1% (LC), III groupisoflourane (IF), IV group-halothane (HT). During experiment, water quality parameters (to, pH, О<sub>2</sub>, and NO<sub>3</sub>) were recorded. The desired concentration of anesthetics was established andinduction time, maintenance and recovery time were recorded. In two groups out of four (LC and HT) time of induction was longer approximately with 1 minute and time of recovery was shorter with 30 seconds in comparison with other two groups (CO and IF) where the time for both was 3 minutes. It could be concluded that the anesthetic time for each of the protocols used was about 4-5 minutes and allowed to measure the growth performance. An effective and safe agent is 1% lidocaine used as a water-based anesthetic at 100 mg.L<sup>-1</sup>. Isoflurane can be used with caution in small carp because there is a risk of overdose. We recommend the anesthetic clove oil protocol.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-07-14T00:00:00.000+00:00The Influence of Fortification of Dark Chocolate with Sea Buckthorn and Mulberry on the Content of Biologically Active Substances<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The aim of our study was to assess the impact of mulberry (Morus nigra L.) and sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) addition on improvement of antioxidant characteristics of dark chocolate. For evaluation of total polyphenolic content we used Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, for total content of flavonoids spectrophotometric assay based on a formation of coloured flavonoid-aluminium complex was used and for the content of total phenolic acids was used method using Arnow’s reagent. Three different methods were also used for measuring the antioxidant activity of samples: DPPH scavenging activity, reducing power method and phosphomolybdate method. Obtained results showed, that compared to plain dark chocolate used as control, chocolate enriched with mulberry exhibited higher polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity. On the other hand, enrichment with sea buckthorn didn’t show such significant improvement in antioxidant characteristics, but increased the levels of bioactive compounds despite the lower content of cocoa solids.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Relationship between Body Condition and some Reproductive Parameters of Holstein Cattle<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The body condition scoring system (BCS) is a means of accurately determining body condition of dairy cows, independent of body weight and farm size. The body condition scores represent a subjective visual or tactile (or both) evaluation of the amount of subcutaneous fat in a cow. The system is a useful method of evaluating body energy reserves and is used widely for evaluating nutritional status in dairy cows. The different stages of lactation have different recommended scores. BCS change during the lactation period depends on the milk production, reproduction and health status. Extreme body condition loss in the early lactation can cause irregular heats, longer time to first ovulation, and fail to conceive. The aim of this research was to determine the effect of BCS on Holstein cows’ reproduction. The relationship between some BCS parameters: BCS at calving (BCS<sub>c</sub>), minimum BCS after calving (BCS<sub>min</sub>) and the reduction of BCS after calving (BCS<sub>r</sub>) on one hand and three reproductive parameters: the days from calving to first service (DFS), number of inseminations to conception (NIC), and days open (DO) on the other hand were studied in three private dairy farms in South Hungary. BCS were determined monthly during milk recording. A total of 786 records of Holstein cows from 1 to 3 lactation were evaluated. DFS was significantly (P&lt;5%) influenced by BCS<sub>s</sub> and BCS<sub>min</sub>. The number of inseminations to conception (NIC) varied according to the individual cow. In the present study was between 1 and 12. The most favourable DO values were observed in the group having &gt;3.5 BCS<sub>c</sub> (150.04 days), the group with 3.0-3.5 BCS<sub>min</sub> (138.92) and the group having &gt;1 BCS<sub>r</sub>. There was no significant relationship found between DO and the BCS groups.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of Access to Public Support for Agriculture Modernisation from Rural Development Programme<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The most popular measure of the National Rural Development Programme in Romania for 2007-2013 was the measure 121 addressing the support for modernisation of agriculture While the success at the level of the Programme is measured by the achievement level of the assumed indicators the present analysis is focused on differences between the volumes of proposed, selected, contracted and concluded projects. These differences as observations and findings contribute as learning points to the further use of public support for investments in agriculture by three main categories of users: the administration with the procedural enhancement in programme implementation, the beneficiaries improving their approach and readiness for applications/projects and the consultants in perfecting their tools and work to support and smoothen the resources transfer in the process.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Changes in the Concentrations of Some Plasma Proteins During Acute Inflammation in Dogs<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The purpose of the present study was to analyse the changes in concentrations of total proteins, albumin, globulins and albumin/globulin ratio in dogs with experimentally induced acute inflammation. The study was performed on 9 mongrel dogs (experimental group) and 6 mongrel dogs (control group) at the age of 2 years and body weight 12-15 kg. The acute inflammation was reproduced by inoculation of 2 ml turpentine oil in the lumbar region subcutaneously and in same quantity saline in control dogs. Blood samples were collected into heparinized tubes before inoculation (hour 0) then at hours 6, 24, 48, 72 and on days 7, 14, 21. The statistical analysis of the data was performed using one way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The level of albumin statistically decreased in the experimental dogs from at 72nd h to day 14 while the concentration of globulins increased from the 72nd h to day 21. On days 7 and 14 the albumin/globulin ratio slightly decreased. During the whole post inoculation period the values of total protein have not changed. The dates of the present study confirm that albumin, albumin/globulin ratio and globulins are sensitive factors in inflammatory conditions in dogs.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-07-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Research Regarding Food Security in Georgia – Dynamics of Livestock, Animal Productions and Self-Sufficiency<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Georgia, the country at the intersection of Europe and Asia, is an important actor on agricultural market, both from Europe and from Asia. The climate of Georgia makes it ideal for growing cereals for animal productions. This climate and the high quality of soil have made the agriculture one of the most important Georgian sectors. The mixed team of researchers from Georgia and Romania has analysed the dynamics of livestock and animal productions in Georgia in order to highlight their future trends and the level of food security in that country.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Rapid and Simple Method for the Extraction of Genomic DNA from Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) Seedlings<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) plants are known to present high levels of secondary metabolites that increase with the plant age. Molecular biology techniques like restriction enzyme digestion and PCR, requires as pre-requisite the isolation of genomic DNA of suitable purity, good quality and with low levels of contaminants. Several methods to isolate pure and intact tobacco DNA for molecular research purposes have been developed. In this work, a combination between a tobacco seed germination technique using gibberellic acid and a fast and simple genomic DNA extraction method from 14-days old tobacco seedlings to reduce the secondary metabolites levels in the final samples was presented. Ten tobacco genotypes were used to evaluate this method. The DNA concentrations were in a range between 0.73 μg/μL to 1.47 μg/μL for Habana-2000 cv. and Criollo cv., respectively. The absorbance ratios values to determine DNA quality were acceptable. This method allows the obtaining of high molecular weight DNA suitable for digestion with restriction enzymes, EcoRI and BamHI. Tobacco seedlings DNA in a short period of time, in a simple way and with a low cost, was obtained with this extraction method.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of Foliar Fertilization in Maize Production<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The experiment was designed to study the effect of foliar fertilisation on the yield and some generative factors of maize in 2016. It was set on the territory of SZTE Tangazdaság Ltd in Hódmezővásárhely meadow chernozem soil. Three different foliar fertilizer products were applied in three replication randomised small plot experiment. The products were sprayed out individually and combined with each other as well, so there were six treatments and the control. In 2016 the amount of precipitation in the vegetation period of maize was higher than the average by 23.7 mm. Therefore this year was favourable for maize production. The data obtained during the experiment were processed by single factor variant analysis. Owing to the favourable dispersion of rainfall in the vegetative period of maize, the yields were relatively high. The average yield harvested from the control plots was 11.37 t/ha, and that of the treated parcels ranged from 11.61 and 12.86 t/ha. The foliar fertilizer products and their combinations increased the yield of maize, but this growing was not significant. By the using of foliar fertilization the generative factors of maize did not change significantly.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2017-07-12T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1