rss_2.0Acta Regionalia et Environmentalica FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Regionalia et Environmentalica Regionalia et Environmentalica 's Cover Value of Basic Fractions of Above-Ground Biomass for Scots Pine<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In this work, the calorific value content in the dry matter of the Scots pine (<italic>Pinus sylvestris</italic> L.) trees was evaluated. This dry matter was obtained only from the above-ground fractions of its biomass. Our experimental material was taken from five Scots pine trees situated in Slovakia. Wood and bark samples were obtained from the discs which were cut off from three locations, namely from the stem, branches of tree crowns and needles. Then, calorific value capacity (J g<sup>−1</sup>) in the dry matter of each sample was determined. The impact of statistically significant factors on the calorific value capacity was determined by means of analysis of variance. The average values are, according to the fractions, approximately in the range of 20,000–22,200 J g<sup>−1</sup>. The smallest capacity of the calorific value, approximately 20,000 J g<sup>−1</sup>, has the dry matter from bark obtained from the middle and crown parts of the stem. Then, the dry matter from stem wood and branches follows with a value of approximately 20,700 J g<sup>−1</sup>. Then follows dry matter of the coarse bark occurring on the stem butt and twigs that are covered with needles with a value of about 21,900 J g<sup>−1</sup>; and finally pine needles with the highest values of about 22,200 J g<sup>−1</sup>. The calorific value variability is relatively low with coefficients of variations of 0.9–2.8%.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-04-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Adverse and Beneficial Effects of Woody Biomass Feedstock Plantations on Biodiversity and Wildlife Habitats<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Woody biomass feedstock is suitable for direct combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, ethanol or methanol production yielding heat, charcoal, pyrolysis oil, green electricity and bio-propellants. However, there are several issues concerning the environmental, social and economic sustainability of woody biomass production connected to land use, protection of wildlife habitats, conservation and remediation of landscapes. Establishing energy plantations on arable lands or on grasslands is generally considered as working against nature conservation, while setting them up in polluted areas or wastelands could be advantageous for wildlife, because of 1. more permanent cover that provides shelter and biomass for feeding, which is especially important in winter periods; 2. higher architectural complexity of vegetation providing more place for nesting and feeding for wildlife; 3. exploiting the advantages of root filtration, phytoremediation, or using less chemicals; 4. forbs in the undergrowth and young shoots able to provide better quality food for wildlife than the intensive monocultures. The solution is a complex management system, including land use, phytoremediation, waste and wastewater management and ecosystem-based planning incorporated in one dynamic structure.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-04-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Seasons of Drought in Slovakia During the Period from 1957 to 2016<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of the paper was to describe the occurrence of dry seasons in Slovakia. Dry seasons in the period from 1957 to 2016 were determined according to the monthly Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI). For this purpose, ten sites based on limit climatic parameters were chosen – Bratislava, Piešťany, Hurbanovo, Čadca, Sliač, Boľkovce, Poprad, Košice, Milhostov, and Kamenica nad Cirochou. The results showed the alternation of dry and wet episodes and the variability of weather not only over time, but also over space. The analysis of linear trends showed that the arid trend was identified on most sites (9 localities).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-04-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Financial and Personal Issues of the Transferred State Administration Competencies in the Building Procedure to Municipality Offices<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of the paper is to draw attention to consequences of the transfer of competency at the level of the building procedure from state authorities to municipal offices in the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic. The defined research objective was achieved firstly by conducting controlled interviews with representatives of the building offices in the Nitra Region and, secondly, by analysis of financing of this competency from the obtained data from publicly available sources in both states. Secondly, the paper includes a comparison of the financial management of the transferred competencies at the level of the building procedure between the Nitra Region (Slovakia) and the Pardubice Region (Czech Republic). By conducting controlled interviews in the Nitra Region, we came to the conclusion of the financial under-dimensioning of this competency. By comparing the amount of state subsidies provided for the building procedure in both regions, significant differences were found. Based on our research findings, we recommend reassessing the state subsidies for the transferred competency in the field of building procedure.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-04-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Policy for the Support of Creative Economy<abstract><p>Creative economy has become an important part of the development policies for more than a decade. Traditional approaches and tools of regional policy have not sufficiently operated in the creative economy framework. The paper presents the first insight of authors an this topic. The first part is focused on creative economy as a policy object in theory and in the EU policy level. It is followed by examples from two countries oriented on SMEs policy tools and on institutional framework. On a basis of the case studies the paper also looks at policy tools and their status in Slovakia. The final part contains proposals for policy tools in two areas - tools oriented on small and medium sized enterprises support and tools for creation of a specific creative economy development conditions (regulatory framework, supporting institutions and intellectual property rights area).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-08-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Theoretical Arguments for Creative Economy in Policy-Making of Governments and Practical Introduction to Creative Economy Research in Slovakia<abstract><p>Creativity is a new paradigm of development, which connects society in its economic, cultural, technological and social aspects at the macro and also micro level. Creativity, knowledge and access to information are central points of this paradigm and are considered to be engines of economic growth in globalizing world (UNCTAD, 2008). The paper offers a theoretical review of the concept and its tools and approaches, which are connected to creative economy. The paper maps the current situation of supporting creative economy in Slovakia at all levels of government. By analysis of strategic documents at national, regional and local level, we found out that promotion of creative economy is reflected only in a minority of received documents. The direct support of the creative economy was found only in documents of two county seats and one autonomous region. Any concrete concept was not adopted for supporting creative industries at the national level. Slovakia is just at the beginning in finding out how such industries contribute to the economy.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-08-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Financing of universities and innovations in higher education funding in the Slovak republic<abstract><p>The objective of the research on the theoretical, methodological, and scientific level will be the analysis of higher education financing in Slovakia and comparison of various financing strategies for higher education in the studied countries. Authors of the research paper analyze the Slovak model of financing of higher education institutions and the latest innovations in this model. Financing of universities, along with the quality of education are very discussed and actual issues.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-08-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Natural environment of small towns as an indicator of the developmental potential of a wider region – as exemplified by the South Moravian countryside<abstract><p>Our study is focused on the natural environment significance and potential for the development of a wider region. A special emphasis is put on the geographical category of small towns, which play an important role in stabilizing the population of the Czech Republic. In this context, a key factor of planning in the rural region is the demarcation of a catchment region and the determination of its potential. Natural environment (primary landscape structure) is a basic determinant of area development at all the levels. This paper aims at the natural environment analyses of the small towns in the South Moravian Region, with emphasis on the development opportunities and limitations. In this study, small towns are considered to be all the residential units holding a town status, with the exception of district towns and the city of Brno. The study is a part of the research project supported in 2011 by the Internal Grant Agency of Mendel University in Brno titled “Small towns - Motors of the South Moravian countryside development”.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-08-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of financial performance of contributory organizations under the jurisdiction of municipalities<abstract><p>Public administration reform has brought about, inter alia, the change of financing of original and delegated competences for municipalities. In this context, the conditions for economy of local government have changed, while the pressure was put on municipalities to make more efficient use of their property to receive the greatest possible benefit in terms of economic, social and territorial development. A municipality can manage its own property, but it can also entrust it to the budgetary and contributory organizations. The Act no. 138/1991 Coll. indicates that the municipal authorities and organizations are required to manage municipal property in favour of development of municipalities and their citizens, and protection and creation of the environment. One of the possibilities for increasing the efficiency of property use is also financial analysis, eventually economic analysis. Analysis usually results in practical useful knowledge, creating the foundation for an objective definition of relevant conditions (factors) for the future capital appreciation in municipalities. The aim of this paper is to evaluate financial performance of contributory organizations under the jurisdiction of municipalities with help of selected indicators.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-08-24T00:00:00.000+00:00INCREASE OF BIOMASS PRODUCTION OF FAST-GROWING WILLOWS IN THE FIRST YEAR OF THE SECOND HARVEST CYCLE<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p> The aim of the paper is to evaluate biomass production of three different willow varieties (Salix spp.) at the end of the first year of the second harvest cycle (2012) and to compare the results with those obtained in the first harvest cycle at the end of the first growing season after cutback (2008). The observed growth parameters included number of shoots per plant, shoot height and diameter, and weight of fresh matter per plant. Three willow varieties were studied (Tora, Gudrun and Tordis). The individual growth parameters were determined by destructive method. The number of the shoots per plant varied from 17.83 (Tora) to 30.17 (Gudrun). The shoot height ranged from 2.66 m (Gudrun) to 3.62 m (Tordis) and the shoot diameter ranged from 10.85 mm (Gudrun) to 13.14 mm (Tordis). The variety with the greatest biomass production of the fresh above-ground matter was Tora (5.43 kg plant-1), followed by Gudrun (4.97 kg plant-1). Tordis provided the lowest yield (4.55 kg plant-1). All of the observed growth parameters had higher values than those determined at the end of the first year after cutback in the first harvest cycle. The most significant increase was recorded in the above-ground biomass production with the percentage increase of 114%, 122% and 226% in Tora, Tordis and Gudrun, respectively.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2013-12-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Criminality in the Rural Areas<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Criminality is not a problem in the urban areas only; it has become one of the main problems in the rural areas as well. The countryside is not considered as a crime free area anymore. The rural criminality research helps to fnd and adopt the right preventive measures. Cooperation of all the sectors, state, businessmen, self-government and non-governmental organisations is important. In order to look for some suitable preventive measures, it is necessary to fnd the causes of the rural criminality. There are many criminality factors. However, we can expect that in dependence on the character and activities of a region, these causes will be specifc for each rural area. The aim of this paper is frstly to notice that the rural criminality is a blind place in the research activities in Slovakia and secondly to try to identify some factors which are impulses to commit crimes in the rural areas.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-08-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Contribution of Garden Architecture to the Regional Development<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Creative garden architecture currently afects regional development in two ways. Firstly, it results in landscape architecture outputs, horticulture arrangements, and garden projects. Secondly, it constitutes an environment for the development of certain business activities, namely tourism and horticulture. Garden architecture is able to secure the development of land-based economy, replacing the decreased production of agricultural commodities, and thus contributing to regional development. Garden architecture businesses in the Nitra region are currently limited by the lack of their potential clients’ fnancial resources as well as the barriers to entrepreneurship created in the Slovak Republic. The number of the businesses in the region enables them to develop mutual cooperation without the need for strong competition. on the contrary, it encourages the diversifcation of business activities, various levels of their specialization and potential development of partnerships in a region.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-08-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of Agricultural Holdings of the Visegrad Four in the Post-Accession Period<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Visegrad Cooperation is the regional organization of four states known as the Visegrad Group or the Visegrad Four (the Czech Republic, Poland, Hungary, and Slovakia). The purpose of cooperation is joint representation of economic, diplomatic and political interests of these Central and Eastern European countries and coordination of their possible measures. In the framework of this study, the major trends regarding the average area and farm number of agricultural holdings in the Visegrad Group are examined and evaluated. We attempted to elucidate structural differences between the farm structures of these countries, their different and unusual development and its reasons. Despite these differences, we have uncovered a number of identical trends and joint points as well. The average farm size in Slovakia and the Czech Republic was 28 or 135 hectares in 2007, while in 2010, this figure changed to 75 or 152 hectares in the circle of the observed agricultural holdings. For both countries, therefore, a significant increase in farm size was observed in the period under survey. While in Hungary the average size of 6 hectares in 2007 increased to 8 hectares in three years, then in Poland, the average farm was 12 or 10 hectares in size in the years under survey. In the circle of these countries, therefore, only a slight shift, mainly stagnation was observed, albeit on different bases: while the number of holdings under survey increased in Poland, it decreased in Hungary (similarly to Slovakia and the Czech Republic). Investigating the details regarding farm structure in these countries, it can be stated that most holdings carried out their activities on an area of under 20 hectares, in respect of distribution of agricultural land in the countries of the Visegrad Four. However, the survey results also revealed that in the vast majority of cases, the number of farms decreased, but there was an increase in their average size, that is, the process of concentration that has been experienced in the Western part of the European Union for the last two decades can be observed in these four countries as well.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-08-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Methods of Public Communication and Related Perception of Transparency from the Slovak Municipalities' Point of View<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The significance of the communication of the public sector at the level of the local government has recently increased essentially. Today‘s information society brings an advanced and fast communication which must be adapted by the representatives of the municipalities. This fact is related not only to ensuring greater objective transparency but also in ensuring the possibility for citizens to actively participate in public affairs in the environment where they live, as well as to evaluate the events and actions of local governments. The paper evaluates the current utilization of direct and indirect methods of communication and also points out the statistically significant preference evaluation of selected changes of the Act on free access to information by the representatives of municipalities in terms of increased use of information and transparency towards the citizens (towards the general public).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-08-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Regional Disparities in the Slovak Republic from the Point of View of Structural Employment<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Recently, much attention has been paid to the topic of employment in Slovakia and regional disparities. The aim of this paper is, on the basis of available data from regional databases and through the use of appropriate methodological apparatus, to draw attention to the development of Slovak regions’ structural employment proportion on the total employment according to the sectors of agriculture, industry, construction and services in the time period from 2004 to 2012. The article examined the similarity of regions in terms of structural employment through cluster analysis at NUTS 2 level. Counties are grouped into four mutually similar clusters.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2014-08-22T00:00:00.000+00:00The controversial nature of workfare programmes<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>According to the OECD, active employment policies include all social expenditure that are directed at improving the chances of finding a job and income generation (except education). Active labour market policies are around to assist in enhancing labour market flexibility at the times of economic changes. Their key components are the so-called activation strategies that act as typical prerequisites of benefitting from unemployment security/support systems in every EU country. The workfare concept lies behind the public work programmes. There are serious professional debates whether public work can primarily be seen as a ’compulsion and work test’ or, rather, as an opportunity of entering the primary labour market. The available efficiency analyses unanimously state that public work forms have the biggest role in testing willingness to work and the obligatory nature is the strongest of all active labour market policies. Research also indicates that public work reintegrates only few people back to the primary labour market and the majority are restrained from seeking a job and other income generating activities. There are several reasons for and against public work and opinions differ. The paper summarises the benefits and drawbacks on the basis of international and Hungarian analyses.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2018-08-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Social Aspects Of Rural Community Development<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>A well-balanced relationship between economic and social progress is the main prerequisite of rural community stability. Economic development is influenced by many factors. Some of these are statistically discoverable and quantifiable, while others, which fall within the sphere of social relations and their identification, are more difficult to measure and interpret. Czech rural areas face many problems which arise from their specific features – socio-demographic structure, job possibility of various social groups, provision of the proper level of public services, transport accessibility, etc. However, there is no direct connection between economic factors and mutual relations within the rural community. Values, opinions and the behavioural patterns of people are immediately displayed in a locality, but their character is shaped by the regional and national assumptions of every stage of development. Contributions are drawn from the accessible literature and secondary data of empirical research projects.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Fast-Growing Energy Crops Grown In Conditions Of Slovakia In The Context Of The EU Energy Policy<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The energy-efficient low-carbon EU economy (known as the 20-20-20) sets fundamental objectives in reducing greenhouse gas emissions (20%), increasing the share of renewable energy sources (20%) and saving primary energy consumption (20%). The objectives are incorporated in the National Renewable Energy Action Plans (NREAPs). Slovakia has to increase the share of renewable energy sources (RES) by 14% in its energy mix by 2020. Currently, the most widely used RES are water and solar energy, biomass and biogas. Our country has suitable ecological conditions for growing the so called energy crops in lowland and upland areas. So far, however, there is a lack of science-based information on the potential production of biomass in different soil-ecological and climatic conditions of the Slovak Republic. Our experimental research is focused on quantification of biomass production of various willow (genus <italic>Salix</italic>), poplar (genus <italic>Populus</italic>) and silvergrass (<italic>Miscanthus sinensis</italic>) varieties grown in ecological conditions of southern Slovakia. We evaluated the biomass production of the studied crops. The results were evaluated in terms of the EU call (2013): to obtain more energy while reducing inputs and negative environmental impacts.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Location On Natural Valuable Areas As A Condition For The Development Of Enterprises Based On The Use Of Natural Resources – The Lublin Voivodeship (Poland)<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of the study is to identify opportunities and constraints of the development of companies whose business is based on the exploitation of natural resources resulting from their location in areas of natural value. The study area consisted of 40 municipalities. Five companies were selected for the study in each municipality. The study used the method of diagnostic survey using a questionnaire interview. The results obtained give rise to a finding that economic activity based on the use of local natural resources, taking into account the need to protect the natural environment, is a legitimate direction and an opportunity for the development of local economies of areas of natural value. However, given the limitations of economic activities in natural valuable areas, it requires support, mainly with information and finance. The most important limitations of economic activities in natural valuable areas include the lack of preferential financial instruments, difficulties of the investment process and the lack of financial compensation for profits lost due to the location.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00The Economic Integration Of The EU13 Regions Into EU Economy During The 2004–2013 Period<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of this paper is to study and to highlight the applicative and interpretive limits of the GDP per capita indicators, when regional economics of the new member countries (EU13), particularly the process of integration of their regions into EU economy is examined in terms of the beta and sigma convergence. The growth of gross domestic product has long been pursued as the main objective of the economic activities of countries and regions. Its growth is seen as almost a guarantee of the proper functioning of the economy. The governments of individual countries, in the event of a decline in GDP, take measures for its recovery. Small attention, however, is given to the fact, whether such an economic development copes with the parameters of sustainable economic growth. Also, little attention is paid to the study of how the previous growth is reflected in the standard of living of the population and households in respective countries and regions.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2015-08-06T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1