rss_2.0Acta Marisiensis. Seria Historia FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Marisiensis. Seria Historiahttps://sciendo.com/journal/AMSHhttps://www.sciendo.comActa Marisiensis. Seria Historia 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/62474e8fc5c9ad3049e91fd7/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220525T011034Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20220525%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=4fed666d30de296bc37e93488273a0c4b366800c2a08d3aa9e3f868f10424392200300 Diplomacy. What About Romania in the Last Minutes of and the First of People’s Republic of Bulgaria (1945-1947) Foreign Affairshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2021-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Romanian-Bulgarian relations were assigned the role of satellites belonging first to the Axis, and then to U.S.S.R., following the regulation of the territorial statute of South Dobrudja on September 7<sup>th</sup> 1940, through the Treaty from Craiova. After the Red Army has entered Bulgaria, on September 8<sup>th</sup> 1944, an unusual fact has intervened between Bucharest and Sofia, from the perspective of Kremlin’s influence, of course: the priority of Bulgarian political, ideological and diplomatic factors over the Romanian ones, unprecedented fact in the history of almost seven decades of the modern bilateral relations. The lack of human and ideological resources of the Romanian Communist Party has become obvious during the not even declared competition with the Bulgarian Communists and their leader, Georgi Dimitrov. The Communist Bulgaria has become a model that Romanian communists do not only seriously took into account, yet, at least the year King Mihai I has abdicated (1947), they zestfully were also studying and copying, as the case may have been.</p> <p>Being a so-called People’s Republic even since September 1946, following a falsified popular referendum, Bulgaria has undertaken during the next months to coordinate plans of internal and external politics of Romania. In order to finalize a “Bulgarian way” in Romania, the government led by Petru Groza and the media of propaganda, and mainly the press official of the Romanian Communist Party, “Scânteia”, have scrupulously assumed the role of protagonists. And Communist Bulgaria, just like U.S.S.R., has become for more than two years (1946- February 1948) an extremely important and valuable topic of the Romanian public speech, of the Romanian Communists’ confirmation, of establishing the project for instituting the totalitarian regime. The similarity of actions and of institutes’ organization is striking for this short period, and the treaty signed in January 1948 is nothing but the final of a stage extremely abundant in models and suggestions for the Romanian communists.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00 vol. VII/1, vol. VII/2, Dumitru Suciu (coord.), Simion Retegan Loránd Mádly, Mirela Popa-Andrei, Daniela Deteșan, București, Editura Academiei Române, 2015, 505 p.; 2019, LXXXI +473 p.https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2021-0013ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00, vol. editat de Leslie Brubaker și Mary B. Cunningham, New York, Routledge, 2016, 307 p.https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2021-0011ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Students and Teachers of the State University of Chișinău, 1946-1987: Mentalities, Daily Life and Ideologyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2021-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article takes a longue durée perspective on the history of the State University in Chișinău. More exactly, it sheds new light on the relations between students and the teaching staff at the first Moldavian Bessarabian university created by the Soviet regime in the aftermath of World War II. Based on new archival documents, it revolves around three main subtopics. The one focused on mentalities, the second one on everyday life, and the third one on ideology. The article tackles sensitives issues such as amoral or illegal actions by both students and professors, including corruption affairs and sexual scandals, how the Communist regime dealt with them and how these phenomena are connected to the ultimate goal, and failure, of the Soviet higher education, in creating the New (Wo)Man.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00“The Good Neighbor’’ Policy and the Beginnings of Its Use in the Cinema of the ’30https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2021-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Cinema, the youngest of the arts, has been energetic and has quickly gained public attention and became soon, after its appearance in the last years of the 19th century, the most popular of the arts, introducing the audiences to images of the world around them. From the first years of the 20th century silent films with plots came into vogue, substituting the documentary style of filming presented to the viewers. In the United States of America, many of these films introduced American viewers to their nearby Mexican neighbors. Usually, the Mexican image, in film, was dominated by stereotypes deeply rooted in American culture. This habit of portraying the Mexicans as bandits or as displaying every vice that could be shown on the screen, by the American film industry began to change by the middle of the 1930s. One of the reasons for this change is the new approach to the foreign policy implemented by the administration of US President Roosevelt, against the background of overcoming challenges caused by The Great Depression. The first beneficiary of this benevolent attitude towards Latin America, was US’s closest neighbor, Mexico. Two American movies are relevant, during this period, for illustrating this policy in cinematography: Viva Villa (1934) and Juarez (1939). The two movies deal with aspects of Mexican history in a different way than in the past, the use of Mexico and Mexican history as a background for political comments on contemporary events, also demonstrating the role that the film industry has played as a vessel for carrying various messages from the political authorities to the public.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Constantin Bărbulescu, , București, Editura Humanitas, 2015, 356 p.https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2021-0014ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Radu Mârza, , Iași, Editura Polirom, 2020, 214 p.https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2021-0012ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Cărţile Istoricului Keith Hitchins: Ultima Sinteză De Istoria Românieihttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2021-0003<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The name of American historian Keith Hitchins has been established over the past three decades among the Romanian and foreign readers who are passionate about Romanian history, primarily because of his syntheses of modern history, which have demonstrated a great deal of objectivity and professionalism. The lines below focused on its last synthesis, the brief history of Romania, in which the author outlined the most important moments in our history, from Antiquity to the post-communist period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Reviewshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2021-0010ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Istoria Unei https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2021-0002<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The text below recalls the circumstances in which the project of a new synthesis of Romanian history was drafted. It brought together three Romanian historians and two foreign historians, one of them being United States Professor Keith Hitchins. The book still represents, thanks to successive re-publishing, a synthetic analysis model that is useful to both professionals and the general public.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Erasmus. From Pilot Program to Generational Phenomenonhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2021-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The launch of the Erasmus program in 1987 is the result of a long series of negotiations and discussions on the future of the European Union. Although the Erasmus program is currently considered the European Union’s most successful program in the field of education, its adoption has not been an easy process. This is due to the lack of a unanimous vision for the social and cultural side of unification, but also to the economic limitations of the Community. The growing number of participants, as well as the impact on young Europeans, have contributed to the program’s popularity. What started as a pilot program in the field of education, has acquired over time the characteristics of a generational phenomenon. The representatives of the Erasmus generation are those who widely share the values promoted by the European Union, their contribution is often invoked in debates on the development and future of Europe.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Landmarks in the Evolution of the Main Types of Banking Operations of Albina in Sibiu 1872-1946. IIhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2021-0004<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The 75 years history of Albina Bank reflects in its main characteristics that particularize it in the modern banking system the forms and crediting policies present in its statutes.</p> <p>The initial focus of the Albina Bank board was to activate a diverse palate of credit activities – in the first statute of the bank we can find no less than 15 types of loans. Few were actually accommodated, according to the possibilities of financing and also related to the social and economic background of the future debtors that came, the majority until 1918 from the rural areas. More so, the bank took into account the economic, financial and political context where the Romanian elite from Transylvania activated. Thus, in the first period of activity of the Albina bank its board will activate the most mobile types of crediting (credit of input and lending with public collaterals) wanting to increase the funding sources.</p> <p>Later on, after a period of stability with regard to its financing capacity the bank will activate the mortgages and credits with bills of exchange covered by mortgage more suitable for economic investments in the rural areas with the perspective to use the higher lending for larger scale investments to modernize the land properties and acquiring land properties. In the same time for the everyday needs of the small owners the bank will open the so-called peasant credits or credits on agricultural products. For the needs of merchants and craftsmen the bank will introduce the overdraft.</p> <p>Until 1914 the credit of input and the mortgages will predominate. The mortgages will be backed financially by the ability of the bank to issue land bills. Next in value we can find credits with bills of exchange covered by mortgage, followed by the overdraft rather unstable in earnings. The credits for peasants and the credits on agricultural products were dropped at the beginning of the 20<sup>th</sup> century.</p> <p>A special place had the buying of the bills of exchange that Albina has issued in the first two decades of its existence to support its own banking business. Later on, with the development of its own liquidities it started to offer credits and buy bills of exchange from a large number of Romanian banks and credit institutions this turning Albina into a major trader in bank securities intermediating buying and selling of bills of exchange between Romanian and Austro Hungarian banks until 1918, preserving this role even in the interwar period for some of the small and mid-size banks. The bank will also acquire shares and public effects to consolidate its financial capability.</p> <p>The negative consequences of World War 1 were reflected in the drop in the nominal and real value of the bank’s business but also the crediting policies by reevaluating the volume of the main crediting activities. Thus the value of the mortgages and the exchange credits has decreased and the overdrafts became dominant by 1924, maintaining first place in the activity of the bank even after.</p> <p>The major political changes after the unification and the economic changes brought in by inflation, conversion, and depreciation of the currency along with the financial practices of the Old Kingdom banking system will bring about new options in the crediting policy of the bank in the post-war period. First, the bank sought to diversify the crediting targets to expand the lending to companies and industrial enterprises. This opening towards the urban environment imposed faster trading of capital and the transformation of the credits. They became more mobile, the long-term credit being reduced gradually until its extinction. The overdraft and the credits with bills of exchange will be preferred and the credits with bills of exchange covered by mortgage will diminish until their disappearance from the accounts starting with 1934.</p> <p>The economic crisis between 1929 and 1933 will negatively impact the bank. The debts, especially those of the peasant clients, will be blocked. This situation will be partially resolved by the Conversion of Debt Law in April 1934 but has impacted greatly its financial capabilities.</p> <p>The law for the organization of banking commerce in June 1934 will help bank Albina to redefine its crediting policies towards more mobility but the rhythm of its progress will be slow until the Second World War. The accounts of the bank show a focus towards more mobility in crediting. There were two main directions in the bank activity. Of exchange credit and overdraft with titles, mortgages, and goods as collateral. Then there were the shares and titles portfolios, the debt conversions, the long-term lending (not significant and registered only until 1940), and the real estate portfolio.</p> <p>Concluding we note that the crediting mode of Albina was structured over time, based not just on the financial resources, intentions, and bank policies but was influenced by the changes in legislation that organized the everyday functioning of the financial and banking business, and overall they were influenced by the economic and geopolitical context.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Aspects of Industry in Transylvania, Banat, Crișana and Maramureș during the First Years after the Unification with Romania in 1918https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2021-0005<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>At the end of the First World War, Transylvania, Banat, Crișana and Maramureș had a significant industrial basis. During the first years after the Unification in 1918, a growth of industrial capacity was noticeable in these regions. This capacity was founded, in all cases, with the help of state facilities, or with the participation of the state. Considering that after the Frist World War the political system stabilised, the holders of financial resources and those who grew rich after the war proceeded to investing preponderantly in industrial branches.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00In memoriam Keith Hitchins: Longing for Home - Keith Hitchins Traveling Through Europe (1960-1962)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2021-0001<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The text recalls Keith Hitchins’ travels through Europe. It stresses that travel for Keith Hitchins was not a matter of joyful explorations or inspirational journeys. He sought to understand a place through prose, through research, and through the books he found and purchased in bookstores.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Alev Scott, , Riverrun, 2018, 292 p.https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2021-0016ARTICLE2022-03-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Historical References on The Commodity Exchange of Galaţihttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2020-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper represents a retrospective inquiry into Galati shipping, into the Commodity Exchange and into Galati commerce in general, starting in the 1850s until the beginning of the 20th century.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Landmarks in the Evolution of the Main Types of Banking Operations of Albina in Sibiu 1872-1946. Ihttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2020-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The 75 years history of Albina Bank reflects in its main characteristics that particularize it in the modern banking system the forms and crediting policies present in its statutes.</p> <p>The initial focus of the Albina Bank board was to activate a diverse palate of credit activities – in the first statute of the bank we can find no less than 15 types of loans. Few were actually accommodated, according to the possibilities of financing and also related to the social and economic background of the future debtors that came, the majority until 1918 from the rural areas. More so, the bank took into account the economic, financial and political context where the Romanian elite from Transylvania activated. Thus, in the first period of activity of the Albina bank its board will activate the most mobile types of crediting (credit of input and lending with public collaterals) wanting to increase the funding sources which are the main focus on the first part on an extended study.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00The Letter Exchange on the Romanian Front during the First World Warhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2020-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Letters, unusual postcards, censored, illustrate the mood on the front, conveyed by two participants to the world’s first conflagration. The first letter, dated October 26, 1916, belongs to Lieutenant D. Stoica, commander of the Second Section Telegraph. A simple letter, which expresses much optimism, sent to his wife Ionela, two months after Romania’s entry into the national reunification war, accompanied by his portrait. The second letter, dated 1918, is more intense in terms of experiences, sent to a lady named Marie Ionescu, by a Romanian wounded during the battles. The letter, from the stamp that only marks the year 1918, could be dated approximately after November this year. The militant was in convalescence in a camp hospital, waiting to be resent on the front.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Book Review: Bizantinii. Stat, religie și viață cotidiană în Imperiul Bizantinhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2021-0017ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Book Review: Mărturia unui istoric singuratic. Convorbiri cu academicianul Dinu C. Giurescuhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/amsh-2021-0019ARTICLE2021-05-26T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1