rss_2.0Architecture Papers of the Faculty of Architecture and Design STU FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Architecture Papers of the Faculty of Architecture and Design STU Papers of the Faculty of Architecture and Design STU 's Cover design quality and social sustainability in building certification systems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main objective of the study is to examine to what extent the architectural design quality and social sustainability are taken into account in building certification systems. The following most commonly used building assessments in Europe (focus on Germany, Slovakia and Czech Republic) have been investigated: BREEAM, LEED, CESBA, LEVEL(s), DGNB, BNB, BNK, NaWoh, SBToolCZ and WELL. After extensive research of chosen certification systems and various sources on topics such as conditions of well-being, sociocultural indicators, assessment of social performance of sustainable buildings and design quality assessment, the main social and architectural design quality aspects were determined and used for further analysis and final evaluation. Studied aspects are divided into the following categories: user satisfaction and quality of life (building-related), sustainable and healthy lifestyle (building-related), architecture – design quality (building-related), innovation and social responsibility (external). The article contains a summary of results with overall evaluation and comparison of certification systems including weighting of studied categories in selected building assessments. Furthermore, indicators used in building certifications associated with the quality of life and the quality of architectural expression and their weighting are described and presented.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Temporary use of abandoned buildings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Temporary architecture is a way to produce an instant experience. It concentrates on a specific location and develops unique tactics to activate it. It adapts to the site, which is often abandoned and backward. Temporary use focuses on a single purpose and its influence at a given moment. It reflects the current economic state and situation in adjacent neighbourhood and community. It aims at becoming a catalyst for a permanent change. Empty buildings represent a valuable resource for urban development of an area. They belong to the category of areas suitable for reconstruction. Their activation contributes to the recycling of areas within the urban structure increasing the efficiency of land use and contributing to the sustainable development of the territory. A removal of abandoned buildings from a functioning urban organism has a negative impact on the integrity of the urban structure.</p> <p>Archipop is the author’s newly established database focusing on the topic of temporariness in architecture. Its aim is to map successful activations of abandoned buildings by the means of temporary interventions in Europe. Archipop deals with the subject of ‘pop–up’ in architecture. Its prime objective is to attract a target group of users over the shortest period of time possible by exclusivity of a presented activity, concentrating on temporary uses located in abandoned buildings in Europe. It examines successful projects of activation of unused objects by using temporary activity profile. Targeting at interested public, potential investors, and last but not least government and municipalities, Archipop was created to provide inspiration and opportunities of temporary use. Its ambition is to promote revitalisation of unused areas with the use of temporary architecture and to save historic heritage from its terminal destruction.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Role of colour in ecological approach to product and material design<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this research paper is to map, document and classify new, progressive and perspective approaches to colour in product and material design. The purpose is to identify the impact and importance of colour in the creation of new materials and products from an ecological point of view. The majority of current progressive approaches to design creation and research is set in an ecological framework, taking into account their impact on the environment. The question is not whether colour is present in this process, but rather where it stands in this process, whether it can help it and how much it affects it. One of the objectives of this article is to raise awareness in this area and to arouse interest in and discussion on this topic. The theme of colours in design is often overlooked and relegated to the background. The results of several scientific studies on the impact of colour on product evaluation and consumer shopping behaviour suggest the potential of this topic and open up space for further research. In this research paper, we consider the approach of product and material designers and researchers to colour in an ecological context, as a stand-alone design and material creation group. Within this main group, individual approaches can be classified into four basic principles, which the paper defines and describes. They are analysed and researched in more depth through specific examples of the work of various designers. The principles have no fixed boundaries, they are not isolated. They influence or follow each other. This classification of the approach to colour in an ecological context allows us primarily to talk about it more professionally and attempt to define its importance and role in individual approach. Ultimately, it helps us answer the question of whether and how colour can affect the process of changing human interaction with the environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Pandemic as an impulse for the development of sustainable tourism along the Danube river<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a challenge to the world – primarily from the medical and economic point of view – but also to the search for new forms of tourism and the urban environment. Prior to mass vaccination, the main strategy to manage a pandemic were non-pharmaceutical interventions. Global travel restrictions and "home" regulations have caused the most serious disruption to the global economy since World War II. International travel bans affecting more than 90% of the world's population, widespread restrictions on public gatherings and community mobility have severely curtailed tourism since March 2020. Evidence of impacts on air transport, shipping and accommodation has been devastating. World tourism fell by 35-90% in 2020 compared to 2019. Yet, there are differences between countries. Tourism is particularly sensitive to measures against pandemics due to limited mobility and social distances. The paper compares the effects of COVID-19 with previous epidemics, pandemics or other types of global crises. It examines how a pandemic can change the society, economy, tourism and its projection into the territory. It discusses why COVID-19 is analogous to the ongoing climate crisis and why the mass growth tourism model needs to be questioned. The method to improve responsible access to our planet and ensure safe recreation for its population is sustainable tourism. The Danube Region has a great potential for the development of sustainable tourism in Slovakia with its transport accessibility, connection to the Danube River and through it to the surrounding areas. However, the potential of the region lies mainly in its hitherto underused cultural and natural conditions, as well as in the exploitation of the abilities of its inhabitants. The presented study analyzes the mentioned conditions and points out the possibilities of their development.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial of community centre: Clarification of the relation between scale and multifunctionality of community buildings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Community architecture is becoming a contributing tool for community development. In recent years it has gained popularity for its potential to encourage interaction and strengthen community ties. Community architecture represents not only the final product of architectural design but also the design process. It covers many kinds of community interventions and efforts of different extent; from tiny public space interventions to a complex design of community centres or comprehensive urbanistic structures focused on community well-being. Irrespective of the scale, their goal is the same; to provide space for leisure activities, networking, and reinforcing a sense of community. The most apparent design concept representing community architecture is the community centre, which provides space for meetings and interaction, and its program derives from the needs of a specific community. Furthermore, the design considers urbanistic relationships, architectural appearance, materials, spatial and functional requirements, interior design, equipment, and furniture solutions.</p> <p>The community architecture theory is an under-explored phenomenon in Slovakia. Thus, there is a lack of methodical design recommendations or guidelines for designing community centres as individual typological forms. The article focuses on the examination of 100 selected community facilities, identifying their prevalent features and their interrelationships. Presented research aims to examine fundamental characteristics of community centres, particularly their multifunctionality related to the character of the space, and the scale related to size in square meters. In conclusion, research suggests new size categories considering the relationship between the two factors.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-09-06T00:00:00.000+00:00Overlooked Heritage: Interiors in Slovakia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The creation of interior spaces is the main cognitive characteristic of architectural creation. Architecture creates a basic spatial framework for the interior. Interior design is a complex type of architectural activity that forms both the space (basically the interior) and the individual elements of the interior space. The professional interior design of architects or designers intentionally creates an environment specifically intended for human life. It is where people are in the most personal contact with the environment surrounding them. Just as an artificially created environment has a strong influence on a person’s life and feelings, it has also been proven that it works the other way round as well, i.e. that human needs and demands are a decisive factor in creating space for a person. The case studies demonstrate the development of the interior design in the second half of the 20<sup>th</sup> century, its current state and level of care given to these works. Architecture from this period has often lost its struggle for survival. As regards the style, these are works in international style, late modern and postmodern, and the local element makes them a unique and attractive testimony to the era. Despite the natural properties of interiors which seldom survive as long as the architecture itself, some contemporary statements about the interior design of the period under review have been preserved. The research focused on the public interiors of both well-known and less-known buildings by Slovak architects from various parts of Slovakia. The research calls attention to the fact that architects worked here even then and their works were of certain quality.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00The DIY Principle in Home Improvement: Background, Motivation and Benefits<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Producing objects for one’s own consumption is a major strand in the historical development of material culture. Making things with one’s own hands can be considered a natural means to satisfy human needs. In the present time, this form of production is covered by the term “do-it-yourself” (DIY). DIY has become a global social phenomenon, especially thanks to the opportunities enabled by the Internet. Websites provide a lively forum for discussion, sharing ideas, how-to guides, and galleries of the results of DIY projects. The present work addresses home improvement DIY projects carried out by individuals in Slovakia. The aim is to outline the background, motivation and inspiration of so called do-it-yourselfers, the DIY process and participants’ evaluation of their work. DIY is generally considered to be an activity for amateurs, which is to say people who engage in the activity in their free time, as opposed to professionals, who perform such activity as their job or to earn a living. Moreover, the paper also partly focuses on the relationship between amateurs and professionals which has shown to be the basic principle of current DIY home improvements. One of significant findings of the research showed that the individual experience of craftsmanship or craftwork and the individual need for self-expression appear to be important parts of the DIY experience. Research findings contribute to a better understanding of DIY production in the context of design as an academic discipline. The main research method used was a questionnaire titled “DIY home improvement”, which was drawn up on the model of prior research abroad.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Participatory Design as a Tool for Sustainable Regional Development<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Globalization changes our world too quick and regions cannot keep up. Copying mechanisms affect crafted products and architecture and create specific signs for each region. Understanding that, we can follow cultural concepts and transform them to fit the current era and sustain local identity within communities. Compared with evolution, community attachment as part of social sustainability has the same self-regulated mechanisms. The adaptation process can be achieved in different ways, but only few are truly sustainable.</p> <p>To restore the sense of community and reconnect local people to their village at a deeper level, the participatory approach was tested. The process and tools well known from urban areas were applied in certain Slovak villages. As compared to participation in cities, in the rural environment, the process is more time-consuming. In theory, this should bring a result that lasts longer than that achieved by standard processes.</p> <p>Methods proposed by us will have several outcomes like networking, open communication and, if successful, can be an inspiration for other villages and activists to adopt the approach. This time-demanding activity can help to support local people and show them how to coordinate themselves in the decision-making process. The bottom-up approach increases self-esteem and by place-making, small public intervention can help with communication with local municipalities. In this process, the designer acts as a facilitator of a multidisciplinary innovation project and must use own creativity to handle many challenges.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial as an Inspiration for Architecture<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article approaches the inspiration of recycling at different levels of understanding. The introduction describes the meanings of the word recycling as it is perceived in relation to architecture. The first chapter approaches recycling through its most common understanding as material reuse, describing how the recycling of materials can inspire architecture. The second chapter takes up recycling in the sense of conversion, pointing out the particular importance of addressing this issue. The chapter mentions four theories dealing with approaches to conversion, which are specified through examples, and points to architectural recycling motivated by idea and by religion. The third chapter discusses architecture is inspired by recycling or reusing architectural elements that become the bearer of the idea of behind a new architectural concept. The fourth chapter reflects on understanding the recycling of architecture as taking on the formal image of historical architectural styles, thus reflected in the historical styles of the 19th century and postmodernism of the 20th century. The fifth chapter “Recycling the idea” seeks recycling at the level of the idea, by incorporating old ideas into modern concepts, referring to the Ideal City of Chaux and to Ricardo Bofill, the motif of the medieval mázhaus and Socrates’ house. In the sixth chapter, entitled “Recycling as a concept”, we read about inspiring architecture that takes on recycling at many levels of meaning, becoming important for objectifying the ideological essence of the work. The conclusion of the paper briefly summarizes the results of the work and its essence, summarizing a subjective evaluation of the issue.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Spatial Potential of Middle-Sized Towns in Slovakia: Lost Spaces of Humenné, Levice and Topoľčany<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Under the pressure from investors, Slovakia has experienced significant urban sprawl into the countryside in the last three decades. This development resulted in the loss of agricultural land, despite the fact that towns and cities in the built-up area have great potential in the vacant land lots. It is crucial to identify the lost spaces and incorporate them in the regeneration of urban structure and green infrastructure of Slovak towns and cities. The paper presents the results of the case study of lost spaces in Slovak towns that aimed to confirm the hypotheses: <italic>“Can the intensification on lost spaces within the build-up area be a better alternative than the current urban sprawl into the countryside?”</italic> and <italic>“Is it true that most lost spaces are located in the centre of towns?”</italic> The research focuses on examining the lost spaces suitable for new development and the spatial potential of the built-up urban area in three towns – Humenné, Levice, and Topoľčany. The lost spaces examined in this study are: urban fallows, vacant lots, residential green space, green space connected to public amenities and green space connected to industrial zones. The study aims to determine the area of lost spaces compared to development sites in the suburbs and to confirm the hypothesis that the intensification of urban structure is a viable alternative to the urban sprawl into the countryside. The conclusion inferred from the research has brought interesting findings and useful information for further investigation. It is crucial to find the optimum ratio between the intensification of urban structure on the land of lost spaces and leaving some space free to become a part of the blue-green infrastructure of a town, which is specific to each city. The objective of the paper is to draw attention to the potential of lost spaces as prospective areas for intensification of the urban structure of Slovak towns.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-28T00:00:00.000+00:00Contemporary Food Markets within Budapest’s Large Housing Estates: Factors Influencing the Design Process<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Food markets provide a continuous urban function at the centre of urban quarters, and their structures are an important component of the local identity. Therefore, they could be crucial in the complex renewal process of a mass housing neighbourhood, indeed. The paper focuses on the contemporary markets within Budapest’s three large housing estates, in Újpest Centre, Békásmegyer, and Havanna, opened in 2018, 2019, and 2020, respectively. The research is based not only on the study of relevant literature, design documents, publications, fieldwork, but also on a survey conducted with three well-recognized Hungarian architects in order to understand and compare their views on the complex context beyond the urban and architectural solutions. The questions focused on the crucial or determining factors of the design process such as the budget, the main players, references, physical context (built and natural), social context, program, and technology. These public projects of varied scale were used for exemplary contemporary food market case studies from Budapest, in which the people involved took into consideration the existing social and material problems and the potential of the heritage of modern mass housing neighbourhoods.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Interaction of Landscape and Settlement Structures in the Danube region<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The importance of the identity and quality of urban spaces is currently one of the major professional problems - especially in relation to the rapidly developing urbanization of European settlements. The primary task of urban planners is to support and develop the potential of towns and cities and the quality of their urban structure. At the same time, the formation and transformation of urban structures requires an increasingly consistent approach in terms of sustainable development. A special area of research is the study of the cultural potential and uniqueness of the material and spatial structure of towns and cities and their surroundings. In this respect, it is important to monitor the optimization of the city’s macro and micro spaces through an extended analysis of the evaluation of urban and vegetation structures and their historical, cultural and environmental value. By monitoring these factors, we can optimize the processes taking place in the settlement structure, which affect the vitality and identity of urban spaces. A special area is also the monitoring of the projection and penetration of the landscape structure into the urban space. The harmonization of urban and landscape elements can also contribute to the sustainability of tourism. The evaluation of selected towns and cities in the Danube area and their surroundings in terms of the peculiarity of the image of the urban and landscape structure can help to better use the potential of individual settlements and their parts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-26T00:00:00.000+00:00New Opportunities for Increasing the Renovation Rate of Buildings<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper focuses on the long-standing problem of too low renovation rates of existing buildings and on practice-oriented solutions. The European Commission has set the goal of at least doubling the renovation quota with “The European Green Deal” and published the “Strategy for a Renovation Wave for Europe - greening our buildings, creating jobs, improving lives” on 14 October 2020. As in previous years, technical specifications have been defined even more strictly and limit values for energy consumption have been further reduced with the aim to reduce CO<sub>2</sub> emissions. The high quality of the renovation measures is ensured within the European Union and its member states. However, this has not yet been the case in relation to the quantity of implemented renovation projects. The thesis investigates which factors were neglected or were not taken into consideration sufficiently in the past, and, because of that, countries like Austria could not achieve their goals with regard to the renovation rates. This is done by identifying, selecting and verifying both specific and potential conflicting goals. On the basis of the description and analysis of the background to these potential conflicts, the actual obstacles are identified and approaches to their solutions are defined. The formulated approaches should form the basis for future in-depth discussion and further development of specific detailed solutions. The implementation of these results in a comprehensive package with technical regulations such as the “Renovation Wave for Europe” and “The European Green Deal”, opens up new opportunities for achieving the set goals. An increase in the renovation rate of existing buildings is the quantitatively measurable outcome.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Use of Artificial Intelligence in the Field of Sustainable Architecture: Current Knowledge<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Innovative technologies help automate the work of the designer. A 3D model of the building can be used to calculate the required values. This will also allow you to create associative sections that, when changing the geometry of the 3D model, automatically adjust the drawn elements on the resulting 2D drawing. Information technologies enable participants from all over the world to work on one project and, thanks to the BIM (building information modelling) method, to design buildings during their life cycle more efficiently. At present, critical studies are published on interoper-ability in BIM and its lack of coordination or amount of information that is misinterpreted, etc. However, working in BIM is the most effective way to use computer technology to design buildings. There is a lot of information about the building in the 3D model itself, which can also be used for purposes other than construction (building management, reconstruction). But how to process a large amount of information in a 3D model? Many buildings already have their 3D models shared on cloud platforms, these contain information that could help, for example, find solutions for green construction using artificial intelligence (AI). We meet with AI every day. It supports internet search engines, predicts auto-completion words as you type. AI can also be found in architecture – not only as visions at exhibitions, but also in research on process optimization in BIM.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-26T00:00:00.000+00:00Editorial Understanding and Anticipating the User in Space Based on Neural and Behavioural Responses<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main task of architecture has been and will be to create spaces for the user. Our experiment is based on an interdisciplinary study, combining knowledge from architecture, neuroscience, psychology and artificial intelligence. We think that these disciplines can better interpret the users’ perception to architects and designers, because how do we know what users want and how they react to the created matter? This fundamental question underlines the research, designates its direction and goals. The futuristic view and exploring the user is one aspect, complemented by the application of research results to today’s reality. Nowadays, in Slovakia (and in the world), urban development is funded by the private sector and is significantly limited by the financial aspect of architecture and development, it is necessary to look for a concept that reduces the importance of finance at the expense of quality for users.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-03-26T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1