rss_2.0Agricultural Engineering FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Agricultural Engineering Engineering 's Cover Analysis of the New Farm Tractors Market in Poland in 2010-2020 in the Context of Income Generated by Farmers’ Households<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of the paper is to analyse changes in the new farm tractor market in Poland and the annual income of farmers’ households generated in the same period. The studies covered the period from 2010 to 2020. The new farm tractors market was analysed with reference to the number of sold tractors, which was measured by the number of registrations. The paper considers quarterly seasonality of sale along with demand for selected producers and engine-power categories of new farm tractors sold in Poland. By “new tractors” the authors mean those registered for the first time in Poland and manufactured in the same or the preceding year. In 2010-2020, there were over 148,000 new farm tractors registered in Poland. The highest number of tractors sold was recorded in 2012, the lowest in 2016. Tractors from Western Europe, USA, and Japan predominate on the Polish market. Among new vehicles, the highest number registered in the investigated period constituted New Holland (23,780) tractors, followed by John Deere (19,453), Zetor (16,398), Deutz-Fahr (10,508), and Kubota (7,674). The total share of these producers in 2010-2020 amounted to approx. 58%. With regard to the engine-power categories in the analysed period, tractors with power of 37-73 kW and 74-132 kW (33.85%) constituted the largest proportion (49.07%). An increased interest in tractors with power below 36 kW was also observed from 2016 to 2020. Such vehicles accounted for 10% of all registrations. The general trend related to the volume of average annual income is not consistent with the trend of purchasing new farm tractors, while the highest number of registrations was recorded during the period in which inflation rates reached their highest values.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-05-06T00:00:00.000+00:00The Grain Cleaning Production Lines’ Energysaving Operation Modes of Electromechanical Systems<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The research was aimed at reducing the power consumption for grain cleaning by using energy-saving modes in the electromechanical systems of grain cleaning units. Specific consumption of active energy per production unit was adopted as a criterion for assessing energy-saving operation modes. The applied method of mathematical experiment planning (MEP) reduced the number of experiments to a minimum to obtain a reliable mathematical model of the research object. To determine the optimal specific power consumption, a theoretical method was developed to rebuild the mathematical model. Thus, the minimum specific power consumption of grain cleaning production lines was obtained, which allowed developing science-based rates of power usage that allow energy savings up to 8-10%.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Methodical Aspects of Soil Ecosystem Services Valuation<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Ecosystem Services Valuation is an important tool for dialogue in the decision-making process and to highlight the society’s dependence on the biosphere for well-being. Soil is the primary source of ecosystem services such as the production of food and regulating the climate, however the methodological alternatives for valuing soil ecosystem services remain poorly studied. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate methodical aspects of ecosystem services valuation, with the special attention to soil services within agricultural context. We introduce frameworks specific for soil ecosystem services. Then, we present a case study where soil ecosystem services were evaluated within agricultural context. We conclude that such valuation represents the newest trend in soil science wherein soil resources are treated in the wider context of impacts on human well-being.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Modelling Wheat Grain Flow During Sowing Based on the Model of Grain with Shifted Center of Gravity<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Winter wheat is one of the widespread crops in Ukraine. The search for methods to increase the yield and consumer properties of wheat, without compromising environmental safety, is one of the important scientific problems. The principles of precision agriculture point to the proper positioning of the seeds, recommending the method of “upward germination” (positioning the wheat germ vertically). The main objective of this study was to develop a new geometric model of wheat grain with a displaced centre of mass, as well as to conduct the theoretical research and numerical experiments on the orientation of grains using their multiple impact interaction with inclined surfaces. A new model of germ consisting of two different end semispheres and amid-line truncated cone was proposed, with a displaced centre of mass. Taking into account the physical properties of the objects, the concept of arrangement of gravity orientation of seeds in a stream was applied. This concept was based on various ratios of kinetic parameters of bodies with a displaced centre of gravity following an impact. The results showed that the orientation process can be controlled by changing the inclination angles and the length of the walls of the tray orientator within the working velocity range. This must be done before impact interaction of 0.2-0.3 m s<sup>−1</sup> when the inclination angles of the impact interaction planes are 24-32°C.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-03-07T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of the Impact of Tractor Field Works on Changes in Selected Elements of Engine Oils<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Tractors are used for various types of field work, as well as for transport on public roads, in difficult and changing environmental conditions. The main goal of the study was to analyze the changes of trace elements in engine oil during various field works. For this purpose, engine oils from two tractors were selected for the study. These tractors were coupled with: a cultivator, a reversible plow, a tillage-sowing unit, and a trailer. The samples were taken at the beginning and after the field work with a given unit was completed. The instrumental chemical analysis method HDXRF was used to determine changes in the content of the trace elements: Cr, Cu, Fe, Pb, Ni, Ca, P, Zn, and Mo in the engine oil. The comparison of oil from tractors coupled with various agricultural machines allowed the conclusion that the distribution of the consumption of tested metals, as well as the concentrations of individual elements, differed significantly depending on the coupled machine. The research showed that agricultural treatments with a cultivator caused the highest percentage of wear-induced changes in the content of metal elements such as Cr, Cu, and Pb. On the other hand, the operation of a tractor coupled with a tillage-sowing unit resulted in the vehicle’s accelerated wear.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Practical Potential of Grain Impurities in the Processing of Sunflower Oil Raw Materials in the Oil and Fat Industry<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The analysis of statistical data showed that a large amount of plant waste is generated annually in oil and fat production plants, which must be processed and reused. The paper analyzes the problems of reusing sunflower oil production waste, which is characterized by a relatively high energy value: 1 ton of plant waste is equivalent to 0.625 tons of conventional fuel. According to the mathematical estimation, the actual total amount of impurities is 7.29%, in which major impurities constitute 25.7%. Studies have shown a high probability of oil – containing impurities – 37.25%. Therefore, it is recommended to process such impurities into fuel briquettes and technical oil to increase the profitability of sunflower oil production. For example, at the annual load of technological equipment of the Melitopol Oil Extraction Plant, in 250 days, at a daily processing capacity of 550 t˙day<sup>-1</sup>, an annual profit of 560,000 EUR is obtainable from the sunflower grain impurities processed into fuel and technical oil.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-01-31T00:00:00.000+00:00Reeze-Drying Impact on Hardness of Selected Soft Fruit Liophilisates<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The objective of the paper was to describe the impact of freeze-drying conditions on hardness of lyophilizates obtained based on soft fruit pomace. Raspberry, cherry, and grape pomace from the pressing process carried out with a low-speed rotary press constituted a research material. Immediately after the pressing process, pomaces were placed in forms, frozen, and after freezing they were freeze-dried in the pressure of 20, 42, 63, 85 and 110 Pa. The obtained lyophilizates were subjected to the measurement of hardness with the use of texture meter equipped with a penetrometer in the form of a cone with a vertical angle of 30°. The increase of pressure during freeze-drying of samples was accompanied by the increase of hardness of the obtained lyophilizates, which may affect the energy consumption of the grinding process and the nature of rehydration of the final product. Moreover, the water content of raw material, pomaces, and lyophilizates was determined. The obtained results of measurements were subjected to a statistical analysis which showed that the pressure of freeze-drying significantly diversifies the hardness of the obtained lyophilizates.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Concept of Biohydrogen Production by Agricultural Enterprises<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Biohydrogen production in agricultural enterprises is an urgent matter. It is appropriate to utilize two methods of biohydrogen production: a thermochemical method – from crop-based biomass and anaerobic digestion (fermentation) method – from animal-based biomass.. It is appropriate to use gasifiers for the thermochemical method and biore-actors for fermentation method.</p> <p>The theoretical potential of biohydrogen was established with due regard to the amount of biomass which is necessary for utilization in livestock agriculture, for fields fertilization as well as with the consideration of the coefficients of concordance with hydrogen equivalent and loss factor under biohydrogen production. The theoretical potential of biohydrogen from crop-based biomass in Ukraine amounts to 77 billion m<sup>3</sup>, during the period of three years (on average 25.6 billion m<sup>3</sup> per year).</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Thermal Insulation of the Gastronomic Refrigeration Furniture Prototype<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>An innovative method of insulation by injection to a cooling tank was investigated with consideration of a sustainable development need during production of thermo-insulation materials. An insulation material consisted of polyurethane foam. The manufacturer has chosen HFO gases for filling in the pores, since this is a product with a low environmental impact. HFO gases have a zero potential for destruction of the ozone layer and an extremely low global warming potential. Cooling tanks insulated with modern technologies of injection of polyurethane foam were investigated with regard to heat permission. They were also tested on account of occurrence of heat leakage bridges. The investigation covered also cooling furniture insulated with a conventional method of gluing ready-made polyurethane boards. The tests showed that a modern insulation technology influences reduction of the heat permission coefficient towards the presently applied technology. The investigated insulation of cooling furniture did not prove any heat leakage bridges. Therefore, it may be concluded that the technological process is correct. Cooling tanks manufactured in the present insulation technology did not show the occurrence of heat leakage bridges.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Analysis of Energy Consumption by Electric Agricultural Tractor Model Under Operating Conditions<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the paper is analysis of consumption of electric energy which is necessary to drive a farm tractor with an electric motor as a drive unit under the conditions of a drive with varied loading of the power transmission system. The object of the research was a tractor model where a combustion engine was replaced with a dc electric motor. During the tests, a decrease of voltage and current strength collected from supplying batteries as a function of tractor drive time and in relation to the mass of a tractor with a trailer, temperature of the surrounding and resistance to motion were reported, which enabled determination of the collected power and energy. For the used set of batteries, also the maximum range of the tractor drive on the paved road was determined.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Proposals of Universal Algorithms for the Automation of the Irrigation Process of Plant Crops<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents the issues of water saving, declining freshwater resources in the world, and the problems of drought in the context of proper and effective irrigation of various types of crops. The use of microprocessor irrigation management systems has a significant impact on the quality of the yield and the rational use of water. An example of the irrigation system construction scheme is presented. The system uses strain gauge soil moisture sensors, which can be used to determine the relative water demand of plants, depending on the growing substrate. Additional system security in the form of rainfall and wind speed sensors provide the necessary information for the correct operation of the irrigation system. Then, two universal algorithms were proposed to automate the irrigation process of plant crops due to the way water is supplied to the plants. The first algorithm is designed for systems using drip lines - they are widely used in various types of crops where there is a need to precisely supply water to the plant, such systems are destined especially for crops grown undercover or for nursery crops. The second algorithm for sprinkler-based systems is mainly used in field crops and in mushroom farms. The presented algorithms can be used to design and implement intelligent irrigation systems, and after adding an additional module – for plant fertilization.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-18T00:00:00.000+00:00Energy Assessment of the Pneumatic Sieve Separator for Agricultural Crops<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>As a result of energy assessment of a pneumatic sieve separator for agricultural crops it was determined that the specific energy consumption of the experimental pneumatic sieve separator was 0.18 kW·year·t<sup>−1</sup>. It is lower than in case of its domestic and foreign equivalents. For instance, the specific energy consumption of the separator of preliminary grain purification called SPO-50 (Ukraine) is 0.31 kW·year·t<sup>−1</sup>, and that of the machine of preliminary grain purification called MPO-50 (Russia) is 0.38 kW·year·t<sup>−1</sup>. Specific energy consumption of a pneumatic sieve separator is 1.72-2.11 times lower than in case of its domestic and foreign counterparts.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Nonparametric Methods in the Analysis of the Quality of Kernel of Selected Winter Wheat Cultivars<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper presents a statistical analysis of weight and diameter of kernel obtained for eight investigated winter wheat cultivars. Preliminary analyses of experimental results, such as compliance with a normal distribution, equality of variance for particular cultivars, and occurrence of outliers proved that there is no justification for the use of a traditional one-way analysis of variance for verification of hypotheses according to which weight and diameter of grains of the investigated winter wheat cultivars do not differ. A nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test was used for verification of hypotheses which based on the experimental results enabled to reject both hypotheses. Further, simultaneous average weight and diameters of grain of the investigated cultivars were compared with the use of Nemenyi-Dunn test. The applied test enabled to conclude which cultivars had a significantly higher weight than the others. Analogous comparisons were carried out for the diameter of kernels of the investigated winter wheat cultivars.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-11-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Tax Burden of Agricultural Enterprises in Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Agriculture is one of the leading sectors of the Ukrainian economy, and the state pays special attention to its development. One of directions of the state’s support for agriculture is implementation of tax preferences due to which agricultural enterprises have a lower tax burden. The optimal level of the tax burden is an important factor in ensuring the positive dynamics of business activity in agriculture, as well as socio-political stability. The objective of the article is to determine the impact of recent changes in the Ukrainian tax legislation on the tax burden of agricultural enterprises, as well as the possible impact of current draft laws. The article examines features of the tax legislation in Ukrainewith regard to agricultural producers and its changes in recent years - increasing a single tax rate, introduction of indexation of land regulatory, monetary valuation, abolition of the special regime of a value added tax. The advantages and disadvantages of using a simplified taxation system by agricultural enterprises are considered. the study’s outcome comprises recommendations for agricultural enterprises to choose a tax system with the lowest tax burden, as well as recommendations for improving the tax legislation of Ukraine using preferential VAT rates for agricultural enterprises and a tax on withdrawn capital.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-02T00:00:00.000+00:00Hydrogen Production Analysis: Prospects for Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Over the last few years, hydrogen energy has shifted from a little-studied field to the main one with which leading western countries associate the prospects of their national economies. The reasons are the unprecedented pace of development of hydrogen technologies. It turned out that they are able to provide significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions, and thus bring closer the solution to the problem of global climate change. The first and foremost purpose of our investigation is to reveal that our country has ample opportunities to become the main supplier of hydrogen to the EU market, overtaking North Africa in the competition. Using the methods, authors studied the targets of the European funds towards development of energy production from biohydrogen, studied the potential for the implementation of hydrogen projects, possibilities of financing them and a potential ability of Ukraine to form internal and external markets for hydrogen energy. One of the main issues of Ukraine's possible participation in Europe's hydrogen energy program as a supplier and producer of renewable hydrogen is the possibility of its technically safe and cost-effective transportation to EU countries. As a conclusion to the authors’ research, the path of the hydrogen industry development in Ukraine will help to receive additional investments in the Ukrainian economy for creation of new capacities for "green" hydrogen production. In return, Europe will receive research and evolution of the bioenergy component of the economy, which will permit the safe transition of Europeans to an affordable, competitive, and stable energy system.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-23T00:00:00.000+00:00Assessment of the Pine Forests Condition Using Forest Factors, Physiological Characteristics and Remote Detection Data<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper evaluates the pathological condition of Belarusian forests with the use of monitoring of traditional forest factors and remote sensing data. The aim of the research was to assess the condition of pine forests to monitor forest degradation based on biochemical analyzes of needle samples and aviation monitoring with the use of monitoring data and remote detection. The remote shooting was carried out quasi-synchronously with the ground sampling of needles using an unmanned aircraft complex of an aircraft type. Based on the results of biochemical analyzes of needle samples, biochemical indicators that characterize the stability and physiological state of pine were determined: the level of peroxidation of membrane lipids; the release of water-soluble substances from plant tissues, which reflect the integrity of the cell walls; the content of photosynthetic pigments in the needles.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Operating Parameters and Environmental Indicators of Diesel Engines Fed with Crop-Based Fuels<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A comparative analysis of performance of Diesel engines fuelled by diesel oil, methyl ester of rapeseed oil and raw rapeseed oil was performed. The analysis of external characteristics of engines powered by various fuel types was accepted for an assessment. Engine performance rates were analysed while attention was paid to power courses, moment, unit fuel consumption and hour fuel consumption, exhaust fumes temperature and exhaust smoke. Operation effectiveness of engines was assessed when they were fed with various fuel types and optimal proportions of fuel mixtures were indicated. Environmental aspects of powering the engines with traditional fuels and crop-based fuels were analysed. The total CO<sub>2</sub> emission in the entire process of manufacturing and combustion of fuels was accepted as a criterion. A simplified economic analysis was performed in the aspect of the underlying purpose of using crop-based fuels for propulsion of piston engines. Conclusions and recommendations that indicate directions of development concerning the analysed issue were prepared.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-24T00:00:00.000+00:00Technical Parameters of Biostimulant Spraying a Determinant of Biometric Traits and Yield of Soybean Seeds<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Spraying with various types of agrochemical substances, including biostimulants, is one of the basic agricultural treatments affecting the yield size and quality. The selected type of spraying nozzles can influence biological effectiveness of the applied substances. A 2-year field study showed which of the investigated nozzles increase the effectiveness of foliar application of a free amino acid biostimulant. The type of nozzle used for the application of biostimulants was reported to significantly influence the biometric properties and yield of soybean cultivation. It was observed that spraying nozzles, which generate finer droplets positively influence positively the biometric properties of plants and seed yield of seed than injector nozzles, which produce coarser droplets. A significant reduction of the thousand seeds mass after applying the biostimulant with standard flat fan nozzles is an exception. A 25.61% increase in soybean yield was reported after applying the biostimulant with standard flat fan nozzles and a 11.35% increase – with injector nozzles..</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-22T00:00:00.000+00:00Estimation of the Domestic Agricultural Sector Potential for the Growth of Energy Cultures for Bioenergy Fuel Production<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The article presents discussion on the state and prospects of bioenergy development in the context of rationalization of energy crops application as resource potential of Ukraine. Along with the development of society and increase of life intensity, the needs of mankind with regard to energy resources are increasing. The reduction rates of traditional types of energy resources are progressively growing, and their shortage is increasing. In addition, Ukraine belongs to import-dependent countries in the energy sector. At the expense of its own sources, our country provides only about half of the energy needs, while domestic national economy is one of the most energy-intensive industries in the world. In this regard, there is an urgent need to search for new, alternative sources of energy. Taking into account the potential present in Ukraine, the biomass use for energy production is the most attractive option. However, along with this, there is a problem of purposeful use of the agricultural land and a competitive struggle between agricultural products for nutrition and energy purposes. At the same time, many problems arise, which concerdevelopment of an appropriate legislative framework, methodological approaches to the economic, environmental and social efficiency of production and use of biological types of energy.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-06-14T00:00:00.000+00:00Economic Efficiency and Internal Competitive Advantages of Grain Production in the Central Region of Ukraine<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper discusses competitiveness of the agro-industrial sector, which is a multifaceted concept that characterizes its ability to compete in both domestic and foreign markets. Ukraine has significant opportunities to develop the agricultural sector and turn it into a highly efficient branch of economy. Favorable soil and climate conditions, and fertile land contribute to its further development, obtaining agricultural crops in volumes sufficient to meet domestic needs and build export potential. The production process of agricultural goods takes longer than in industry. Therefore, at the stage of determination of the production program of an agricultural enterprise, it is very difficult to respond on time to changes in consumer demand and increase the product competitiveness within the already established production schemes in the markets. Therefore, the purpose of our study is to evaluate the effectiveness of growing the studied crops in a typical farm in Central Ukraine and offer a roadmap for making management decisions when planning a production program. For this purpose, a method based on calculations of the gross margin, total expenses, production thresholds, profitability, and payback of production factors was chosen.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-24T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1