rss_2.0Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianaehttps://sciendo.com/journal/AFEPUChttps://www.sciendo.comActa Facultatis Educationis Physicae Universitatis Comenianae 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/617dc244a5cfc6706c9b2a07/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220125T105608Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604800&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20220125%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=2032f349d3df0b83f9f7ce80d8c740aeb54073a0163ed418f081445c118cda30200300The Role of Recreational Sports Activities in Reducing Some Psychological Problems Caused by Covid-19 Pandemichttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>This study is aimed at knowing the role of recreational sports activities in decreasing some psychological problems caused by the COVID-19 pandemic among adolescents, and done on a sample of 400 adolescents chosen from the final year of the Intermediate education stage (Hamam bouhjar Middle school - Ain Temouchent state, Sig middle school – Mascara state), the questionnaire was applied as a tool for the study and it consisted of three axes: the axis of aggressive behavior, isolation, and self-confidence, and each axis consists of a group of questions. We used Frequencies, Percentage, and Chi-square goodness of fit test to analyze and interpret the results. In the end, we concluded that recreational sports activities have a role in alleviating some psychological problems resulting from the COVID-19 pandemic in adolescents, and this is based on the results that we have researched which states that recreational sports alleviate the aggressive behavior caused by the COVID-19 and its major role in reducing the weakness of self-confidence caused by COVID-19 among adolescents, as well as mitigating the weakness of self-confidence under the COVID-19 pandemic Finally, the researchers recommend the necessity of practicing recreational sports activities in spare time.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:0012 Months of Balance Training Decreases Ankle-Joint Injury Frequency in Young Girl Basketball Playershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-0018<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p><bold>Aim</bold>: Balance training can help reduce the frequency of ankle joint injuries in adults, but data on young girls is relatively scant.</p> <p><bold>Methods</bold>: Out of 91 female basketball players (7-16 years), 40 players were assigned to an experimental balance training group, and 51 players were assigned to a control group. Both groups performed their typical basketball training but the experimental group performed additional balance-focused exercises during the warm-up of their basketball training sessions.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: A total of 47 girls (52 %) reported at least one ankle joint injury in their entire basketball history (52.5 % in the experimental, 50.9% in the control group). There was a positive correlation between the number of ankle joint injuries and age before the experiment (r = 0.34, p &lt; 0.001). During the 12-month study period, girls who participated in balance training suffered significantly fewer ankle joint injuries than the control group (χ<sup>2</sup> = 3.8423, df = 1, p-value &lt; 0.05). Increased risk for ankle joint injury in the future was confirmed according to logistic regression for girls with previous ankle joint injury in history (4.33 times) and girls who did not participate in the balance training program (3.97 times).</p> <p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> A progressive, barefoot balance training program that is simple and short enough to be performed during normal warm-ups can reduce the likelihood of suffering an ankle joint injury in young girls basketball players, which may be useful for athletes in other sports as well.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Physiological Response of the Performance of Young Football Players During Small-Sided Gameshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-0016<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The main aim of the present study was to examine the cardiovascular response, time-motion characteristics, game performance and rated of perceived exertion (RPE) during small-sided games (SSGs) with different number of players. The research group consisted of elite youth male soccer players (n = 18) (aged 16.5 ±0.71 years, maximum heart rate (HR<sub>max</sub>) 196.42 ±5.31 beats.min<sup>−1</sup>) from the FC DAC 1904 Dunajská Streda U17 soccer club. Cardiovascular response measurements included heart rate (HR) expressed in minimum, mean and maximum values and time spent in different intensity zones. Total distance covered, high intensity running and the number of accelerations and decelerations were captured by GPS. Individual game performance and the number of technical-tactical actions were recorded during every SSGs. After the game time we collected the ratings of perceived exertion scores from each player. Results showed that SSG with small number of players (3 vs. 3) triggered the highest HR response with mean value 168.00 ±8.48 beats.min<sup>−1</sup>, players spent the most time in maximal intensity zone 0:09:06 minutes, of SSG duration. This format of SSG was the mostintense for the players´ cardiovascular system, but we can’t find statistically significant differences between the HR values in SSGs. External load was the most demanding in SSG1 too, like in internal load. The highest scores in individual game performance were recorded in SSG2. In RPE scores SSG1 was the most difficult from the players point of view. In conclusion, the present research demonstrates the effectiveness of SSG1 in training sessions. Therefore, the coaching staff has the possibility to choose between SSGs during training sessions according to their physical, technical, tactical and psychological objectives.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of using Weighted Balls on Performance Speed in Wheelchair Basketball Playershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-0021<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The researchers seek to identify the impact of weighted balls on performance speed in wheelchair basketball players. An experimental method has been used in conformity with research nature between pre-tests and post-tests sample. The sample was selected by the intended manner and divided into two equal groups (10 players experimental sample, 10 players control sample) for the 2019/2020 sports season. A speed test (5 m and 20 m without ball), speed test (5 m and 20 m with ball) were used. After statistical treatment of the results, the researchers concluded: The weighted balls are important to develop performance speed in wheelchair basketball players, and the best improvement of the experimental group based on of weighted balls is marked comparing to the control group. A regular physical training with weighted balls is very important to improve of performance speed of persons with disabilities in basketball game.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Return to Exercise After Covid-19: Which One is the Best Strategy?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Coronavirus (Covid-19), which began in China as of 2019 and spread to almost all over the world in a short time; has shown that we need to plan our life with new strategies as well as changing our current lifestyle today. While we must implement new ways to prevent against Covid-19 and maintaining our healthy lives, we must also design new strategies for returning to sports and physical activities. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to reveal the return strategies for professional and recreational athletes during the quarantine periods in light of evidences. In this regard, firstly we examined the existing literature regarding return strategies to sports. As a result, individual performance and personal hygiene conditions should be considered, and athletic performance should be preserved while keeping a physical distance from teammates and others. The use of masks in sports should be encouraged, but new techniques should be developed by investigating the effect on performance. Consequently, for healthy individuals, low to moderate intensity (not high-intensity) exercise may be beneficial and recommend. However, due to the risk of spreading (person-to-person or contaminated surfaces), exercise is recommended in special places with good ventilation and the use of personal types of equipment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Application of Sport and Physical Education in the Period of Pandemic Covid-19 From the Point of View of Teachershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The study aimed to identify the physical education and sports classes implementation in the light of the Corona pandemic, as seen by the teachers. To this end, the researchers used the descriptive approach based on the survey method. The sample included (60) teachers from high schools in the Wilaya of El Bayadh, chosen at random. The results of the study showed that the teachers experienced to a more than average degree, difficulties with the administrative organization, and moderate difficulties during the practice of the lesson of physical education and sports, and therefore the researchers recommended in this regard, the provision of national educational establishments with the material necessary for comprehensive prevention, as well as the need for mutual assistance between the administrative team and teachers.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Selected Goal – Scoring Characteristics in the National Hockey Leaguehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-0019<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The variables impacting the efficiency of the offensive phase of the game in ice hockey may be determining factor for both the training process and game strategies. The research aimed to acquire and expand the knowledge about selected goal-scoring characteristics in the National Hockey League. A total of 511 even-strength goals were recorded in 129 randomly selected games in a regular-season 2020/2021 by indirect observation. Goals were differentiated by selected variable dimensions: location of the offensive team’s puck possession gain before scoring a goal, game situation preceding a goal, and the number of passes of the offensive team preceding a goal. Data were analyzed by performing a one–way ANOVA. Post hoc multiple comparisons were performed using the Tukey HSD test. The significance level of p ≤ 0.05 was used. Significant differences were found within all variable dimensions (p= 0.00001). In terms of the puck possession gain location, zone 1 (along the boards in the offensive zone) was the zone with the significantly highest mean score (p= 0.00305). Offensive zone play was significantly the game situation preceding most of the goals (p= 0.00000). The interval of the passes that preceded most of the recorded goals was the interval of 1 – 2 passes (p= 0.00000). Acquired results point out the dominance of particular variables and may help coaches to determine the content of the training process and game strategies. Based on the assumption of the realization of similar research in different environments in terms of the quality and age category, if the analogy would be found between the results of the present study and the results of potential studies, we can state the trends applicable to youth training.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Role of Fitness Program in a Health Improvement of Adolescentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Since physical activities affect the quality of life and activate a complete locomotor system, sports and physical activities can be treated as a determinant for a harmonious development of all child’s characteristics and anthropological characteristics. Because, childhood and youth are the most important formative periods, and some segments of development, for example, specific motor skills can be developed only with means used in sports, this research was conducted to find out do the fitness program (aimed at improving strength) after eight weeks had a positive effect on body composition and mobility and stability of subjects. A control group consisted of 11 female subjects and experimental group were 11 female subjects aged 16 years. The effects of the program on the fitness condition of the subjects were determined by assessing the body composition parameters (data obtained using the Body composition analyser TANITA BC-418) - the total percentage of fat tissue (FAT), the percentage of fat tissue segmentally (percentage of fat tissue of the left leg (FATll), right leg (FATrl), left arm (FATla), right arm (FATra) and body (FATb)) and estimation of mobility and stability levels - based on the application of <italic>Functional movement screening</italic> (FMS) method (seven tests) before and after the program is implemented. The success of the implemented program was confirmed because the program showed a statistically significant difference between the mobility groups of the subjects in the experimental in relation to the control group (deep squat t=3,464 p=0,006, step over a hurdle t=2,390 p=0,038, active lift of a stretched leg t=2,887 p=0,016, rotatory body stability t=3,130 p=0,011 and FMS t=5,721 p=0,000), and a positive effect on the composition of the body in terms of reduction of the percentage of fatty body has been shown segmentally.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Intraindividual Evaluation of Reaction Time at the Women’s World Athletics Championships 1999 – 2019https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-0017<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The aim of the article was the intraindividual evaluation of reaction time at the Women’s World Athletics Championships from 1999 to 2019.We generated the rating of sprinters from the age point of view with comparison of two periods with different false start rules. In the result section, we analysed the sprinters that took part at World Championships (WCH) at least 3 times and appeared in the final. We assessed the reaction speed from the ageing point of view, or more precisely with the changing conditions when judging the false start. The results confirm that the stricter start judging rules in sprint disciplines did not have a significant influence on the reaction speed. We also confirmed a research that the sprinters older than 30 years can achieve very low reaction time at the start.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Gender Differences in Attitudes of Students Attending Non-Inclusive School Towards Inclusive Physical Educationhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>The objective of the study was to determine and compare the attitudes of high school students of the non-inclusive school towards inclusive physical education according to gender. This study deepened the knowledge about the students’ attitudes toward the inclusion of students with physical and intellectual disabilities. The research sample comprised a total of 181 able-bodied high school students (56 boys and 125 girls) attending one non-inclusive high school in Bratislava, Slovakia. Modified Czech version of the CAIPE (Children’s Attitude toward Inclusive Physical Education) questionnaire was used as a primary research method. Girls presented higher levels of positive attitudes towards inclusive physical education (IPE) in goal achievement, motivation, and motor skills learning. Boys showed a higher level of positive attitudes in the self-confidence of students with disabilities through IPE. In the goal achievement, girls expressed a significantly higher positive attitude towards IPE in students with intellectual disabilities inclusion (U = 2817, p = 0.029, r = 0.168). The highest level of a positive attitude toward IPE declared both genders by society inclusion and the lowest level of positive attitude by motor skills acquisition. Slovak students of a non-inclusive high school showed a positive attitude toward IPE for the inclusion of pupils with physical as well as intellectual disabilities.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Social Media Fitness Challenge – Risks and Benefitshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-0020<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Summary</title> <p>Social media is part of the lives of young adults. Their influence extends to health behavior or nutrition. “Fitness challenges” often appear and they should affect the motivation to exercise, body composition changes, performance improvement. 67 healthy young adults (32 women, 20.3 years; 35 men, 20.8 years) took part in the “challenge”, where they completed 3 series of 12 – 15 push-ups every day for 30 days. After the intervention, both groups showed a statistically significant (α = 0.01) improvement, women 5.8 repetitions, men by 7 repetitions. The research was supplemented by a questionnaire, which showed a positive effect on increasing motivation for this activity. Furthermore, it has been shown that “fitness challenges” bring obvious health risks that need to be taken into account. It seems that with the optimal setting of the content of the exercise program, the “fitness challenge” can be a good instrument of increasing the physical acitivty, motivation to exercise, and positively influencing strength performance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-10-30T00:00:00.000+00:00Relationship Between Reaction Time, Medal Winning and Performance in the 60 m Hurdle Indoor Event Before and After the Change of False Start Rulehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-0007<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>60 m hurdles races are included in the World Indoor Athletics Championships and consist the shortest hurdle race distance. Thus, it is possible that the reaction time (RT) affects the finish time (t60mH) and the rank of the hurdlers. The aims of this research were: a) to examine the relationship between RT and t60mH, b) the possible differentiation of RT: c) between the hurdlers who won a medal in World Indoor Athletics Championships (WM) and those who did not (NMW), d) between hurdlers who competed before (BRC) and after (ARC) the change of the starting rules in 2009. Analysis included 70 performances (WM: <italic>n</italic> = 28; NMW: <italic>n</italic> = 42; BRC: <italic>n</italic> = 32; ARC, <italic>n</italic> = 38). The differences between WM and NMW and BRC and ARC were examined with independent samples T-test, while the possible relationship between RT and t60mH with Pearson’s correlation. The results showed that RT was not significantly different (<italic>p</italic> &lt; .05) between WM and NMW and between BRC and ARC. A weak, but significant, positive correlation (<italic>r</italic> = .228, <italic>p</italic> = .016) between RT and t60mH was observed. Results revealed that RT is a factor that affects t60mH. In conclusion, the essential focus on the reaction time at the starting blocks must be given during the training process.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Perceived Etiology of Anti-Social Behavior Among Players and Spectators of Selected Football Clubs in Nigeria (PEABFC)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-0003<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Anti-social behavior at football contest is a well-recognized issue. Due to this fact, associations and government have devised variety of interventions and strategy characterized by high tension and tempo among players and spectators which usually generate disorderliness of varying intensify. This study focuses on investigation of etiological factors of anti-social behaviors among players and spectators of football clubs in Nigeria during matches, with a view to coming up with coherent strategies for its enervation. Self-development questionnaire tagged perceived etiology of antisocial behavior among football players and spectators of selected football clubs (SPEABFC) was used for data collection, with reliability value of 0.85. Two thousand seven hundred (2700) out of three thousand (3000) copies of questionnaire administered were retrieved and coded for analysis with adoption of percentages and chi-square x<sup>2</sup> tool at 0.05 level at significant. The study copiously found that poor officiating, winning at all costs, conduct of coach and alcohol consumption are significant in causing anti-social behavior among players and spectators. Consequently, it is re-concluded among others that known troublemakers should be disallowed from entering the game venue, sale of alcohol be restricted to a place far from game site. The outcome is highly significant in view of the fact it might be helpful to scientifically develop appropriate strategies to control sale of drugs and alcohol at game site. The study is greatly insightful to sensitizes the management of football competitions to look inward more effective methods capable of making soccer context anti-behavior free. A adage says prevention is better than cure, the research is highly informative to authorities concerned with organization of football competitions map out preventive measures to unethical attitude by players, spectators as well fans for better attendance at game site which is likely to translate into making more profit for the organizers. An adequate provision for police and other security agents will go a long way to reduce anti-social behavior. We are now in the world of business geared towards profitability, any competition occasioned by riot and chaos is likely to negate this objective as attendance may reduce thereby drastically cutting the expected profit. The promoters of competition will be abreast this fact and develop remedies to counter it ahead at planning stage. The erring players should be sanctioned accordingly. The use of credible and competent officials with records of integrity and credibility will in part promote sanity during the matches.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Diagnostics of Swimming Skills in Preparatory Swimming Teaching of Children with Autistic Spectrum Disorderhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-0008<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p><bold>Aim:</bold> The aim of this study is to present the results of the evaluation of the Preparatory Swimming Intervention Programme for Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (PAS).</p><p><bold>Methods:</bold> The study used a method of participating observation by which evaluators diagnosed swimming skills. The diagnostic tool was Štochl’s scale of swimming skills evaluation (Štochl et al. 2005). A nonparametric sign test was chosen for the analysis of the results.</p><p><bold>Results:</bold> The results of the sign test showed that all probands studied had an overall improvement in all skills between measurements 1 and 2, 3 and 4 and also 1 and 4. In a comparison of individual probands, swimming skills improved between the 1st and 2nd measurements in two of them. The third proband achieved the greatest improvement between the 3rd and 4th measurements, the fourth between the 1st and 4th measurements. The fifth proband did not achieve a statistically significant improvement in the acquisition of swimming skills.</p><p><bold>Conclusions:</bold> The results of this study show that for the area of preparatory swimming lessons for children with PAS, it is possible to use the Štochl scale (Štochl 2002) for diagnosing swimming skills, thus enabling quantitative data to monitor the level of acquired swimming skills in these individuals.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Explanatory Learning Research: Problem-Based Learning or Project-Based Learning?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-0010<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Problems in learning are one of the obstacles to student’s success in understanding and achieving success. Learning problems also occur in physical education learning, the problems that have occurred in the last decade are caused by the individual students. To minimize and even overcome these learning problems an appropriate learning approach model is needed. In the last 5-10 years, the learning approach models that are often used are problem-based learning and project-based learning. This study aims to review and examine problem-based learning approaches and project-based learning approaches in designing and improving physical education learning. The literature review that will be discussed is about the characteristics, advantages, and disadvantages of each learning approach model. The results of the literature review are expected to be able to be used as a study or information that can be used as a theoretical basis for further research in the use of a learning approach model to complete or improve physical education learning including problem-based learning and project-based learning.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Physical and Movement Skill Level of Pupils from the First Grade of Primary School in Svit in Comparison with National Research of Primary Schoolshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-0006<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The aim of the work was to compare the level of somatic and selected motor abilities of pupils of the 1st year in Svit with a national research of primary schools. The goal was to choose boys for athletic training based on individual and overall physical performance. The parameters showing the bodily development of the probands were body height, body weight and BMI index. To determine the all-round readiness of students, we used a test set consisting of the following tests: maximum forward bend, endurance in pull-ups, long jump from standing position, shuttle run 4 x 10 m and endurance Beep test. We processed empirical data using statistical-mathematical characteristics. We used the Shapiro-Wilk test to calculate the normality of the data and then calculated the statistical significance of the mean values using the Parametric Unpaired T-test. We recorded significant differences at the 1% and 5% level of statistical significance when comparing the results of our groups with the national ones in individual motor tests: maximum forward bend, long jump from a place, shuttle run 4 x 10 m and endurance Beep test. Differences in somatic indicators and performance between Svit students were confirmed without statistical significance. In the end, we evaluated the level of performance of pupils according to the standards of the population on the basis of their achieved results. We recommended children who achieved the highest points of overall readiness for athletic preparations, as well as those who showed an above-average level of performance in individual tests.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The Competence of Professors of Physical and Sports Education in the Use of Modern Teaching Strategies for Middle School Under the Second Generation Curriculumhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-0005<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>The study aims at identifying the degree of competency of the teacher of physical education and sports in using modern teaching strategies in light of what was stipulated by the second generation. The Study sample consists of <bold>60</bold> intermediate education teachers, and relies on a list prepared by the research team consisting of two axises, each axis containing 16 items that include familiarity with and employing modern strategies in the study of physical education and sports, as well as the general organization of the lesson the data are processed statistically using the arithmetic means standard deviation, and the results showed that the teachers of Physical education and sports in middle school do not use modern teaching strategies. This is due to their lack of competence.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Goal Orientations Predict Exercisers’ Effort and Enjoyment While Engaged in Exercise and Reasons for Using a Fitness Trackerhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Fitness trackers (FTs) can help increase activity levels and decrease sedentary behavior. However, researchers have yet to examine whether individuals’ goal orientations influence physical activity behavior in response to FT use. This study examined whether goal orientations predicted participants’ effort and enjoyment while exercising and their reasons for using a FT. Participants (203 females, 57 males; <italic>Mage</italic> = 42.35 years) reported goal orientations, enjoyment and effort while exercising, and reasons for using an FT. Four stepwise linear regression analyses were calculated to assess the extent that goal orientations predicted effort and enjoyment while exercising and task- and ego-related reasons for using FTs. Both task and ego orientation scores positively predicted effort and enjoyment. Task orientation had a much greater influence than ego orientation over these motivational outcomes. Moreover, task orientation positively predicted task-related reasons for using a FT (e.g., “helps me strive to be my physical best”), while ego orientation positively predicted ego-related reasons for using a FT (e.g., “notifies me that I outperformed others”). Results suggest practitioners and FT manufacturers should consider promoting a task orientation (e.g., define success based on personal effort &amp; improvement) to foster clients’ sustained motivation to engage in PA.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Physiological Response to Different Kata Performanceshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>During a karate competition, a competitor in the kata discipline may choose one kata of 102 katas on the list. This kata must not be repeated. Katas differ in duration, complexity, number of fast and slow techniques, which also means different intensity, physiological response of the karateka body and energy coverage.</p><p><bold>Problems and Aim.</bold> In our study, we focused on the identification and assessment of the duration and difficulty of selected katas by monitoring the internal response of the human body (heart rate, lactate) of three top women´s Slovak national team karate competitors of kata individual categories during training and competition.</p><p><bold>Methods.</bold> The research sample consisted of 3 karate kata athletes (age 17.3 years, body height 161.7 cm, body weight 55.7 kg), who trained kata on average 7 years. To evaluate the indicators of the internal body load in selected katas we used mean, standard deviation, min-max.</p><p><bold>Results.</bold> The highest mean maximum heart rate values athletes had during performance kata Gojushi Ho (187 ± 8.2 bpm). The highest average heart rate values were observed during performance kata Chatanyara Kushanku (171 ± 9.9). Similarly, we found the highest mean values of blood lactate 4 minutes after performance kata Chatanyara Kushanku. (7.6 ± 2.5 mmol.l<sup>-1</sup>). The longest duration had the kata Suparinpei (204 ± 13 s). There was a significant difference in level of blood lactate reached in different katas (p ≤ 0.05) and the duration of katas.</p><p><bold>Conclusions.</bold> The duration of 5 most common katas used at the high level competition is different (p ≤ 0.05), thus the intensity expressed by the frequency of the techniques, and heart rate and blood lactate concentration. ATP-PCr energy system seems to be the major contributor while contribution of the aerobic energy system rises with the increase in duration of kata.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The Anthropometric and Physiological Characteristics of Young Algerian Soccer Playershttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/afepuc-2021-0004<abstract><title style='display:none'>Summary</title><p>Objective: The aim of this paper was to describe the anthropometric and physiological characteristics of young soccer players (U13) which were associated with their being successful or not as soccer players, and also to determine standard levels in the light of a test battery and indicators to select and guide the young talents as a scientific means to facilitate the selection. Method: A total of 390 soccer players age (U13). From 14 Algerian soccer clubs were enrolled and subjected to standard anthropometric, fitness (speed 20m, CMJ, skills-related performance testing. The testing battery will be described as will the process for converting test data into standardized scores. Data will be presented to show the strengths and weaknesses of some players. Result: After analysing the results based on the standard criteria for the proposed tests as well as the overall performance variable. And the ability of each youth to be selected according to their potential, and therefore it was stressed that the proposed criteria, which are scientific support for the field observation, should be emphasized to facilitate this process for Algerian soccer players. The findings from this study indicate that marked improvements and parameters associated with physical maturity such as height, weight, speed, VO2max, or chronological age are important to determine the success of a soccer player. At older ages, other factors such as agility seem to be more important. Nevertheless, players born in the 1st semester of the year are also more frequent in the older teams. These findings should be taken into account by trainers and coaches in order to avoid biasing their selection choices.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-05-08T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1