rss_2.0Acta Veterinaria FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Veterinaria Veterinaria 's Cover Contamination by Parasites in Public Parks in Belgrade in the Context of One Health Approach<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This paper studies the presence of developmental forms of gastrointestinal parasites in soil and sand samples, as well as in dog feces collected from public green spaces in Belgrade. The paper incorporates the spread analysis of contamination over different segments of parks. Four public green spaces in Belgrade were chosen, all containing an open-spaced children’s playground and a fenced dog park. Sample analysis of soil/sand was examined using qualitative methods without concentration (native slide) and with concentration (passive sedimentation and gravitational centrifugal flotation). In total, 106 samples have been collected out of which 60 samples of soil, 36 of dog faeces and ten samples of sand. Seven different agents have been detected, out of which five nematodes - <italic>Ancylostoma/Uncinaria</italic> spp., <italic>Trichuris</italic> spp., <italic>Capillaria</italic> spp., <italic>Toxocara</italic> spp., <italic>Toxascaris leonina</italic> and two protozoa - <italic>Isospora</italic> spp. and <italic>Giardia intestinalis.</italic> The overall prevalence of contamination of soil samples was 31.67% and a statistically significant difference in the prevalence of ancylostoma eggs was found between different locations. The most common agent detected in the dog’s faeces was <italic>Isospora</italic> spp., with a prevalence of 5.56%, followed by <italic>Giardia intestinalis</italic> and ancylostomatids with a prevalence of 2.78% each. The sand samples had no parasitic elements found. The contamination by parasites and by dogs’ faeces was equally dispersed in all segments of the examined locations.</p> <p>There is a great need to raise public awareness on the issue, and by the joint action of veterinarians, medical doctors, pet owners and people using public parks for recreation - a precondition is created for the sustainability of the “One Health” concept which implies the preservation of the environment and human and animal health.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Purulent Renal Papillitis Due to in a Horse<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A 6-year-old, male Arabian crossbred horse was necropsied after a 10 day history of loss of appetite, debility and weight loss. Gross and histologic examination was consistent with purulent papillitis due to <italic>Streptococcus infantarius subsp. infantarius</italic>. The isolate was sensitive to all the antibiotics tested.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Comparison of Mosquito Larvicidal Formulations of Diflubenzuron on Mosquitoes in Belgrade, Serbia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><italic>Culex</italic> mosquitos are important infectious diseases vectors in temperate and tropical regions of the World, affecting nearly 350 million people in both developed and developing countries. Our approach was to “recycle” the well-established larvicide, and by studying the tablets, pellets and granules as floating or sinking formulations, we found a method to optimise the use of diflubenzuron against <italic>Culex pipiens</italic> mosquitoes in field conditions.</p> <p>A standard WHO procedure was used to test the larvicide efficacy. The combined efficacy of all floating formulations was 10.7% higher than sinking preparations (<italic>p</italic>-value =0.002) and that maximised throughout the experiment on days 14 and 21, (<italic>p</italic>-values 0.012 and 0.008, respectively). All floating formulations kept their efficacies above 70% until day 21 of the experiment, while the mortality of sinking designs dropped significantly after day 14. The lowest efficacy was observed when sinking granules were used and the highest when floating tablets were applied in the canals. Only the floating tablets showed no significant changes in efficacy from day 1 to 21, but then that efficacy drops sharp until day 35.</p> <p>Since the larvae spend most of their time on the surface of the slow-moving waters to breathe, and floating pellets and tablets are made of materials that can serve as food sources, we conclude that these formulations have a higher efficacy, at least in conditions of non- or slow-moving waters. This study shows the importance of a systematic approach to reformulation of old, already proven and environmentally safe larvicides which can control the mosquito populations and their spreading of various pathogens.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Moxidectin: A Viable Alternative for the Control of Ivermectin-Resistant Gastrointestinal Nematodes in Beef Cattle<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The increasing prevalence of anthelmintic resistance in cattle especially for avermectins, is a challenge for controlling parasites in some herds. Thus, field studies demonstrating the increase in productivity by the use of anthelmintic formulations, even when a suboptimal treatment (efficacy below 95%), can contribute to the development of gastrointestinal nematodes control programs in beef cattle. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the anthelmintic efficacy and productive performance in pasture-raised beef calves, treated with macrocyclic lactones. A Split plot in time randomized block design was used to assess weight gain and reduction in fecal egg count (FECs) of treatments: 1% moxidectin (1% MOX), ivermectin (IVM) and abamectin (ABM) (2.25% IVM+1.25% ABM), 4% IVM, 3.15% IVM and placebo. For the evaluation of FECs and weight gain of the animals, individual samples were collected seven days before treatment and, +14, +30, +56, +91 and +118 days post-treatment (DPT). The efficacies in the 14th DPT were: 72.3% (1% MOX), 22.1% (4% IVM), 22% (2.25% IVM + 1.25% ABM) and 0% (3.15% ivermectin). 1% MOX was the only treatment that resulted in a significant increase in weight gain of the animals compared to the placebo group after 118 days of treatment, with a difference of 7.6 kg. Therefore, MOX remains a viable alternative for the control of helminths resistant to avermectins and still capable of resulting in significant productive gains, even with an efficacy below 95%.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Orthosis in the Conservative Treatment of Cranial Cruciate Ligament Rupture in Dogs – Clinical Observations<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Orthoses are increasingly frequently applied orthopedic devices in veterinary medicine. Injury to the knee joint with a rupture of the cranial cruciate ligament is one of the main indications for the use of orthoses in dogs. This study aimed to present the results of treatment of 30 dogs with injured cranial cruciate ligaments using a knee orthosis and describe the reasons for the conservative treatment of cranial cruciate ligament deficiency. The study was conducted between 2017 and 2019 and involved 30 dogs of various breeds aged 7 to 15, weighing from 2.5 kg to 45 kg, diagnosed with cranial cruciate ligament rupture. In the study, a stifle knee orthosis by the Polish manufacturer Admirał (Pl) was used in 29 dogs and, in one case, an orthosis by Balto (USA) was applied. In each case, the orthosis was selected individually, based on the measurements taken. In the twelfth week of treatment using orthoses, the owners of 25 dogs were satisfied with the results of conservative treatment with the application of orthoses. The caretakers of four dogs observed difficulties in the form of slight lameness at rest after prolonged exertion on the previous day. Running difficulty was observed in one dog. In the conducted study, the knee orthosis demonstrated good therapeutic effects in dogs up to 25 kg. In the majority of dogs, a slight increase in the flexion angle of the treated knee joints was observed, X-ray examinations did not show the degenerative disease progress during the studied period.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Improvement of Hygiene Practices and Milk Hygiene Due to Systematic Implementation of Preventive and Corrective Measures<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The Total Bacterial Count (TBC) and the Somatic Cells Count (SCC) in the milk are important indicators of its hygiene and quality. Hygienic conditions in barns, milking procedures, udder hygiene before, during and after milking, milking machine hygiene, as well as milk cooling procedures immediately after milking, have direct or indirect influences on milk hygiene indicators. Poor results of milk hygiene quality, when it comes to SCC and TBC, which are often seen in dairy cattle farms in our country, indicate numerous omissions before and during milking. To determine the possibility of improving milk hygiene quality, training of extension service professionals and farmers was conducted, corrective and preventive measures were determined and the achieved state was monitored on 128 dairy farms where SCC and TBC were observed at regular monthly intervals for 6 months. The results showed a continuous statistically very significant improvement in hygienic conditions in barns, milking procedures, udder hygiene before, during and after milking, milking machine hygiene, as well as milk cooling procedures. This has contributed to a statistically very significant improvement in the hygienic quality of milk, both in SCC and TBC indicators, continuously from month to month, with a visible improvement at the end related to the beginning of the study period. At the begining and the end of survey 19.7% and 50.0% of milk samples belong to 1<sup>st</sup> class of milk quality, respectively, indicating a significant improvement after implementation of corrective measurements.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Development and Validation of an Improved HPLC-UV Method for the Determination of Tildipirosin in Horse Plasma<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>A simple, rapid, low-cost, and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed to determine tildipirosin in horse plasma. Plasma samples were extracted with diethyl ether, and after evaporation, tildipirosin was determined by reverse-phase chromatography with an ultraviolet detector set at a wavelength of 289 nm. Tildipirosin was separated on a Zorbax Eclipse XDB-C18 column, 150 x 3.0 mm, 5 μm with gradient chromatographic elution. The retention times were 3.0 min and 6.4 min for tildipirosin and tylosin tartrate, respectively. The total run time was 9 minutes in this method.</p> <p>Calibration curves ranged from 0.1 to 3 μg/mL. The lower limit of detection for plasma was0.035μg/mL, and the lower limit of quantitation was 0.1 μg/mL. Both accuracy and precision were always &lt; 12% exce pt for LLOQ &lt; 20%. Mean recovery was 99.5 %. This procedure can be applied to determine tildipirosin concentrations in plasma and be useful to perform pharmacokinetic studies.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effects of Long-Term Exposure to Moderate Heat on Rat Pituitary ACTH Cells: Histological and Hormonal Study<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Global warming causes an increased ambient temperature and prolonged heatwaves during the summer, which represent stressogenic factors affecting the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis in mammals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of long-term (7-60 days) exposure to moderately elevated ambient temperature (35 ± 1°C) on the histological aspect and secretory ability of pituitary adrenocorticotropic (ACTH) cells, as well as on the corticosterone output, in adult rats. Stereological parameters of ACTH cells were estimated upon immunohistochemistry. The blood concentrations of ACTH and corticosterone were determined by immunoassays. The volume of ACTH cells in rats exposed to moderately high temperature for 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days decreased (p&lt;0.05) by 18.1%, 14.5%, 13.5%, 8.6% and 14.2% respectively, compared to the same parameter in the controls. The volume density of ACTH cells in the groups exposed to elevated temperature for 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days decreased (p&lt;0.05) by 40.0%, 33.3%, 26.7%, 13.3% and 26.7% respectively, in comparison with control rats. The plasma concentration of ACTH varied differently (p&lt;0.05) with the duration of exposure to the elevated temperature. The serum concentration of corticosterone was decreased (p&lt;0.05) by 54.9%, 24.4%, 29.9%, 21.1% and 24.4% in groups subjected to moderately high temperature for 7, 14, 21, 30 and 60 days respectively, all compared to the control value. Despite some signs of functional recovery of ACTH cells during the treatment, the impression is that the long-term character of this stressor overcomes the capacity of the HPA axis for resistance.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Evaluation of Serum Iron and Ferritin Levels as Inflammatory Markers in Calves with Bovine Respiratory Disease Complex<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Iron and ferritin have been used in human medicine for years to reveal the presence of inflammation. However, studies evaluating these parameters, especially in respiratory system diseases, are quite rare in veterinary medicine. We aimed to test the usability of serum Fe and Fe-related parameters [total iron-binding capacity (TIBC), unsaturated iron-binding capacity (UIBC) and transferrin saturation (TS) levels] as inflammatory and diagnostic biomarkers in calves with bovine respiratory disease complex (BRDC). To mark inflammation, some selected acute-phase proteins including serum ferritin and transferrin levels were measured because of their close relationship with iron metabolism. The material of this study consisted of 15 calves, aged 1-3 months with BRDC (Group I) and 10 healthy calves aged 1-3 months (Group II) based on the presence of respiratory clinical findings. Serum Fe, TIBC and TS levels were low and ferritin levels were high in Group I (P ≤ 0.001). The BRDC group was separated into two subgroups based on PCR results, namely Virus+ (n=9) and Virus- (n=6). The calves in the Virus+ group had significantly lower levels of Fe (P=0.001) and significantly higher values of ferritin (P=0.002), compared to the healthy group. On the basis of inter-group comparison and ROC analysis, we concluded that Fe (primarily), ferritin, TIBC and TS levels can be used as inflammatory biomarkers and possible diagnostic markers in the BRDC as useful, practical, inexpensive substitutes. As a suggestion, these parameters which are believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of the disease, can be used as potential prognostic biomarkers in studies involving treatment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Chemical Composition, Antioxidant and Antibacterial Activity of Two Different Essential Oils Against Mastitis Associated Pathogens<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Mastitis is one of the most common and costly diseases affecting dairy cows worldwide. Since antibiotic resistance has become a global threat to both animal and human health, it is becoming more urgent to continuously search for new therapeutical alternatives for the control and treatment of bovine mastitis. Hence, our research aimed to test the therapeutic use of two essential oils (EOs) based on their chemical composition, antibacterial and antioxidant potential. The present study was conducted by collecting milk samples from the cows diagnosed with clinical or subclinical mastitis with the aim of isolating and identifying bacterial strains. The antioxidant potential of essential oils of <italic>Menthae piperitae</italic> (MP) and <italic>Melissa officinalis</italic> (MO) was evaluated in several <italic>in vitro</italic> assays. In the MP EO, a total of 38 compounds were identified, with menthol as the dominant compound, whereas in MO EO 51 compounds were identified. Furthermore, the values of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) have been used to quantitatively measure the antibacterial activity of each essential oil. In accordance with which, MP EO samples exhibited a higher degree of antibacterial activity than MO EO. Thus, EOs have been shown to be promising alternatives to antibiotics because of their availability, biodegradability, and lower risk of side effects as compared with conventional, antimicrobial treatment. Nevertheless, further clinical studies are needed to test the potential role of EOs in treating mastitis in dairy cows.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00A Case of Leporine Dysautonomia from Croatia<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Leporine dysautonomia (or dysautonomia of hares) is an idiopathic disorder associated with degeneration of neurons of the peripheral nervous system with loss of sympathetic and parasympathetic nerve function. The disease has so far been described in rabbits and hares from Great Britain, and a similar disorder has also been described in horses (grass sickness), dogs and cats (Key-Gaskell syndrome) throughout the world.</p> <p>We describe a case of leporine dysautonomia in a rabbit from Croatia, characterized by gross findings of cachexia, dehydration, dilated intestines and urinary bladder. Histologic findings included severe vacuolation of neurons of the submucous and myenteric plexus in the intestinal tract.</p> <p>This disease presents a rare disorder of rabbits, and based on current report, it should be considered as a possible differential diagnosis is rabbits with neurologic clinical signs and mild gross findings including cachexia and distension of intestine and urinary bladder.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2022-04-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Endoparasites in Sows and Selected Reproduction Parameters<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of the study was to analyze infection of sows with endoparasites depending on their physiological phase and length of exploitation, as well as to determine the effects of infection on selected parameters of reproductive performance. 300 fecal samples collected from the same 75 sows in 4 phases of the production cycle (dry sows, low pregnancy, high pregnancy, lactation) were tested in the experiment. Species and gender diversity, prevalence, OPG and EPG were determined in the study. These parameters were compared in terms of the physiological phase and the length of exploitation. Selected parameters of reproductive performance of sows were also examined, which were compared taking into account the length of exploitation and sows infection with individual parasites.</p><p>The study showed that the entire population was infected with two parasites at all physiological phases: <italic>Eimeria</italic> spp. (17% prevalence, 2275 OPG) and <italic>Ascaris suum</italic> (5% prevalence, EPG 79). The presence of parasites from <italic>Eimeria</italic> genus (prevalence 40%, OPG 2976) in sows exploited for 1 year had a negative effect on some parameters of their reproduction performance. Infected sows, compared to noninfected ones, were characterized by a lower number of live piglets (by 0.21 heads) (p≤0.05), a higher number of stillborn piglets (by 0.21 heads) (p≤0.05), as well as lower daily weight gains of piglets (by 15 g) (p≤0.05), which contributed to their lower weaning body weight (by 0.45 kg) (p≤0.05).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Current Swine Respiratory Diseases Morphology in Intensive Swine Production in Serbia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Swine respiratory diseases represent one of the most frequent health issues in pig production worldwide. Despite the great progress that has been made in the field of diagnostics, control and prophylaxis, respiratory diseases still remain the most challenging health problem in modern commercial pig production. The list of infectious agents that cause respiratory diseases in swine is extensive and includes both, bacterial and viral pathogens. In Serbia, more than fifteen years after the introduction of modern vaccines, the list of bacterial pathogens related to swine respiratory infections still include <italic>Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae</italic>, <italic>Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae</italic>, <italic>Haemophilus parasuis</italic> and <italic>Pasteurella multocida</italic>. On the other hand, most commonly involved viral pathogens are Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus, Swine influenza virus, Porcine circovirus type 2 and Pseudorabies virus. The morphological features of pneumonia where several agents are involved, depend on the predominant etiological agent. Expanding knowledge of the main pathogens associated with swine respiratory diseases and the effects of their interactions on the disease outcome is important for further investigations of lung diseases and implementation of control strategies in commercial pig populations in Serbia. This review discusses the latest findings on swine respiratory disease and current trends in Serbian pig production.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00The Performance of Seven Molecular Methods for the Detection of PRRSV<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome is a viral disease of swine characterized by reproductive failure of breeding animals and respiratory disorders in all categories. The first PRRS case in Serbia was recorded in 2001 after illegal import of boar semen. PRRS is economically the most important disease due to significant direct and indirect losses. Today, for routine diagnosis of PRRS in infected herds serological methods (ELISA) and molecular methods are used. Although modern diagnostic techniques are very robust, exceptional diversity of the viral strains is often the obstacle for an accurate diagnosis. To estimate the performance of seven different methods for PRRSV genome detection, twenty samples were used. However, none of the methods was able to detect all PRRSV strains. The best sensitivity was obtained by combining two methods. Until today, there is no absolutely accurate test which enables the detection of all circulating strains.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effects of a Phytogenic Additive on the Histomorphometric Characteristics of the Intestines in Weaned Pigs with a Subclinical Natural Infection with<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Proliferative enteropathy, also known as proliferative ileitis, is considered to be one of the most economically important diseases in pig production worldwide. The estimated losses per affected growing pig usually range from US $1 to $5. The disease is caused by <italic>Lawsonia intracellularis</italic>, a Gram-negative, obligately intracellular bacterium. Control of the disease can be achieved with the use of vaccines or antibiotics. Recently there has been an increase in the efforts in the control of certain pathologies of the digestive system with phytogenic additives. The aim of this work was to assess the effects of a phytogenic additive on the histomorphometric characteristics of the intestines in weaned pigs with a subclinical infection with <italic>L. intracellularis</italic> acquired spontaneously. Histomorphometry analysis showed that crypt depth was significantly shorter (P&lt;0.05), and the villus-height-to-crypt-depth ratio (P&lt;0.05) significantly greater in the treatment group than the control. This improvement in the histological parameters of the intestine, considered to be indicators of its health, proved the positive effect of the tested additive on the digestive system in pigs.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Antimicrobial Resistance as a Problem for the Quality of Boar Semen<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of the study was to determine whether the bacteria from the environment and from the mucous membrane of the boar prepuce have antimicrobial resistance and whether the result obtained is similar/same to the bacteria that can be found in native boar semen. The study addresses the problem of the presence of primarily resistant bacterial strains in the boar sperm, which, due to their reduced sensitivity, cannot be suppressed by antibiotics used in the semen dilution agent, as well as to emphasize the importance of microbiological monitoring of the boar mucous membranes and ambient surfaces before and during their exploitation. Such an examination could contribute to the interchangeable design of the dilution agent for the boar semen relative to the antibiotic content.Resistant strains of bacteria from prepuce swabs and swabs taken from the facility, as well as from native boar semen were isolated. The presence of these bacteria affected the quality of the semen. In conclusion, it should be pointed out that bacterial monitoring of the prepuce and surface of the facility can indicate possible problems related to the quality of semen, and that the design of the dilution agent for boar semen should be adjusted to the established resistance of isolated bacteria.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Immunization of Pigs with Recombinant Plasmids Containing Genes of Ubiquitinated p30, p54 and CD2v Proteins of African Swine Fever Virus<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Three recombinant plasmid constructs, expressing chimeric proteins containing human ubiquitin fused to an ectodomain of one of the potentially protective proteins (p30, p54 and CD2v) of the attenuated MK-200 strain of African swine fever virus (ASFV), were created as potential inductors of specific antiviral cellular immunity. Three-time immunization of pigs with the mixture of these plasmids led to the formation of virus-specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL), but did not induce production of virus-specific antibodies. After challenge with the homologous parental virulent ASFV strain M-78 at a dose of 10<sup>3</sup> HAD<sub>50</sub>, all five animals (four immunized pigs and one naïve) fell between the 4th and 7th days post infection. The obtained results demonstrated that induction of CTL did not protect pigs against challenge with the virulent ASFV. Balanced activation of CTL and antibody-mediated cellular mechanisms should be investigated.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Dietary Supplementation of a Yeast-Whey Preparation for Weaned Piglets<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Weaning is a stressful period for the piglets and the sow. Stress during weaning is related to the change of diet which can affect the physiology of the gastrointestinal tract, as well as the microbial and immunological status of the animals. In the experiment a yeast-whey preparation was used to decrease the transient growth depression related to reduction of feed intake by the piglets. The piglets were assigned to three treatments. In the control group (I) the animals obtained standard feed mixture used routinely at the farm. In the case of piglets from II and III treatment, the yeast-whey preparation was added in the quantity of 4 and 7%, respectively.</p><p>Application of 7% yeast-whey preparation to the diet significantly increased the body weight of piglets (p&lt;0.05) and in consequence the average daily body weight gain (p&lt;0.01) in comparison with the control group of animals. Additionally, piglets which were fed the yeast-whey preparation diet had a higher feed intake (p&lt;0.05) and better feed conversion ratio (p&lt;0.05) than those fed a diet without the addition of this preparation. No significant differences were stated for most biological parameters (p&gt;0.05), except for the blood urea level, which was significantly lower (p&lt;0.05) in the treatments where the yeast-whey preparation was used. These results indicated that yeast-whey preparation efficiently suppressed post-weaning diarrhea and improved the performance of the animals.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Characteristics of African Swine Fever Virus Isolated from Domestic Pigs and Wild Boars in the Russian Federation and South Ossetia<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The article presents the results of a comparative study of the biological, molecular and genetic characteristics of African swine fever virus (ASFV) isolates, obtained from domestic pigs and wild boars in the Russian Federation and South Ossetia from 2016 to 2018. The studied isolates caused the death of pigs manifesting, as a rule, signs of an acute or subacute form of the disease when using various methods of infection including intramuscular, direct contact, intranasal and oral routes. The virus was hemadsorbing, belonging to serotype 8 and genotype II, and accumulated in the blood with a titer of 6.5 to 7.5 lg HAU<sub>50</sub>/cm<sup>3</sup>. The ASFV isolates circulating in the central region of Russia were found to have an insertion of 10 base pairs in the intergenic region I73R/I329L. However, the ASFV isolated in the Irkutsk region and South Ossetia, as well as Georgia 2007/1 (FR682468.1), lacked this insertion.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Meteorological Factors and Swine Erysipelas Transmission in Southern China<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Swine erysipelas (SE) is one of the best-known and most serious diseases that affect domestic pigs, which is caused by <italic>Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae</italic>. It is endemic in Nanning and has been circulating for decades, causing considerable economic losses. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of meteorological-related variations on the epidemiology of swine erysipelas in Nanning City, a subtropical city of China. Data on monthly counts of reported swine erysipelas and climate data in Nanning are provided by the authorities over the period from 2006 to 2015. Cross-correlation analysis was applied to identify the lag effects of meteorological variables. A zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB) regression model was used to evaluate the independent contribution of meteorological factors to SE transmission. After controlling seasonality, autocorrelation and lag effects, the results of the model indicated that Southern Oscillation Index (SOI) has a positive effect on SE transmission. Moreover, there is a positive correlation between monthly mean maximum temperature and relative humidity at 0-1 month lag and the number of cases. Furthermore, there is a positive association between the number of SE incidences and precipitation, with a lagged effect of 2 months. In contrast, monthly mean wind velocity negatively correlated with SE of the current month. These findings indicate that meteorological variables may play a significant role in SE transmission in southern China. Finally, more public health actions should be taken to prevent and control the increase of SE disease with consideration of local weather variations.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1