rss_2.0Acta Medica Martiniana FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Medica Martinianahttps://sciendo.com/journal/ACMhttps://www.sciendo.comActa Medica Martiniana 's Coverhttps://sciendo-parsed-data-feed.s3.eu-central-1.amazonaws.com/61c9fd57f9200d2343fd66e7/cover-image.jpg?X-Amz-Algorithm=AWS4-HMAC-SHA256&X-Amz-Date=20220126T205047Z&X-Amz-SignedHeaders=host&X-Amz-Expires=604799&X-Amz-Credential=AKIA6AP2G7AKDOZOEZ7H%2F20220126%2Feu-central-1%2Fs3%2Faws4_request&X-Amz-Signature=0417b33944541efdfc5d89e5cddb2fb6e4508585a2b7dd410b22313b3427e362200300What is a Therapeutic Potential of N-Acetylcysteine in Lung Silicosis?https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acm-2021-0011<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Lung silicosis is a serious pulmonary disease caused by an exposure of lung to inhaled silicon dioxide (SiO<sub>2</sub>) or silica. Although pathomechanisms of the disease have not been fully elucidated, oxidative stress has been recognized as a fundamental factor triggering a fibrotizing inflammation leading to irreversible changes in lung tissue. Based on this knowledge, therapeutic potential of various antioxidants has been intensively discussed. Among them, N-acetylcysteine with its multiple anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions and a long-term experience with its clinical use in various diseases appears as a very promising choice. The purpose of this article is to review the therapeutic effects of N-acetylcysteine particularly in relation to a lung injury and to point out a potential of N-acetylcysteine in the treatment of lung silicosis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Impact of Covid-19 on Lifestyle Related Behaviors of Nigerianshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acm-2021-0015<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction:</bold> A great threat of a novel virus – coronavirus otherwise known as COVID-19 pandemic rocked the entire world in the wake of the year 2020. The threat is so strenuous that the entire world was placed on lockdown in the matter of social restriction such as on international and national transport links, market or business transactions, school and organizational activities, and all related social and religious gatherings. This restriction might change people’s lifestyle. This study was aimed at assessing the lifestyle changes caused by the pandemic among Nigerians.</p> <p><bold>Methodology:</bold> A web based cross sectional survey was conducted using an e-questionnaire. A paired t-test, independent t-test were used to test hypothesis while mean, frequency, and percentage were used to summarize the data.</p> <p><bold>Results:</bold> Majority of the participants were male (72.1%), single (83.2%), and middle class (79.5%) of social status. There was a decrease in the habit of consuming meals routinely at regular intervals during COVID-19 (19.4% vs 25.7%). There were significant differences in eating patterns before and during COVID-19 (P&lt;0.05). Likewise, significant differences in physical activity before and during COVID-19 were observed.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> Some of the protocol put in place in curtailing the virus has been proven to have a positive impact on the lifestyle of Nigerians Such health benefits include but not limited to an increase in moderate exercise, increase in the consumption of healthy and reduction in the consumption of unhealthy food.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Re-Emphasizing the Roles of General Medical and Dental Practitioners Regarding Oral Cancer Eradication in Nigeriahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acm-2021-0012<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The burden of oral cancer in Nigeria is largely under-reported. The available data on oral cancer etiology/risk factors, clinical features, disease burden, and literacy rate in Nigeria points towards a possible explosion in prevalence in the near future, which poses a serious public health concern. The general medical and dental practitioners (GMDPs) in Nigeria can salvage this looming problem through appropriate public health and clinical interventions. This narrative review article re-emphasizes the key roles of GMDPs towards oral cancer eradication in Nigeria. It also discusses oral cancer case definition, etiology, risk factors, and the epidemiological burden in the Nigerian context.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Obturation of Root Canals By Vertical Condensation of Gutta-Percha – Benefits and Pitfallshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acm-2021-0013<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Vertical condensation of gutta-percha is one of the frequently used techniques of hermetic and three-dimensional obturation of root canal system which is one of the primary goals of endodontic tooth treatment. Techniques for filling root canals have been described since ancient Egypt and have undergone dynamic development in recent decades. The aim of the article is to analyze the technique of obturation of root canals using vertical condensation of guttapercha and to point out its benefits and pitfalls.</p> <p>The poor-quality treatment of the tooth deteriorates its prognosis, function, and long-term survival in the oral cavity; thus, the hermetic obturation of the root canals is one of the most important pillars of the complex tooth treatment. Obturation of the root canals by vertical condensation of warm gutta-percha is nowadays considered in the correct indications as one of the most commonly used techniques in the excellent dental practices. Even though it is quite technologically challenging and time-consuming it enables to reach high level of predictability and clinical success. Currently, the obturation technique based on master gutta-percha cone combined with the calcium-silicate based sealer is emerging. However, long term results of clinical studies and follow-up are needed to make a significant improvement in the area of endodontics.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Strategies for Reducing Rationed Nursing Care: Qualitative Secondary Analysishttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acm-2021-0014<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p><bold>Introduction</bold>: Nursing students spend a meaningful part of their professional training in clinical practice. However, to a significant extent, they actively or passively contribute to the occurrence of rationed nursing care in clinical practice. Therefore, it is crucial that they actively participate in implementing targeted strategies to reduce rationed nursing care.</p> <p><bold>Aim</bold>: To explore nursing students′ experience with strategies focusing on the reduction of rationed nursing care.</p> <p><bold>Methods</bold>: We chose a qualitative secondary analysis to address unpublished data related to nursing students′ experience with strategies focusing on reducing rationed nursing care. The data included a set comprising of 148 pages with transcribed verbatim of 18 semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed by a deductive content analysis.</p> <p><bold>Results</bold>: Based on the outcome of the secondary analysis, we identified two meaningful categories: Preventive strategies in clinical practice and Importance and meaning of preventive strategies. These two categories reflected nursing students′ experience with targeted strategies to reduce rationed nursing care in clinical practice.</p> <p><bold>Conclusion</bold>: Proposal and subsequent implementation of preventive strategies are essential for reducing rationed nursing care phenomenon from the clinical practice environment. The perspective of nursing students is vital due to their intensive perception of rationed nursing care in clinical practice. Students may identify areas that work-place staff may not explicitly focus on and consider important but jeopardize the quality of care or patient safety.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-12-27T00:00:00.000+00:00Detection of Subclinical Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation and Its Correlation with Candidate Genes in Patients with Cryptogenic Ischemic Stroke and TIAhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acm-2021-0007<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Introduction: Cardioembolic etiology is assumed to be the most frequent cause of cryptogenic strokes. The detection of subclinical paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (AF) is important in the correct choice of preventive treatment. The aim of this prospective study was to detect the incidence of AF in patients with a cryptogenic stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) and to evaluate the association between the presence of AF and selected single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP).</p> <p>Methods: Patients with a cryptogenic stroke/ TIA (n=100) and a control group (n=15) of volunteers without significant cardiovascular disease were included in the study during the period of 2014 to 2019. To detect AF they underwent 12 months of ECG monitoring using an implanted loop recorder (ILR). Genotyping for SNPs rs10033464, rs2200733, rs225132, and rs2106261 was performed by a high resolution melting analysis.</p> <p>Results: We found AF to be present in 24 (24%) patients with a cryptogenic stroke/TIA, versus no subjects in the control group. The SNPs rs2106261, rs2200733, rs225132, and rs10033464 were not found to be associated with AF in our study (p=0.240; 1.000; 0.887; 0.589). However, a weak trend for a higher frequency of rs2106261 risk allele A homozygotes was observed in the patients with AF compared to the patients without AF (0.416 vs. 0.263, p=0.073). Homozygotes for allele A of <italic>rs2106261</italic> were also present in a significantly higher frequency in AF patients compared to the controls (0.416 vs. 0.133, p = 0.012).</p> <p>Conclusion: In our study paroxysmal AF was a probable etiological factor in 24% of patients with cryptogenic ischemic stroke / TIA during the 12 months of monitoring. The homozygous allele A of rs2106261 was identified to be the possible genetic risk factor of AF, but this should be verified in larger cohorts.</p> <p>The study has been registered at <ext-link ext-link-type="uri" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink" xlink:href="http://www.clinicaltrials.gov">www.clinicaltrials.gov</ext-link>, identifier NCT02216370.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Distribution of Metastases in Ent Area – Comparison of Theory and Practicehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acm-2021-0008<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>In head and neck cancers the occurrence of nodal metastases is the most important prognostic factor. Their early diagnosis is crucial for proper treatment. Detection of early metastases is still very difficult. Predictive diagnostic methods such as the sentinel lymph node detection is limited by the occurrence of skip metastases. At our Clinic we prefer a selective neck dissection based on a surgical treatment of predilected lymphatic spread area for each type of head and neck tumor with a preservation of non-lymphatic structures of the neck. The main objective of this article is to analyze the distribution of neck metastases and to study the frequency of skip metastases in head and neck cancer.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-19T00:00:00.000+00:00How to Measure Patient Safety Culture? a Literature Review of Instrumentshttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acm-2021-0010<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Introduction: Patient safety culture is described as employees’ shared values, attitudes, and behaviours in a healthcare organization. Its main goal is to improve patient safety. Assessment of patient safety culture in the hospital environment is most often carried out using self-assessment tools. Although several of these tools have been developed, their comprehensive overview is lacking in literature.</p> <p>Aim: To provide an overview of instruments measuring patient safety culture in a hospital setting.</p> <p>Methods: The study has a character of a narrative literature review. The search was performed in the scientific databases Scopus, ProQuest, and PubMed in January 2021. The search produced a total of 1,767 studies and was limited to language (English). The search and the retrieval process reflected PRISMA’s recommendations. The content analysis method was used in the data synthesis.</p> <p>Results: We identified 24 tools for assessing the patient safety culture in a hospital setting, of which seven were developed for specific workplaces; others are considered general. Eighteen tools might be utilized by all healthcare professionals within the hospital setting and only three were designated explicitly for nurses. The most commonly used instruments were the Hospital Survey on Patient Culture and the Safety Attitudes Questionnaire.</p> <p>Conclusion: Assessing a patient safety culture is considered one of the strategies for improving patient safety while increasing care quality. An appropriate tool’s choice depends on the target population, the instrument’s validity and reliability, and other aspects. Awareness of the various assessment tools can help hospitals choose the one that best suits their circumstances.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Clinicopathological Study of Skin Adnexal Tumors: A Single Institute Experiencehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acm-2021-0009<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Background: Skin adnexal tumors (SATs) encompass a very broad variety of rare dermatopathologic entities. Objective: The aim of the present study was to analyze an incidence and clinicopathological findings of patients with biopsy-proven ASTs.</p> <p>Material and Methods: A retrospective review of all consecutive cutaneous tumors that were diagnosed at the Martin Biopsy Center in Martin from July 2019 to March 2021 was carried out. ASTs have been searched for from this file and studied based on their histologic type and line of differentiation, anatomic distribution, age, and gender.</p> <p><italic>Results: Among</italic> over 3,700 skin tumors a total of 38 ASTs in 38 individuals (21 males, 17 females) have been found. The age of the patients ranged from 22-89 years (mean 55.5 y.). The head and neck region was found to be the most common site affected (26/38; 68.4%), followed by extremities (8/38; 21.1%) and trunk (4/38; 10.5%). Tumors of hair follicle origin constituted the largest category (22/38; 57.9%), followed by sweat gland tumors (15/38; 39.5%) and tumors derived from sebaceous glands (1/38; 2.6%). Benign lesions accounted for all 38 cases. Trichoepithelioma was the most frequent lesion found in the category of follicular tumors and poroma was the most common among tumours with sweat gland differentiation.</p> <p>Conclusion: An overall incidence of ASTs is low and in this institutional study they constituted about 1% of all cutaneous neoplasms. ASTs display a marked phenotypic heterogeneity, that is why many published studies have provided divergent results concerning their clinicopathological features.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Biological Effects of a Low-Frequency Electromagnetic Field on Yeast Cells of the Genus https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acm-2021-0006<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Background: Although the scientific community is extensively concerned with the effects of the EMF, the unambiguous explanation of its effects on living structures is still lacking.</p> <p>Goals: The goal of the study was to evaluate the effect of a low-frequency (LF) electromagnetic field (EMF) on the growth and multiplication of the yeast <italic>Saccharomyces cerevisiae</italic>.</p> <p>Methods: Yeast cells were exposed to a frequency of 900 Hz and a magnetic flux density of 2.3 mT. The duration of each experiment was 8 hours, in the beginning of the measurement the value of frequency, rms (root mean square) value of electric current (2 A), and magnetic flux density were fixed set on the exposure device. A paired experiment was performed, a sample exposed to EMF, and a sample shielded from the field. Subsequently, samples were taken every two hours, the number of cells was recorded, and then the concentration of the yeast cells was evaluated at time points. The time points reflected the exposure time of the samples exposed to EMF.</p> <p>Results: The results indicate that LF EMF at given parameters has an inhibitory effect on the growth and multiplication of yeast cells.</p> <p>Conclusion: Exposure to EMF can cause the differences in growth dynamics between cells exposed to the field and the unexposed ones.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-08-19T00:00:00.000+00:00Correlation of Increased Total Serum Immunoglobulin E Levels and Hidradenitis Suppurativahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acm-2021-0002<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><bold>Introduction:</bold> Hidradenitis suppurativa is a chronic inflammatory skin disease with a typical formation of inflamed nodules, abscesses, and sinus tracts usually in the axillary, inguinal, and anogenital region. We decided to investigate the possible association of hidradenitis suppurativa and total IgE elevation and to explore the patients’ characteristics which can be related to high IgE levels.</p><p><bold>Methods:</bold> We performed a retrospective observational study which included 67 patients with moderate-to-severe stage of hidradenitis suppurativa followed up in our outpatient dermatology department. Total IgE, IgA, IgG, IgM, and CRP serum levels were measured. A personal and family history was taken. We asked them about allergic diseases and cigarette smoking and determined the basic parameters such as the weight and height of the patients.</p><p><bold>Results:</bold> Elevated total IgE levels were noticed in 21 patients (31.3%), of which 6 had a history of allergic disorder. Three of them had allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and the other three were suffering from atopic dermatitis. The mean total IgE level was 203.0 IU/ml with a maximum value of 1,954 IU/ml. Analysis of the factors, such as cigarette smoking, sex, elevated CRP, body mass index, and the number of affected areas, did not show an association with increased IgE levels.</p><p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> Our study showed a higher mean value of total IgE in patients with moderate to severe hidradenitis suppurativa than in the general population. However, we did not confirm an association with any characteristics of the patients. Limitations of this work include a small number of patients and a lack of the control group, therefore further and more extensive studies are needed to support these results.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effect of Music on Heart Rate Variability (Review)https://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acm-2021-0001<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Music therapy and the use of music in medical practice have now become rapidly advancing and promising areas of non-invasive alternative medicine. However, the opinions of physicians and therapists on the implementation of this complementary therapy, especially in the process of treating the patient, are constantly different. In addition, the effect of music and individual methodological procedures are not uniform and defined in detail. Therefore, this review study summarizes the results and conclusions of some selected high-quality publications over the last decade and makes suggestions for improvement and further research. It focuses mainly on the evaluation of changes in heart rate variability (HRV) as an indicator of the activity of the autonomic nervous system (ANS) in connection with the application of music in the process of passive music therapy.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Spindle Cell Melanoma Harboring a Nodule of Epitheloid Cell Melanoma Component: A Study of a Diagnostically Challenging Casehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acm-2021-0005<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><bold>Background:</bold> Melanoma is a very heterogeneous human neoplasm. In addition to four major (conventional) histologic subtypes a number of uncommon variants do exist.</p><p><bold>Objective:</bold> An unusual case of a spindle cell melanoma (SCM) containing a demarcated nodule of conventional epitheliod cell melanoma component is described.</p><p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> A 71-year-old man manifested with a protuberated ulcerated skin tumor arising on the right forearm. The resected biopsy was analyzed immunohistochemically with a variety of anti-human antibodies.</p><p><bold>Results:</bold> The tumor consisted of a highly cellular mass of spindle-shaped cells without any significant intratu-moral fibrosis. In addition, a nodule of epithelioid cell tumor component was present within the lesion. The spindle cell component showed a disperse reactivity for S100 protein and was negative for other melanocytic markers. It exhibited a very high mitotic activity and proliferation Ki-67 index. No melanin pigment was detected. In contrast, the epithelioid cell component was strongly positive for S100 protein, Melan-A/MART-1, HMB-45, and PNL-2. The mitotic and proliferation indices were much less pronounced and melanin deposits were visible. A diagnosis of a non-desmoplastic SCM harboring a nodule of epithelioid cell melanoma component was established.</p><p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> SCM often posses a diagnostic dilemma because its histomorphology is atypical and its immunohistochemical profile may differ from other subtypes of melanomas. The present paper points out this uncommon histopathological entity that may sometimes be encountered in dermatopathological practice and that requires more complex diagnostic approach.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Ecstasy-Induced Malignant Hyperthermia with Fatal Outcome: A Case Reporthttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acm-2021-0004<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>3,4-methylenedioxymetamphetamine (MDMA), also known as “ecstasy”, “tulips”, or “Molly”, is an increasingly used “recreational drug” particularly among teenagers and young adults along with the widespread conviction that MDMA is a “safe drug”. The reason for this substance being abused is a desire for closeness to other people, develop a greater tolerance of their views and feelings, and even to touch them physically. According to these effects MDMA is classified also as an “<italic>empatogenic</italic>” or “<italic>entactogenic</italic>”. Although MDMA is used for the above-mentioned socially acceptable purposes, in many individuals the drug usage is followed with side-effects varying from mild to severe, potentially even life-threatening. One of the most significant complication of MDMA intoxication is hyper-thermia in the consumer. Authors presented a case of MDMA toxicity with severe hyperthermia (42 ºC) with a fatal outcome to the ecstasy-influenced subject. The aim of this article is to describe the effects of ecstasy, the “recreational drug” widely used in local pubs, dance clubs, and during open air festivals, even in the Slovak Republic.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00A Retrospective Analysis of the Palliative Surgical Treatment in Patients with Malignant Pleural Effusionhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/acm-2021-0003<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p><bold>Introduction:</bold> The formation of malignant pleural effusion (MPE) is a clinical manifestation of an advanced malignancy or its dissemination. The focus of treatment is primarily palliative and aimed at relieving symptoms, especially dyspnoea.</p><p><bold>Material and Methods:</bold> Clinical data from patients who were hospitalized at the Clinic of Thoracic Surgery, JFMED CU and Martin University Hospital, in the years 2015–2019 were retrospectively explored and statistically analyzed based on their medical records.</p><p><bold>Results:</bold> From the group of patients with proven MPE (n=67), 32 patients were male (48%) and 35 were female (52%). The mean age was 62.3 years (65.4 for males and 59.4 for females). The three most common primary malignancies were lung cancer (n=24), breast cancer (n=14), and kidney cancer (n=6). In 38 patients with MPE a talc pleurodesis via VATS was performed, with a median survival of 341 days (95% CI 256–859). Drainage following the talc slurry pleurodesis was performed in 10 patients with a median survival of 91.5 days (95% CI 64-NA). Ten patients with MPE underwent drainage only. The overall median survival time after all types of surgical interventions was 301 days (95% CI 207-389 days).</p><p><bold>Conclusion:</bold> Management of MPE depends on the patient´s prognosis. A definitive intervention is required in patients with a long-term survival, while in patients with a short life expectancy procedures leading to the shortest hospital stay are preferred. Videothoracoscopic procedures with pleurodesis represent an effective treatment for patients with symptomatic MPE with a good performance status, presence of lung re-expansion following pleural drainage or expected survival.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2021-04-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Genetics of Psoriasis - Short Resumehttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/v10201-011-0001-0<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Genetics of Psoriasis - Short Resume</title><p>Psoriasis is a disease with a genetic background (4). Several psoriasis susceptibility loci (PSORS) have been found on various chromosomes: PSORS1 on 6p21.3, PSORS2 on 17q, PSORS3 on 4q, PSORS4 on 1q21, PSORS5 on 3q21, PSORS6 on 19p, PSORS7 on 1p, PSORS8 on 16q, PSORS9 on 4q31, PSORS10 on 18p11, PSORS11 on 5q31-q33 and PSORS12 on 20q13. (27). However, the exact genes and their functions, or their respective malfunctions, in psoriasis and arthritis have not been unambiguously identified. Recently, it has been argued that PSORS1 may indeed be the HLA-Cw<sup>*</sup>06 allele encoding the HLA-Cw6 molecule (35).</p><p>Psoriasis is a chronic inflammatory disease of skin that also often affects joints and nails. This disorder is characterized by hyperproliferation of keratinocytes, activation of angiogenesis, vasodilatation and mainly by lymphocyte infiltration of dermis and epidermis (45). The process of maturation of keratinocytes is accelerated and thus not quite terminated. Psoriatic lesion appears on skin.</p><p>Skin manifestations are typically red bounded areas of different size and shape with characteristic silvery scales (9). Lesions appear mostly on the skin of elbows and knees, scalp including genitals. Individual manifestations differ in size and severity from localized lesions to whole body involvement. Very often psoriasis affects nails of hands and feet. It can also cause inflammatory changes on joints, named as psoriatic arthritis. Similarly to rheumatoid arthritis and sclerosis multiplex, psoriasis is classified as an immune mediated inflammatory disorder. Those disorders are characterized by chronic progression of an inflammatory process and important role of TNF alpha. Because of the role of TNF alpha in pathogenesis, we can use its inhibitors in therapy. It also affects progress of different comorbidities such as diabetes mellitus 2 and cardiovascular problems (21). Patients with psoriasis have often other risk factors for atherosclerosis such as lipid metabolism disorders and overweight (37).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2011-06-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Renal Ontogeny of P-Glycoprotein/MDR1 in Rathttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/v10201-011-0003-y<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Renal Ontogeny of P-Glycoprotein/MDR1 in Rat</title><p>BACKGROUND: P-glycoprotein (Pgp/MDR1) is an ATP-dependent, integral plasma-membrane efflux pump that is constitutively expressed on adult apical brush-border epithelium of renal proximal tubules. This Pgp/MDR1 tissue distribution and localization affects the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion of Pgp/MDR1 substrates. The ontogeny of rat Pgp/MDR1 is still doubtful, and such knowledge may be helpful in understanding age-related pharmacokinetics. The purpose of this study was to determine, whether Pgp/MDR1 expression is altered during development.</p><p>METHODS: Postnatal expression of Pgp was determined using immunohistochemical method. Tissue from Wistar rat were isolated on the 1st day (D1), 7th day (D7), 14th day (D14), 21st day of life (D21) and from adult animals (60 days old; Ad).</p><p>RESULTS: Our ontogeny study illustrated that expression of Pgp was relatively constant from birth to adulthood.</p><p>CONCLUSIONS: Knowledge of the ontogeny of transport proteins involved in distribution and elimination of drugs is important for adequate interpretation of the results of toxicity studies in juvenile animals.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2011-06-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Activity of Monoamine Oxidases in Rat Female Genital Organs During Preimplantation Period of Pregnancyhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/v10201-011-0002-z<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Activity of Monoamine Oxidases in Rat Female Genital Organs During Preimplantation Period of Pregnancy</title><p>Our objectives in the present study were to determine the activity of monoamine oxidases A and B (MAO AB) in rat ovary, oviduct and uterus during preimplantation period of pregnancy. It should help us to clarify and better understand possible involvement of both MAO enzymes in the reproductive process. Pregnant females were killed employing a lethal dose of thiopental on the first (D1), on the third (D3), and on the fifth (D5) days of pregnancy. Rats were perfused transcardially with the PBS to rinse out of the body as much blood as possible. Ovaries, oviducts and uteri were immediately removed and stored until the measurement was done. MAO activity was determined by fluorescent monoamine oxidase detection kit. In the ovaries we have found the highest MAO activity at D3, followed by D1, and the lowest levels were recorded at D5 of pregnancy. In the oviducts, the highest MAO activity was detected again at D3, followed by D5, and by D1 of pregnancy. But statistical analysis did not reveal any difference between individual days of pregnancy nor in the ovaries, neither in uterine tubes. Uteri were the only organs, in which statistically significant differences were detected (p&lt;0.001). The highest activity of MAO was observed at D5, followed by D1, and by D3 of pregnancy. Potential mechanisms responsible for the changed MAO activity in gonads during preimplantation period of pregnancy are proposed.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2011-06-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigating Dyspepsia in Clinical Practice - A Trap for Giardiahttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/v10201-011-0004-x<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Investigating Dyspepsia in Clinical Practice - A Trap for Giardia</title><p>Introduction: Dyspepsia is a very common condition with significant morbidity and economic implications. Dyspeptic symptoms have heterogeneous pathogenic mechanisms, including several organic, systemic or extragastrointestinal causes, however, origin of the most cases of dyspepsia remains unclear. This study aimed to focus on potential causes in patients with nonspecific dyspeptic symptoms in absence of organic, systemic or biochemical and hematological findings that readily explain their symptoms.</p><p>Methods: We studied presence of persistent abdominal symptoms (heartburn, dull epigastric pain, epigastric cramps, epigastric fullness, flatulence, diarrhoea), weight loss. All patients (116 patients, 29 males/87 females) had normal laboratory tests, negative abdominal ultrasound evaluation and upper endoscopy findings. Presence of Giardia intestinalis (GI), Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection and coeliac disease (CD) was evaluated by obtaining biopsy samples and duodenal fluid aspiration during upper endoscopy. We determined the effect of eradication treatment on dyspepsia symptoms 2 months after therapy.</p><p>Results: HP infection was present in 28%, coeliac disease in 6%, GI infection was diagnosed in 27% patients GI and HP in 12%, CD and HP in 1%, GI and CD in 2%. None of these causes were presented in 39%. Most frequent symptoms were epigastric fullness (69%), dull epigastric pain (38%), heartburn (35%), flatulence (34%), abdominal cramps (31%) and diarrhoea (16%). We documented the remission of symptoms in 79% examined patients 2 month after eradication therapy.</p><p>Conclusion: The most common cause of dyspepsia was Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic giardiasis. Although H. pylori and coeliac disease are widely well known, we pointed out Giardia intestinalis as another possible cause of dyspepsia. Chronic giardiasis leads in selected individuals to dyspeptic symptomatology that mimics functional dyspepsia and irritable bowel syndrome. We recommend test for G. intestinalis infection in all patients with chronic dyspeptic complaints of unknown origin.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2011-06-03T00:00:00.000+00:00Point Prevalence Survey of Nosocomial Infections in University Hospital in Martinhttps://sciendo.com/article/10.2478/v10201-011-0005-9<abstract xml:lang="en"><title style='display:none'>Point Prevalence Survey of Nosocomial Infections in University Hospital in Martin</title><p>Nosocomial infections (NI) are a serious problem not only in Slovakia but in all countries. The European Commission decided on their standardized surveillance in the whole European Union. According methodology elaborated by experts from the European Centre for Disease Control and Prevention (ECDC) in Stockholm we performed a point prevalence survey in the University Hospital Martin (UHM). In this article we present the results which show that the prevalence of NI in UHM (5.5%) is comparable with the average in other European hospitals. In comparison with occurrence of NI (0.64%) reported through the Epidemiological Information System of the Slovak Republic, our results are 8.5-times higher. The highest point prevalence of NI was found at the Clinic of Hematology and Transfusiology - 7 patients (out of 15 hospitalized) which is 46.7%. The most common type of NI was sepsis (25.9%) and urological infection (22.2%). Based on the results obtained we recommend to continue in international projects of NI surveillance, so that it would be possible to acquire more accurate data on NI prevalence in UHM and do the benchmarking among hospitals in countries of the European Union.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2011-06-03T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1