rss_2.0Acta Biologica Marisiensis FeedSciendo RSS Feed for Acta Biologica Marisiensis Biologica Marisiensis 's Cover Services of Hospital Gardens - Based on Microclimate Analyses of Green and Blue Garden Elements<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The increasing urbanization process of the last decades has resulted in negative impacts and changes in the quality of the urban environment, as reflected in mortality and morbidity data (Páldy, 2018). The quality of the environment, the urban climate, the increased frequency and duration of extreme weather events, ultimately threaten human well-being. To design and build liveable cities, the quality of the urban environment must be improved, and improving micro- or local climate is an important factor in this. Increasing the proportion and quality of biologically active surfaces, i.e. the ecosystem services provided by green spaces, is one of the most effective tools for urban conditioning and enhancing human well-being. Determining the proportions of the green area, the design of vegetation, the choice of pavements and microarchitectures all determine the microclimate of an open-space. This has been confirmed by a large body of research and implemented work, but it is also important for designers to make a preliminary prediction of the impact of any intervention on the climatic conditions of the design site. These predictions will help cost-effective designing to determine which intervention will result in climate change.</p> <p>This research uses two specific examples to examine the effectiveness of each landscape designing tool and to show which designing tool produces what and how much climatic impact. For these studies, we used a climate modeling program (ENVI-MET), which runs simulations to infer the climate modifying effects of landscape planning tools.</p> <p>In the course of the research, we have shown that the local climate of hospital gardens could be significantly influenced by favorable, environmental-friend paving, a higher green cover ratio, and a well-developed and sufficiently dense tree canopy, and various water features.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00The Effect of Different Substrate on the Morphological Characteristics of Hungarian Cultivars<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of this trial was to find the optimal substrate (sand, peat and 1:1 mixture of them) for germination and growing of <italic>Tagetes patula</italic> ‘Robuszta Kénsárga’, ‘Vénusz’ and ‘Tigris’, with the use of 40 seeds according to substrates and cultivars in nine groups. Germination and survival ratio, plant height, root length, flower number and –diameter were examined. Almost all seeds germinated successfully, and the highest surviving was around 80% in case of peat + sand, and the lowest (50%) when plants grown in pure sand. The latter substrate resulted the longest roots (especially in the groups of ‘Tigris’) and all cultivars (particularly ‘Vénusz’) reached the lowest height with the use of this soil. On the other hand, peat effected the shortest roots, tallest specimens, most flowers of every cultivars. In case of flower number, there were significant differences between ‘Tigris’ (with averagely 58-70 flowers) and the other two types (23-39 flowers), irrespectively of the substrates. ‘Vénusz’ developed the smallest flower heads (maximum 3.5 cm) in all cases; the other cultivars produced at least 4 cm inflorescences. The lowest plant values experienced with the use of sand and the best results on peat.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Inclusion Complex of Gedunin-2-Hydroxypropyl-Β-Cyclodextrin Prepared by Kneading and Freeze-Drying Methods: Synthesis and Structural Characterization<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The potential application of gedunin, a pharmacologically active limonoid, is limited in medicine because it has poor aqueous solubility. This study was aimed at preparation and characterization of an inclusion complex of gedunin and 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBD) to increase the solubility in aqueous solvents and thus enhance the possibility of pharmaceutical formulation and oral administration of gedunin. Inclusion complex of gedunin isolated from <italic>Entandrophragma angolense</italic> heartwood with 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HBD) was prepared using freeze-drying and kneading methods. The gedunin-2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin complex (GCD) was characterized using elemental analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), <sup>1</sup>H nuclear magnetic resonance (<sup>1</sup>H-NMR) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Elemental analysis indicated that gedunin and HBD formed 1:1 stoichiometric inclusion complex. Results of FT-IR indicated that gedunin was stabilized in HBD cavity by intra-molecular hydrogen bonds and van der Waals forces. <sup>1</sup>H-NMR revealed that the entire gedunin molecule was not trapped into the core of the HBD. Nevertheless, the fraction trapped may be sufficient to enhance the apparent solubility of gedunin. XRD results showed the formation of new solid crystalline phase. The results obtained by different characterization techniques clearly indicated that both kneading and freeze-drying methods led to inclusion complex formation which may enhance oral administration of gedunin.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Perspectives on Antiviral Drugs Development in the Treatment of COVID-19<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The main objective of this review is to highlight the urgent development of new antiviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2 in the context of the coronavirus pandemic. Antiviral medication against SARS-CoV-2 comprises only remdesivir as an approved drug. Scientists are making considerable efforts to identify other effective antivirals. Investments into the <italic>de novo</italic> design of new drugs against the SARS-CoV-2 virus are few. Molnupiravir proved to be effective against the SARS-CoV-2 virus and is very close to approval. Pfizer’s two new compounds (PF-07321332, oral administration and PF-07304814, systemic administration) are in the early stages of development. Two types of methods are preferred to discover new antivirals in a short period. Repositioning of approved drugs for antiviral effect conducted to some clinical results for favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir, danoprevir/ritonavir, umifenovir, hydroxychloroquine, camostat and nafamostat. Virtual screening of known molecules’ libraries indicated several compounds that were tested or are being tested in clinical trials. In conclusion, only a few innovative antiviral molecules are in various stages of development. However, the repositioning of many known compounds is being studied, including using virtual screening. The pharmaceutical industry is adapting and reinventing itself so that humanity can face a new pandemic in the future.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Effect of Light-Emitting Diodes (LEDs) on Some Physical and Bioactive Compounds of ‘Iceberg’ Lettuce ( L.)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is a recent concerned application in the indoor crop system of the modern plant production. In our research, we evaluated the influence of four monochromic LED lights including 100% White (W), Yellow (Y), Red (R) and Blue (B) in comparison to solar lightening condition (GR) as a control. In this regard, some morphological characteristics and biochemical content of the common outdoor ‘Iceberg’ lettuce (<italic>Lactuca sativa</italic> L.) was measured. The results show that leaf length, leaf area and total head weight were significantly greater in the plants grown under B LED, while all the other physical parameters were significantly higher in the plants grown under GR environmental conditions. On the other hand, chlorophyll (Chl), carotenoids (Car), and nitrate content were also influenced by different light treatments. Plants grown under LED light treatment resulted in significantly higher chlorophyll content compared to the control. However, significantly greater carotenoid content was in the plants grown under GR condition. The highest total chlorophyll content was recorded under B and R LED, whereas the lowest was in the GR condition. The lowest nitrate content in the blade and petiole was recorded in the plants grown under Y LED, while the highest nitrate content was recorded in the GR. Based on our result, it is possible to grow and improve some quality parameters of common outdoor ‘iceberg’ lettuce under LED where the solar light is limited or unavailable. Thus, plants performed better under GR light conditions than monochromic LEDs; however, some LED lights could improve some quality parameters and biochemical contents in the ‘iceberg’ lettuce variety.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Investigation of HRPF2 Gene Deletion in in Northwestern Nigeria<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Tests (RDTs) plays an important role in malaria management and control. The Pf HRP2 based RDT kit is the most widely used RDT for malaria diagnosis in Nigeria but is affected by the deletion of HRP2 gene in Plasmodium falciparum parasites. Therefore, identifying the prevalence and distribution of <italic>Plasmodium falciparum</italic> parasites with deleted Pf HRP2 is important for malaria control. Pf HRP2 gene deletion was assessed in this study by first carrying out Giemsa stained thick blood film microscopy and Pf HRP2 RDT strip test. The samples were further analyzed for molecular examination by PCR assay for multiple single–copy genes (Pf Cox3, Pf HRP2, Pf HRP3 and Pf Beta tubulin). This study found the existence of eight (8) <italic>Plasmodium falciparum</italic> isolates lacking the HRP2 gene in the samples analyzed, this necessitates the need to develop a unique RDT Kit targeting other housekeeping genes unique for <italic>Plasmodium falciparum</italic> with far greater sensitivity than the current ones as to reduce the chances of false negative RDT result as well as developing unique RDT Kits targeting both PfHRP2 and PfHRP3 genes concomitantly in order to reduce the chances of having a false positive RDT results.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Homage to George E. Palade Cell Protein Secretion in Vascular Biology: Overview and Updates<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This short overview and updates expresses our brain-and-heart homage to George Emil Palade, “the most influential cell biologist ever”. In his 1971 paper Palade wrote for Albert Claude, the founder of biological electron microscopic method: “Seldom has a field owed so much to a single man”. Herein, we articulate the same words for George Palade, the Teacher of many generations in cell biology research and education. Accordingly, we focus on two paradigm shifts in the cell biology, namely (i) the transition from light to transmission electron microscopy in studying cell protein secretion made by George Palade, and (ii) the transition from contractile to secretory phenotype of vascular smooth muscle cells made by Maria Daria Haust followed and developed by our research group. Altogether, we argue that one of the present challenges in vascular biology is to cultivate secreto-centric thinking and thus further focusing on how we could make the vascular muscle’s secretory pathways work for the benefit of human’s cardiovascular health.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00Micro-Anatomical Characterization of African Native Monotypic Genera - (DC.) Guill and Linn (Combretaceae)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>This study was designed to explore the micro-anatomical characteristics of leaf and petiole of two unstudied West African native monotypic genera - <italic>Anogeissus</italic> and <italic>Qusqualis</italic> in Combretaceae with a view to characterizing the taxa, providing useful research-based information for identification. The samples were prepared following standard procedures. The light microscopic study of the transverse sections of the leaves in <italic>A. leiocarpus</italic> revealed a thick upper and lower cuticle while the cuticle on both leaf surfaces in <italic>Q. indica</italic> remain thin. The midrib vascular bundle of the leaf in <italic>Q. indica</italic> is characterized by arc-shape and starch grains were observed in the parenchyma cells of the ground tissue. The uniseriate rows of lamina epidermis were oval, squared, rectangular or polygonal in <italic>Q. indica</italic> while it was rectangular or slightly oval in <italic>A. leiocarpus</italic>. Vascular bundle in the leaves and petioles of both taxa were collateral. Simple, slender and short unicellular non-glandular trichomes were also observed in the leaf and petiole micro-anatomy of both taxa. It was concluded that the micro-anatomical features of the leaves and petioles are important parameters of characterization, used in the identification of the studied taxa.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-07-01T00:00:00.000+00:00 Sp. Strain MY 83295F: A Potential -DDT-Degrading Bacterium Isolated from Pesticide Contaminated Soil<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Although DDT has been on the ban list by the Stockholm Convention for its environmental degradation, still a wave of emerging shreds of evidence has proved its circulation in developing countries. The intensity of environmental degradation and human health problems posed by residual DDT and its metabolites become of serious ecological concern, warranting a search for novel strains with a capacity to biodegrade these environmental contaminants. A new strain of the genus <italic>Staphylococcus</italic> was isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil. The 16S rRNA and phylogenetic analyses were used to identify the isolate and the 16S rRNA partial gene sequence was deposited in the NCBI GenBank as <italic>Staphylococcus</italic> sp. strain MY 83295F. The isolate was capable of growing in up to 60 mg L<sup>−1</sup> of <italic>p,p’</italic>-DDT as the sole carbon source at an optimum pH of 6.5 and optimum temperature of 30°C within 120 h. Zn<sup>2+</sup> has demonstrated a stimulatory effect on the growth of the strain in <italic>p,p’</italic>-DDT containing medium. However, Fe, Cu, Pb, Hg, Ag, and Cr ions showed inhibitory effects on the strain’s growth in the medium. The strain could be a handy tool for the bio-cleansing of residual <italic>p,p’</italic>-DDT in the contaminated environment.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Effects of Priming with Ascorbic Acid, L-Cystein and Triacontanol on Germination of Rapeseed ( L.)<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The germination of seed batches of two rapeseed (<italic>Brassica napus</italic> L.) hybrids (‘Hybrirock’ and ‘Factor’) were investigated in response to priming in aqueous solutions of ascorbic acid (10 mM), L-cysteine (10 mM) and triacontanol (1 μM), respectively tap water (as control treatment). Investigations were focused on seed quality parameters, such as germination percentage, mean germination time, germination index, uniformity of germination, and seedling shoot and root growth. Germinated seeds were counted every 24 hours for a period of seven days, recording the final germination percentage (FGP), mean germination time (MGT), the coefficient of velocity of germination (CVG), germination rate index (GRI), germination index (GI), uncertanty (U), and synchrony (Z). In a separate trial fresh shoot- and root length, respectively the dry weight of the shoots and roots were also determined after a 14 day period. Germination tests were performed to examine the quality of seeds in response to different priming treatments. The results demonstrated that priming improved the germination parameters of seeds of both hybrids. Furthermore, the use of ascorbic acid, L-cysteine and triacontanol also enhanced seedling growth. The results may be used to rank seed lots by vigor, and decisions can be made regarding planting potential of each seed lot.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Preliminary Study of the Effect of Chemical and Organic Fertilizers on a Semi-Natural Grassland in Vlăhiţa, Harghita Mountains, Romania<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The aim of the research was to examine the effect of different fertilizers on the floristic composition and biomass yield of the semi-natural grassland used as hayfield near Vlăhița locality (Harghita County, Romania) in order to improve its management. In the same time the qualitative structure of the studied grassland was evaluated after the first application of the fertilizers. The vegetation survey was made before mowing, and a total of 84 plant taxa were identified. The studied plant community belongs to the association <italic>Festuco-Agrostetum capillaris</italic> Horv. 1951. From the 31 fodder species, 13 had very good or good nutritional value. The qualitative structure analysis indicates that the vegetation has developed under moderate anthropogenic pressure. Beside the Euro-Asian elements the Circumpolar and the Cosmopolite elements were well represented. Many species with high tolerance for temperature, soil pH, and soil mineral nitrogen content were registered. After the first application of fertilizers in all treated plots the biodiversity increased compared to the control plot. Fertilized plots also had a significantly higher biomass yield than the control plot. All fertilizers reduced the proportion of the species with good nutritional value from the Poaceae family. Organic fertilizer affected positively the proportion of other plant families than Poaceae and Fabaceae. Long-term experiments are necessary to evaluate the response of the vegetation on treatment with organic fertilizer in order to optimize productivity of the hayfield and sustain species richness.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-05T00:00:00.000+00:00SAGA GIS for Information Extraction on Presence and Conditions of Vegetation of Northern Coast of Iceland Based on the Landsat TM<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>The paper aims to evaluate the presence and condition of vegetation by SAGA GIS. The study area covers northern coasts of Iceland including two fjords, the Eyjafjörður and the Skagafjörður, prosperous agricultural regions. The vegetation coverage in Iceland experience the impact of harsh climate, land use, livestock grazing, glacial ablation and volcanism. The data include the Landsat TM image. The methodology is based on computing raster bands for simulating Tassel Cap Transformation (wetness, greenness and brightness) and Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) sensitive to high biomass. The results include modelled three bands of brightness, greenness and wetness. Greenness variation shows the least values in ice-covered areas (-56.98 to -18.69). High values (-23.48 to 9.12) are in the valleys with dense vegetation, correlating with the geomorphology of the river network, the vegetation-free areas and ocean which corresponds to the peak of 30.87 to 41.19. The bell-shaped data distribution shows frequency 43.19–141.74 for vegetation indicating healthy state and canopy density. Maximal values are in ice-covered regions and glaciers (64°N-65°N). Very low values (0 to -20) show desertification and mountainous rocks. Moderate values (20-40) indicate healthy vegetation. The most frequent data: -28,17 to 11,8. The EVI shows data variations (-0.14 to 0.04). The study contributes both to the regional studies of Arctic Iceland and methodological approach of remote sensing data processing by SAGA GIS.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Protective Effect of Naturally-Derived Antioxidants Against Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity: A Review<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Acetaminophen (APAP) is a commonly used over-the-counter (OTC) drug known to induce hepatotoxicity when consumed in excess. Formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidation of cellular proteins and enzymes are directly involved in its toxic mechanisms. However, antioxidants can be helpful to inhibit or restrict the oxidative damage. Besides synthetic antioxidants, naturally-derived substances can be used to serve the purpose. In this paper, a thorough literature review revealed that APAP combined with food-derived natural antioxidants exhibit a protective effect against APAP-induced hepatotoxicity.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Biochemical Controversies Regarding the Use of Vegetal Proteins in Performance Athletes<abstract> <title style='display:none'>Abstract</title> <p>Consumption of animal proteins is increasingly contested by those who choose a vegetarian diet, but for athletes, protein quality is a key component in optimizing athletic performance. The purpose of this article is to provide a nutritional guide for the vegetarian athlete who does not have to give up nutritional preferences to achieve performance in sports, and well-informed counseling by respecting principles of biochemistry can overcome the already known deficiencies of vegetal proteins in certain amino acids. The second aim of this paper is to recommend methods to assess protein quality by consulting the recommendations of the world’s most important regulatory agency in the field of nutrition and food quality: the World Health Organization (WHO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). In conclusion, even though vegetal proteins have a lower anabolic effect due to their low digestibility and a limited quantity of essential amino acids (especially leucine) and that amino acids of vegetal origin are more likely directed towards oxidative metabolism than towards anabolic processes, recent studies present strategies (consuming higher amounts of vegetal proteins, dietary supplements with amino acids) through which a well-planned vegetarian diet can have similar benefits to omnivorous diet regarding stimulating endogenous protein synthesis.</p> </abstract>ARTICLE2021-01-05T00:00:00.000+00:00Antibacterial Activity of Spruce Bark ( L.) Extract against<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The increase of antibiotic resistant bacteria in lasts years resulted in limited options for treatment of bacterial diseases. <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> is one of the most common Gram-negative bacterial pathogen and a cause of both community and hospital acquired infections. Medicinal plants are alternative rich sources of useful antibacterial agents. The antimicrobial activities of the spruce (<italic>Picea abies</italic> L.) bark polyphenolic extracts were examined for their capacity to inhibit the growth of <italic>Escherichia coli</italic>. Spruce bark extract was obtained by conventional aqueous extraction and with ultrasounds. The minimum inhibitory concentration was determined by microdilution method. The antibacterial effect of both extracts was strong against <italic>Escherichia coli</italic>. The antimicrobial effect of polyphenolic extracts on <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> was expressed at a concentration of 15 mg/ml. Antimicrobial activity of spruce bark compounds suggest a possible use of spruce bark in pharmaceutical preparations.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The Study of Essentials Oils Obtained from L. - Microbiological Aspects<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>Essentials oils have been used over time in the food and cosmetics industry, but also in the medical and pharmaceutical industry. Environmental factors such as temperature, radiation and photoperiod play an extremely important role in the quantity and quality of volatile oils. It is also known that the vegetation stage can play an important role in the chemical composition of volatile oils. The purpose of this paper is to establish the antibacterial and antifungal activity of volatile oils of <italic>Thymus pannonicus</italic>, taking into account the ontogenetic stage in which the plants were collected, highlighting the compounds of therapeutic importance. To test the antimicrobial activity of essential oils two methods of work were used: Kirby-Bauer disc diffusion method and microplate method. The essential oils studies were tested on <italic>Staphylococcus aureus</italic> ATCC 25923, <italic>Escherichia coli</italic> ATCC 25922 and <italic>Candida albicans</italic>. It was find that all essential oils tested have antimicrobial activity at all stages of development tested. The maximum antimicrobial activity has been recorded for the oils extracted from individuals collected at the anthesis stage.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The Nyárády Erazmus Gyula’s Herbarium in the Debrecen University’s Plant Collection<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>After the publication of the book entitled “Recollection of Gyula E. Nyárády” (2016), the interest of his inheritance increased significantly. His left behind herbarium was estimated to have 55,000 sheets (1988), while till 2016 its number increased up to 85,000. The herbarial investigations are taking place over the Romania’s borders too, such as in the plant collection of the Debrecen University. With this occasion, we have studied the part collections of Rezső Soó (40,000 specimens), the Zoltán Siroki’s (20,000 specimens), together with the kryptogame (3,000 bryophytes) ones. In the Debrecen University plant collection we found 166 plant species collected and determined by E. Gy. Nyárády, among them 154 are superior plant and 12 are moss. In the Soó collection 112 plants arose from E. Gy. Nyárády, 69% of them are from Slovakia, 29% from Romania and 1% from Poland. The Slovakian collections took place in the 1905-1916 period, the most of them (34 species) are from 1910, being collected in Késmárk and Tatra’s region, where E. Gy. Nyárády was secondary school teacher. The Romanian collections took place in the 1905-1942 period, the 33 species mainly arise from the high mountains (especially Rodna Mountains), as well as from the Transylvanian Plain. We have found three endemic species among them: <italic>Festuca carpathica</italic> Dietr., <italic>Koeleria transsilvanica</italic> Schur (syn. <italic>Koeleria macracantha</italic> ssp. <italic>transsilvanica</italic> (Schur) A. Nyár., and <italic>Thymus pulcherrimus</italic> Schur. In the Siroki collection there are 42 plant sheets, originated from Slovakia, from 1908-1913 period. The four Romanian plants came from the Rodna Mountains. The Kryptogam Herbarium contains 12 Romanian moss species, collected between 1925 and 1929, most of them being from Székelyudvarhely (Odorheiu Secuiesc). The genus <italic>Carex</italic> occurs most frequently in the Nyárády-collection, due to his increased interest to sedges, forming 39% of the studied species. In accordance with the labels, in his collecting trips he was occasionally accompanied by Béla Husz (1911, Szepes) and Ádám Boros (1929, Korond).</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Flora from Fărăgău Area (Mureş County) as Potential Source of Medicinal Plants<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The aim of this study was to identify a potential source of medicinal plant from Transylvanian Plain. Also, the paper provides information about the hayfields floral richness, a great scientific value for Romania and Europe. The study of the flora was carried out in several stages: 2005-2008, 2013, 2017-2018. In the studied area, 397 taxa were identified, distributed in 82 families with therapeutic potential, represented by 164 medical taxa, 37 of them being in the European Pharmacopoeia 8.5. The study reveals that most plants contain: volatile oils (13.41%), tannins (12.19%), flavonoids (9.75%), mucilages (8.53%) etc. This plants can be used in the treatment of various human disorders: disorders of the digestive system, respiratory system, skin disorders, muscular and skeletal systems, genitourinary system, in gynaecological disorders, cardiovascular, and central nervous sistem disorders. In the study plants protected by law at European and national level were identified: <italic>Echium maculatum</italic>, <italic>Cephalaria radiata</italic>, <italic>Crambe tataria</italic>, <italic>Narcissus poeticus</italic> ssp. <italic>radiiflorus</italic>, <italic>Salvia nutans</italic>, <italic>Iris aphylla</italic>, <italic>Orchis morio</italic>, <italic>Orchis tridentata</italic>, <italic>Adonis vernalis</italic>, <italic>Dictamnus albus</italic>, <italic>Hammarbya paludosa</italic> etc.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00The Characteristic Medicinal Plants of Different Vegetation Types from the Niraj Valley, Romania<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>In this study the medicinal plants of some representative vegetation types from a human-modified Eastern European landscapes were investigated. The studied territory is part of a Special Protection Area for bird species. The following sampling areas were included in the study: humid grasslands; mountain hay meadows; semi-natural dry grasslands; Sub-pannonic steppic grasslands; fringe communities of mesothermophilic forest edges; grey willow scrubs; thickets of willow; forests of white willow; hornbeam-beech, oak-hornbeam, and sessile oak forests; scrubs of blackthorn and hawthorn; Subcontinental peri-Pannonic scrubs. The ordering of medicinal plants on the basis of presence/absence data and the abundance data presented the grouping in the following typical communities: to the deciduous forests, to the coppices and scrubs, and to the grasslands and meadows. A total of 208 medicinal plants were found from which 37 species are included in the European Pharmacopoeia, and 13 in the Romanian Pharmacopoeia. The existing list of medicinal plants of the Niraj Valley in the scientific literature was completed with 33 taxa. The medicinal plants containing tannins (18.93%) were in higher percentage followed by those with essential oils (10.68%), flavonoids (10.68%), saponins (9.71%), alkaloids (7.77%), mucilages (6.80%), coumarins (5.34%). However rational (sustainable) exploitation of these natural resources is necessary.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00Toxicity Assessment of (L.) Schott, Fam. Nephrolepidaceae<abstract><title style='display:none'>Abstract</title><p>The fern <italic>Nephrolepis exaltata</italic> (L.) Schott, fam. Nephrolepidaceae, has little traditional medicinal use. In order to estimate its potential safety, in the present study we have investigated the phytotoxicity (on <italic>Triticum aestivum</italic> L.) and toxicity on brine shrimp of extracts from plants grown hydroponically. The species identity was confirmed by macroscopic and microscopic examinations on rhizomes, rachises, pinnae and runners, using bright field and fluorescent microscopy. Biological assays were performed on aqueous and ethanol solutions of the fronds. The brine shrimp lethality assay was performed on <italic>Artemia franciscana</italic> Kellog and a phytobiological bioassay on <italic>Triticum aestivum</italic> L. Lethality, root elongation and karyokinetic film modifications were evaluated, and LC<sub>50</sub> and IC<sub>50</sub> values were calculated. The microscopic analysis revealed the main histo-anatomic elements: polystelic structure and hypodermis (rhizome, rachis, runners), trichomes (rachis), homogenous structure, trichomes and diacytic/anisocytic stomata (leaves). The ethanol and aqueous extracts showed low cytotoxic effects on both <italic>Triticum aestivum</italic> roots and <italic>Artemia franciscana</italic> nauplii.</p></abstract>ARTICLE2020-06-08T00:00:00.000+00:00en-us-1