1. bookVolume 20 (2008): Issue 2008 (December 2008)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1899-7562
ISSN
1640-5544
First Published
13 Jan 2009
Publication timeframe
5 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

The Effects of Terminating Creatine Supplementation and Resistance Training on Anaerobic Power and Chosen Biochemical Variables in Male Subjects

Published Online: 13 Jan 2009
Volume & Issue: Volume 20 (2008) - Issue 2008 (December 2008)
Page range: 99 - 110
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1899-7562
ISSN
1640-5544
First Published
13 Jan 2009
Publication timeframe
5 times per year
Languages
English
The Effects of Terminating Creatine Supplementation and Resistance Training on Anaerobic Power and Chosen Biochemical Variables in Male Subjects

The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of alkaline creatine supplementation and resistance training termination on anaerobic power and chosen biochemical variables in men. Twenty-three untrained male subjects, which participated in this study, were divided into supplemented (S) (n=13, age 21.4±2.3 y) and placebo (PL) (n=10, age 22.1±2.6 y) groups. The participants from both groups performed resistance training 3 times a week, while subjects from group S were supplemented with alkaline creatine (ACr) for 4 weeks on their training day's with 66.8 mg/kg b.m., and on non training day's with 33.8 mg/kg b.m.

To evaluate anaerobic power, the 30s Wingate test was applied. The following variables were registered: relative mean power - RMP (W/kg), relative peak power - RPP (W/kg), time of reaching peak power - TRPP (s) and relative total work - RTW (J/kg). The test was administrated 5 times - before and after 4 weeks of training and supplementation, as well as the first, second and third week after terminating creatine intake and the resistance exercise protocol. Body mass and body composition was also evaluated during the same time span. Blood samples were drawn at rest before the Wingate test for the assessment of IGF-1, hGH, LA and CrN concentration, as well as creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities. Supplementation with alkaline creatine, combined with a progressive resistance training program, did not significantly influence (ANOVA) the level of RMP (p=0.49), RPP (p=0.31), TRPP (p=0.51), and RTW (p=0.58) in untrained male subjects. In the supplemental group, there was a significant decrease (p<0.01) in TRPP following creatine supplementation and training, yet these values were not significantly different from the control group. The supplementation and training protocol did not influence significantly body mass (p=0.68), yet post hoc analysis indicate a significant increase in body mass (p<0.001) only in group S. The applied supplementation and training protocol did not influence (ANOVA) the concentration of serum CrN (p=0.81), hGH) (p=0.26), CK (p=0.49) and LDH (p=0.64) activities. No significant changes were observed in resting blood LA concentrations of the tested subjects. It can be concluded that the ergogenic effect of creatine intake and resistance training was maintained for a week after terminating supplementation and exercise. During the next 2 weeks de-adaptation occurred and most indices of anaerobic power returned to initial values.

Keywords

Arciero P. J., Hannibal N. S.,3rd, Nindl B. C., Gentile C. L., Hamed J., Vukovich M. D. Comparison of creatine ingestion and resistance training on energy expenditure and limb blood flow. Metabolism. 2001, 50:1429-1434.10.1053/meta.2001.2815911735088Search in Google Scholar

Bessman S. P., Geiger P. J. Transport of energy in muscle: the phosphorylcreatine shuttle. Science, 1981, 211: 448-452.10.1126/science.64504466450446Search in Google Scholar

Branch J. D. Effect of creatine supplementation on body composition and performance:A meta-analysis. Int. J. Sports Nutr. Exerc. Metab. 2003, 13: 198-226.10.1123/ijsnem.13.2.19812945830Search in Google Scholar

Buford T. W., Kreider R. B., Stout J. R., Greenwood M., Campbell B., Spano M., Ziegenfuss T., Lopez H., Landis J., Antonio J., International society of sports nutrition position stand: creatine supplementation and exercise. Int. J. Soc. Sports Nutr. 2007, 4:6 doi: 10.1186/1550-2783-4-6.10.1186/1550-2783-4-6204849617908288Search in Google Scholar

Candow D. G., Chilibeck P. D. (2007) Effect of creatine supplementation during resistance training on muscle accretion in the elderly. J. Nutr. Health Aging 2007, 11(2): 185-188.Search in Google Scholar

Cribb P. J., Williams A. D., Hades A. Creatine-protein-carbohydrate supplement enhances responses to resistance training. Med. Sci. Sports. Exerc. 2007, 39(11): 1961-1968.Search in Google Scholar

Davson B., Goodman C., Lawrence S. Preen D., Polglaze T., Fitzsimons M., Fournier P. Muscle phosphocreatine repletion following single and repeated short sprint effort. Scand. J. Med. Sci. Sports 1997, 7: 206-213.10.1111/j.1600-0838.1997.tb00141.x9241025Search in Google Scholar

Deldicque L., Louis M., Theisen D., Dehoux M., Thiessen J. P., Rennie M. J., Francaux M. Increased IGF mRNA in human skeletal muscle after creatine supplementation. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2005, 37: 731-736.10.1249/01.MSS.0000162690.39830.27Search in Google Scholar

Derave W., Eijnde B. O., Verbessem P. Ramaeckers M., Van Leemputte M., Richter E. A., Hespel P. Combined creatine and protein supplementation in conjunction with resistance training promotes muscle GLUT-4 content and glucose tolerance in humans. J. Appl. Physiol. 2003, 94:1910-1916.10.1152/japplphysiol.00977.200212524381Search in Google Scholar

Eckerson J. M., Bull A. A., Moore G. A. Effect of thirty days of creatine supplementation with phosphate salts on anaerobic working capacity and body weight in men. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2008, 22(3): 826-832.Search in Google Scholar

Ellington W. R. Evolution and physiological role of phosphagen systems. Ann. Rev. Physiol. 2001, 63:289-325.10.1146/annurev.physiol.63.1.28911181958Search in Google Scholar

Finn J. P., Ebert T. R., Withers R. T., Carey M. F., Mackay M., Phillips J. W., Febbraio M. A. Effect of creatine supplementation on metabolism and performance in humans during intermittent sprint cycling. Eur.J. Appl. Physiol. 2001, 84(3):238-243.Search in Google Scholar

Grande B. M., Graves S. Creatine supplementation: Forms, functions and effects. Strength Cond.J. 2005, 27(1):62-68.Search in Google Scholar

Haff G. G., Kirksey K. B. Creatine supplementation. Strength Cond.J. 1999, 21(4): 13-23.Search in Google Scholar

Hirvonen J., Rehunen S., Rusko H., Härkönen M. Breakdown of high-energy phosphate compounds and lactate accumulation during short supramaximal exercise. Eur. J. Appl. Physiol. 1987, 56: 253-259.10.1007/BF006908893569234Search in Google Scholar

Izquierdo M., Ibanez J., Gonzalez-Badillo J., Gorostiaga E. M. Effects of creatine supplementation on muscle power, wndurance and sprint performance. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2001, 34: 332-343.10.1097/00005768-200202000-0002311828245Search in Google Scholar

Jäger R., Metzger J., Lautmann K., Shyshakov V., Purpura M., Geiss K. R., Maassen N. The effects of creatine pyruvate and creatine citrate on performance during high intensity exercise. J. Int. Soc. Sports Nutr. 2008, 5:4 (electronic publication).10.1186/1550-2783-5-4227618418269769Search in Google Scholar

Kreider R. B. Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations. Mol. Cell Biochem. 2003, 244: 89-94.10.1007/978-1-4615-0247-0_13Search in Google Scholar

Levesque D. G., Kenefick R. W., Quinn T. J. Creatine supplementation: impact on cycling sprint performance. J. Exerc. Physiol. online 2007, 10(4):17-28.Search in Google Scholar

McConell G. K., Shinwell J., Stephens T. J., Stathis C. G., Canny B. J., Snow R. J. Creatine supplementation reduced muscle inosine monophosphate during endurance exercise in humans. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2005, 37(12): 2057-2061.Search in Google Scholar

Odland L. M., MacDougall J. D., Tarnopolsky M. A., Elorriaga A., Borgmann A. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on muscle (PCr) and short-term maximum power output. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1997, 29(2): 216-219.10.1097/00005768-199702000-000089044225Search in Google Scholar

Odland M. L., Macdougall D. J., Tarnopolsky M. A., Elorriaga A., Borgmann A. Effect of creatine supplementation on muscle PCr and short-term maximum power output. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 29: 216-21910.1097/00005768-199702000-00008Search in Google Scholar

Op't Eijnde B., Hespel P. (2001) Short-term creatine supplementation does not alter the hormonal response to resistance training. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1996, 33: 449-453.Search in Google Scholar

Pluim B. M., Ferrauti A., Broekhof F., Deutekom M., Gotzmann A., Kuipers H., Weber K. The effects of creatine supplementation on selected factors of tennis specific training. Br.J. Sports Med. 2006, 40: 507-512.10.1136/bjsm.2005.022558246511716720886Search in Google Scholar

Preen D, Dawson B., Goodman C., Lawrence S., Beilby J., Ching S. Effect of creatine supplementation on long-term sprint exercise performance and metabolism. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2001, 33: 814-822.10.1097/00005768-200105000-0002211323554Search in Google Scholar

Rawson E. S. Volek J. S. Effects of creatine supplementation and resistance training om muscle strength and weightlifting performance. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2003, 17: 822-831.10.1519/00124278-200311000-00031Search in Google Scholar

Rawson E. S., Gunn B., Clarkson P. M. The effects of creatine supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2001, 15:178-18410.1519/00124278-200105000-00005Search in Google Scholar

Rawson E. S., Persky A. M. Mechanisms of muscular adaptations to creatine supplementation. Int. Sport Med. J. 2007, 8(2): 43-53.Search in Google Scholar

Santos R. V., Bassit R. A,., Caperuto E. C. Costa Rosa L. F. The effect of creatine supplementation upon inflammatory and muscle soreness merkers after 30 km race. Life Sci. 2004, 75: 1917-1924.10.1016/j.lfs.2003.11.03615306159Search in Google Scholar

Schedel J. M., Tanaka H., Kiyonaga A Shindo M., Schutz Y. Acute creatine losading enhances human growth hormone secretion. J. Sports Med. Phys. Fitness. 2000, 40: 336-342.Search in Google Scholar

Smith S. A., Montain S. J., Matott R. P., Zientara G. P., Jolesz F. A., Fielding R. A. Creatine supplementation and age influence muscle metabolism during exercise. J. Appl. Physiol. 1998, 85(4): 1349-1356.Search in Google Scholar

Stevenson S. W., Dudley G. A. Dietary creatine supplementation and muscular adaptation to resistive overload. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2001, 33: 1304-1310.10.1097/00005768-200108000-0001011474331Search in Google Scholar

Stroud M. A., Holliman D., Bell D., Green A. L., Macdonald I. A., Greenhaff P. L. Effect of oral creatine supplementation on respiratory gas exchange and blood lactate accumulation during steady-state incremental tredmill exercise and recovery in man. Clin. Sci. (Lond) 1994, 87: 707-710.10.1042/cs08707077874863Search in Google Scholar

Syrotuik D. G. Bell G. J. Burnham R.,Sim L. L., Calvert R. A., Mac Lean I. M. Absolute and relative strength performance foolowing creatine monohydrate supplementation combined with periodized resistance training. J. Strength Cond. Res. 2000, 14: 182-190.10.1519/00124278-200005000-00011Search in Google Scholar

Terjung R. L., Clarkson P. M., Eichner E. R., Greenahaff P. L, Hespel P. J., Israel R. G., Kraemer W. J., Meyer R. A., Spriet L. L., Tarnopolsky M. A., Wagenmakers A. J., Williams M. H. American College of sports medicine roundable: the physiological and health effects of oral creatine supplementation. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 2000, 32: 706-717.10.1097/00005768-200003000-0002410731017Search in Google Scholar

Volek J. S., Dunkan ND., Mazzetti S. A., Staron R. S., Putukian M., Gómez A. L., Pearson D. R., Fink W. J., Kraemer W. J. Peroformance and muscle fiber adaptation to creatine supplementation and heavy resistance traning. Med. Sci. Sports Exerc. 1999, 31: 1147-1156.10.1097/00005768-199908000-0001110449017Search in Google Scholar

Wallimann T., Wyss M., Brdiczka D., Nicolay K., Eppenberger H. M. Intracellular compartmentation, structure and function of creatine kinase isoenzymes: the phospho-creatine circut for cellular energy homeostasis. Biochem.J. 1992, 281:21-40.10.1042/bj281002111306361731757Search in Google Scholar

Wyss M., Kaddurah-Daouk R. Creatine and creatinine metabolism. Physiol. Rev. 2000, 80: 1107-1213.10.1152/physrev.2000.80.3.110710893433Search in Google Scholar

Yquel R. J., Arsac L. M., Manier G. Effect of creatine supplementation on phosphocreatine resinthesis, inorganic phosphate accumulation and pH during intermittant maximal exercise. J. Sports Sci. 2002, 20: 427-437.10.1080/02640410231736668112043832Search in Google Scholar

Zajac A., Waskiewicz Z., Poprzecki S., Cholewa J. Effects of creatine and HMβ supplementation on anaerobic power and body composition in basketball players. J. Human Kinetics 2004, 10: 95-108.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo