1. bookVolume 69 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)
Journal Details
First Published
30 Mar 2019
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
access type Open Access

The Family as a Site of Consocial Learning: the Cultural Socialisation of Young People in the Process of Intergenerational Exchange

Published Online: 11 Oct 2021
Page range: 399 - 415
Journal Details
First Published
30 Mar 2019
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

This article explores the family as an educational environment and space for the intergenerational exchange of knowledge. Focusing on the process of cultural socialization as viewed against the currently popular “culture wars” it employs the concept of consociality, which is aimed at grasping the diversity and unpredictability of human interactions, and has been recently rejuvenated by Ulf Hannerz. Investigating the consocial character of learning and intergenerational exchange within the family educational environment, the article takes examples from Slovakia and Latvia and problematizes the relationship between formal and informal learning to demonstrate how it changes knowledge infused with cultural meanings and references. The article argues that this process depends on the consocial conditions in which it is created. It also suggests that viewing the family environment in consocial terms provides us with an opportunity to rethink the role of experiences shared within the family and thereby mitigate ethnic-cum-cultural essentialism.


Anderson, B. (1983). Imagined Communities. Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. London: Verso. Search in Google Scholar

Appadurai, A. (1990). Disjuncture and Difference in the Global Cultural Economy. Theory, Culture and Society, 7, 295–310. Accessible at: https://doi.org/10.1177/026327690007002017. Search in Google Scholar

Bhabha, H. K. (1994). The Location of Culture. London, New York: Routledge. Search in Google Scholar

Birth, K. (2006). Past Times: Temporal Structuring of History and Memory. Ethos, 34(2), 192–210. Accessible at: https://doi.org/10.1525/eth.2006.34.2.192 Search in Google Scholar

Bourdieu, P. (1977). Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Bourdieu, P. (1998). Teorie jednání. Praha: Karolinum. Search in Google Scholar

Brubaker, R., Cooper, F. (1999). Beyond ‘Identity’. Theory and Society, 29(1), 1–47. Accessible at: https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1007068714468. Search in Google Scholar

Casey, E. (1996). How to Get from Space to Place in a Fairly Short Stretch of Time: Phenomenological Prolegomena. In: S. Feld, K. Basso (Eds.), Senses of Place (pp. 13–52). Santa Fe: School of American Research Press. Search in Google Scholar

Chudžíková, A. (2015). Budúci učitelia budúcej multikultúrnej školy (Future teachers for future mutlicultural schools). Bratislava: Centrum pre výskum etnicity a kultúry. Search in Google Scholar

De Martini, J. (1985). Change Agents and Generational Relationships: A Reevaluation of Mannheim’s Problem of Generations. Social Forces, 64(1), 1–16. Accessible at: https://doi.org/10.1093/sf/64.1.1 Search in Google Scholar

Ethington, P. J. (2007). Placing the Past: ‘Groundwork’ for a Spatial Theory of History. Re -thinking History, 11(4), 465–493. https://doi.org/10.1080/13642520701645487 Search in Google Scholar

France, A., Roberts, S. (2015). The Problem of Social Generations: A Critique of the New Emerging Orthodoxy in Youth Studies. Journal of Youth Studies, 18(2), 215–230. Accessible at: https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2014.944122. Search in Google Scholar

Figueira, D. (2008). Otherwise Occupied. Pedagogies of Alterity and Brahminization of Theory. Albany: State University of New York Press. Search in Google Scholar

Gupta, A., Ferguson, J. (Eds.) (1997). Culture, Power, Place. Explorations in Critical Anthropology. Durham and London: Duke University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Hamilakis, Y., Labanyi, J. (2008). Introduction: Time, Materiality, and the Work of Memory. History and Memory, 20(2), 5–17. DOI:10.1353/ham.0.0009. Search in Google Scholar

Hannerz, U. (2016). Writing Future Worlds. An Anthropologist Explores Global Scenarios. London: Palgrave Macmillan. Search in Google Scholar

Kapišinská, V., Szerdová-Veľasová, L. (Eds.) (2012). Národné kultúrne pamiatky na Slovensku. Okres Martin. Bratislava: Pamiatkový úrad Slovenskej republiky/Slovart. Search in Google Scholar

Katrňák, T. (2003). Sociálna a kultúrna reprodukcia spoločnosti v teoretickej perspektíve. Sociológia, 35(1), 61–76. Search in Google Scholar

Kučma, I. (2005). Mýtus stredu: Martin ako centrum slovenskosti. In: E. Krekovič, E. Mannová, E. Krekovičová (Eds.), Mýty naše slovenské (pp. 150–162). Bratislava: Academic Electronic Press. Search in Google Scholar

Latour, B. (1993). We Have Never Been Modern. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Latour. B. (2000). When Things Strike Back: A Possible Contribution of ‘Science Studies’ to the Social Sciences. British Journal of Sociology, 51(1), 107–123. Accessible at: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-4446.2000.00107.x Search in Google Scholar

Lee, R. M. (2003). The transracial adoption paradox: History, research, and counseling implications of cultural socialization. The Counseling Psychologist, 31, 711–744. Search in Google Scholar

Macdonald, S. (2013). Memorylands. Heritage and Identity in Europe Today. Oxford, New York: Routledge. Search in Google Scholar

Mannheim, K. (1952). The Problem of Generations. In: Mannheim, K. (Ed.). Essays on the Sociology of Knowledge. Translated by Paul Kecskemeti (pp. 276–322). London: Routledge. Search in Google Scholar

Plakans, A. (1995). The Latvians: A Short History. Studies of Nationalities. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press. Search in Google Scholar

Popov, A., Deák, D. (2015). Making Sense of the ‘Difficult’ Past Transmission of Political Heritage and Memory-work among Young People across Europe. Sociological Review, 63(S 2), 36–52. Accessible at: https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-954X.12261 Search in Google Scholar

Rico, G., Jennings, K. M. (2012). The Intergenerational Transmission of Contending Place Identities. Political Psychology, 33(5), 723–742. Accessible at: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9221.2012. 00894.x Search in Google Scholar

Rose, N. (1996). Identity, Genealogy, History. In: S. Hall, P. du Gay (Eds.), Questions of Cultural Identity (pp. 128–150). London: Sage. Search in Google Scholar

Sewell, W. H. jr. (2005). The Concept(s) of Culture. In: Spiegel, G. M. (Ed.), Practicing History. New Directions in Historical Writing After the Linguistic Turn (pp. 76–93). New York: Routledge. Search in Google Scholar

Schwartz, K. Z. S. (2006). Nature and National Identity after Communism: Globalizing the Ethnoscape. Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press. Search in Google Scholar

Simmel, G. (2006). Peníze v moderní kultuře a jiné eseje. Praha: Sociologické nakladatelství. Search in Google Scholar

Stukuls Eglitis, D. (2002). Imagining the Nation: History, Modernity, and Revolution in Latvia. Pennsylvania: the Pennsylvania State University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Taylor, K. (2008). Landscape and Memory: Cultural Landscapes, Intangible Values and Some Thoughts on Asia. In: 16th ICOMOS General Assembly and International Symposium: ‘Finding the Spirit of Place – between the Tangible and the Intangible’, 29 sept – 4 oct 2008, Quebec, Canada (pp. 1–14). Retrieved from http://openarchive.icomos.org/id/eprint/139/ accessed 3rd May 2021]. Search in Google Scholar

Teich, M., Kováč, D., Brown, M. D. (Eds.) (2011). Slovakia in History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.  Search in Google Scholar

Verdery, K. (1999). The Political Life of Dead Bodies. Reburial and Postsocialist Change. New York: Columbia University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Vollebergh, W. A. M., Iedema, J., Raaijmakers, Q. A. W. (2001). Intergenerational Transmission and the Formation of Cultural Orientations in Adolescence and Young Adulthood. Journal of Marriage and Family, 63, 1185–1198. Accessible at: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1741-3737.2001.01185.x Search in Google Scholar

Woodman, D., Wyn, J. (2015). Class, Gender and Generation Matter: Using the Concept of Social Generation to Study Inequality and Social Change. Journal of Youth Studies, 18(10), 1402–1410. Accessible at: https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2015.1048206 Search in Google Scholar

http://statdat.statistics.sk      Search in Google Scholar

https://spravy.pravda.sk/regiony/clanok/586420-v-martine-maju-gandhiho-sochu-nievsetkym-sa-to-paci/ Search in Google Scholar

https://likumi.lv/ta/id/57980-latvijas-repub-likas-satversme  Search in Google Scholar

https://www.lsm.lv/latgales-atbrivosana Search in Google Scholar

https://www.csb.gov.lv/lv/statistika/db Search in Google Scholar

https://www.onlatvia.com/topics/culture-of-latvia/religions-in-latvia Search in Google Scholar

https://data.stat.gov.lv/pxweb/lv/OSP_PUB/START__IZG__KU__KUR/KUR010 Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo