1. bookVolume 50 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1805-9430
ISSN
1211-3174
First Published
23 Jun 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Impact of a Wide Range of Teat Lengths on Udder Healt h and Milking Time in Holstein Cows

Published Online: 13 Jun 2019
Page range: 80 - 88
Received: 13 Apr 2018
Accepted: 20 Oct 2018
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1805-9430
ISSN
1211-3174
First Published
23 Jun 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The objective of our experiment was to evaluate the impact of teat length on milk yield, actual milking time (AMT), milk conductivity (MC), somatic cell count (SCC) and mastitis incidence during lactation. The effect of teat length was evaluated as the occurrence of non-ideal teats (NIT; shorter than 40 mm or longer than 60 mm) at udder level and as the average length of teats on udder (ALTU). The experiment was conducted on 59 dairy cows of Holstein breed. SAS 9.3 was used for statistical calculation. There were great variances in teat length (22–96 mm) and in the rear/front teat ratio (0.8). Only 33% of the tested cows had optimal length of all teats. No evidence for a negative impact of NIT on udder health was found. ALTU showed a statistically significant effect on AMT and SCC (P < 0.05). Cows in the group of udders with short teats showed the worst results for SCC (P < 0.05) and MC. Udders with short teats showed the fastest AMT (6.78 min; P < 0.05) compared to udders with medium and long teats (7.36 min; P < 0.05 and 7.55 min; P < 0.05, respectively). Our results show that while using an udder friendly milking system, the effect of teat length on udder health could be negligible.

Keywords

Bader E, Porval M, Gyorkos I, Bader P (2001): The possibilities of selection for the cluster. Holstein Magazin, 1, 8–12. (in Hungarian)Search in Google Scholar

Bansal BK, Hamann J, Grabowski NT, Singh KB (2005): Variation in the composition of selected milk fraction samples from healthy and mastitic quarters, and its significance for mastitis diagnosis. Journal of Dairy Research, 72, 144–152.10.1017/S0022029905000798Search in Google Scholar

Barkema HW, Schukken YH, Lam TJGM, Beiboer ML, Wilmink H, Benedictus G, Brand A (1998): Incidence of clinical mastitis in dairy herds grouped in three categories by bulk milk somatic cell counts. Journal of Dairy Science, 81, 411–419.10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(98)75591-2Search in Google Scholar

Berry DP, Buckley F, Dillon P, Evans RD, Veerkamp RF (2004): Genetic relationships among linear type traits, milk yield, body weight, fertility and somatic cell count in primiparous dairy cows. Irish Journal of Agricultural and Food Research, 43, 161–176.Search in Google Scholar

Bhutto AL, Murray RD, Woldehiwet Z (2010): Udder shape and teat-end lesions as potential risk factors for high somatic cell counts and intra-mammary infections in dairy cows. Veterinary Journal, 183, 63–67.10.1016/j.tvjl.2008.08.024Search in Google Scholar

Celik HA, Aydin I, Colak M, Sendag S, Dinc DA (2008): Ultrasonographic evaluation of age related influence on the teat canal and the effect of this influence on milk yield in Brown Swiss cows. Bulletin of the Veterinary Institute in Pulawy, 52, 245–249.Search in Google Scholar

Coban O, Sabuncuoglu N, Tuzemen N (2009): A study on relationships between somatic cell count (SCC) and some udder traits in dairy cows. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 8, 134–138.Search in Google Scholar

de Haas Y, Barkema HW, Veerkamp RF (2002): The effect of pathogen-specific clinical mastitis on the lactation curve for somatic cell count. Journal of Dairy Science, 85, 1314–1323.10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(02)74196-9Search in Google Scholar

Djabri B, Bareille N, Beaudeau FE, Seegers H (2002): Quarter milk somatic cell count in infected dairy cows: A metaanalysis. Veterinary Research, 33, 335–357.10.1051/vetres:2002021Search in Google Scholar

Edwards JP, O’Brien B, Lopez-Villalobos N, Jago JG (2013): Overmilking causes deterioration in teat-end condition of dairy cows in late lactation. Journal of Dairy Research, 80, 344–348.10.1017/S0022029913000307Search in Google Scholar

Geishauser T, Querengasser K (2000): Investigations on teat canal length in teats with milk flow disturbances. Journal of Dairy Science, 83, 1976–1980.10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(00)75074-0Search in Google Scholar

Gleeson DE, Kilroy D, O’Callaghan E, Fitzpatrick E, Rath M. (2003): Effect of machine milking on bovine teat sinus injury and teat canal keratin. Irish Veterinary Journal, 56, 46–50.Search in Google Scholar

Gleeson DE, O’Callaghan EJ, Rath MV (2004): Effect of liner design, pulsator setting, and vacuum level on bovine teat tissue changes and milking characteristics as measured by ultrasonography. Irish Veterinary Journal, 57, 289–296.10.1186/2046-0481-57-5-289Search in Google Scholar

Green MJ, Bradley AJ, Medley GF, Browne WJ (2007): Cow, farm, and management factors during the dry period that determine the rate of clinical mastitis after calving. Journal of Dairy Science, 90, 3764–3776.10.3168/jds.2007-0107Search in Google Scholar

Grindal RJ, Walton AW, Hillerton JE (1991): Influence of milk flow rate and streak canal length on new intramammary infection in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Research, 58, 383–388.10.1017/S0022029900029988Search in Google Scholar

Haeussermann A, Britten J, Britten A, Pahl C, Alveby N, Hartung E (2016): Effect of a multi-sided concave liner barrel design on thickness and roughness of teat-end hyperkeratosis. Journal of Dairy Research, 83, 188–195.10.1017/S0022029916000200Search in Google Scholar

Hamoen A (2016): Progress of type harmonization. WHFF annual report. http://www.whff.info/documentation/documents/progressoftypeharmonisationversionafterBuenosAiresv2.pdf. Accessed 22 December, 2016Search in Google Scholar

Klaas IC, Enevoldsen C, Vaarst M, Houe H (2004): Systematic clinical examinations for identification of latent udder health types in Danish dairy herds. Journal of Dairy Science, 87, 1217–1228.10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73272-5Search in Google Scholar

Klein D, Flock M, Khol JL, Franz S, Stuger HP, Baumgartner W (2005): Ultrasonographic measurements of the bovine teat: Breed differences and the significance of the measurements for udder health. Journal of Dairy Research, 72, 296–302.10.1017/S0022029905000920Search in Google Scholar

Lacy-Hulbert SJ, Hillerton JE (1995): Physical characteristics of the bovine teat canal and their influence on susceptibility to streptococcal infection. Journal of Dairy Research, 62, 395–404.10.1017/S0022029900031101Search in Google Scholar

Laevens H, Deluyker H, Schukken YH, De Meulemeester L, Vandermeersch R, De Muelenaere E, De Kruif A (1997): Influence of parity and stage of lactation on the somatic cell count in bacteriologically negative dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 80, 3219–3226.10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76295-7Search in Google Scholar

Mein G, Reinemann D, O’Callaghan E, Ohnstad I, Adas U (2004): Where the rubber meets the teat and what happens to milking characteristics. In: IDF symposium – 100 years with liners and pulsators in machine milking, Bruges, Belgium, 1–11.Search in Google Scholar

Monardes HG, Cve RI, Hayes JF (1990): Correlations between udder conformation traits and somatic cell count in Canadian Holstein cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 73, 1337–1342.10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(90)78800-5Search in Google Scholar

Naumann I, Fahr RD (2000): Investigation of milk flow from udder quarters. Archives Animal Breeding, 43, 431–440. Neijenhuis F, Barkema HW, Hogeveen H, Noordhuizen JPTM (2001): Relationship between teat-end callosity and occurrence of clinical mastitis. Journal of Dairy Science, 84, 2664–2672.Search in Google Scholar

Nemcova E, Stipkova M, Zavadilova L, Bouska J, Vacek M (2007): The relationship between somatic cell count, milk production and six linearly scored type traits in Holstein cows. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 52, 437–446.10.17221/2337-CJASSearch in Google Scholar

Norberg E (2005): Electrical conductivity of milk as a phenotypic and genetic indicator of bovine mastitis: A review. Livestock Production Science, 96, 129–139.10.1016/j.livprodsci.2004.12.014Search in Google Scholar

Parilova M, Stadnik L, Jezkova A, Stolc L (2011): Effect of milking vacuum level and overmilking on cows’ teat characteristics. Acta Universitatis Agriculturae et Silviculturae Mendelianae Brunensis, 59, 193–202.10.11118/actaun201159050193Search in Google Scholar

Pisestyani H, Lelana RA, Septiani YN (2016): Teat length and lactation period as a predisposition factor of subclinical mastitis in dairy cattle in Bandung, Indonesia. Journal of Life Sciences, 10, 1–6.10.17265/1934-7391/2016.01.001Search in Google Scholar

Ptak E, Jagusiak W, Zarnecki A, Otwinowska-Mindur A (2011): Heritabilities and genetic correlations of lactational and daily somatic cell score with conformation traits in Polish Holstein cattle. Czech Journal of Animal Science, 56, 205–212.10.17221/1432-CJASSearch in Google Scholar

Rasmussen MD, Baines J, Neijenhuis F, Hillerton E (2004): Teat condition and mastitis. In: IDF symposium – 100 years with liners and pulsators in machine milking, Bruges, Belgium, 43–48.Search in Google Scholar

Rogers GW, Spencer SB (1991): Relationships among udder and teat morphology and milking characteristics. Journal of Dairy Science, 74, 4189–4194.10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(91)78614-1Search in Google Scholar

Sandrucci A, Tamburini A, Bava L, Zucali M (2007): Factors affecting milk flow traits in dairy cows: Results of a field study. Journal of Dairy Science, 90, 1159–1167.10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(07)71602-8Search in Google Scholar

Schepers AJ, Lam TJGM, Schukken YH, Wilmink JBM, Hanekamp WJA (1997): Estimation of variance components for somatic cell counts to determine thresholds for uninfected quarters. Journal of Dairy Science, 80, 1833–1840.10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(97)76118-6Search in Google Scholar

Seykora AJ, McDaniel BT (1985): Udder and teat morphology to mastitis resistance. Journal of Dairy Science, 68, 2087–2093.10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(85)81072-9Search in Google Scholar

Singh RS, Bansal BK, Gupta DK (2014): Udder health in relation to udder and teat morphometry in Holstein Friesian × Sahiwal crossbred dairy cows. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 46, 93–98.10.1007/s11250-013-0454-8Search in Google Scholar

Stadnik L, Louda F, Bezdicek J, Jezkova A, Rakos M (2010): Changes in teat parameters caused by milking and their recovery to their initial size. Archiv Tierzucht, 53, 650–662.Search in Google Scholar

Strapak P, Szencziova I, Stadnik L (2015): Use of ultrasonography for evaluation of internal structures of udder and teats in dairy cows. Slovak University of Agriculture in Nitra, Nitra. (in Slovakian)Search in Google Scholar

Svensson C, Nyman AK, Waller KP, Emanuelson U (2006): Effects of housing, management, and health of dairy heifers on first-lactation udder health in southwest Sweden. Journal of Dairy Science, 89, 1990–1999.10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72266-4Search in Google Scholar

Tancin V, Ipema B, Hogewerf P, Macuhova J (2006): Sources of variation in milk flow characteristics at udder and quarter levels. Journal of Dairy Science, 89, 978–988.10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(06)72163-4Search in Google Scholar

Tancin V, Ipema AH, Hogewerf P (2007): Interaction of somatic cell count and quarter milk flow patterns. Journal of Dairy Science, 90, 2223–2228.10.3168/jds.2006-666Search in Google Scholar

Tilki M, Colak M, Inal S, Caglayan T (2005): Effects of teat shape on milk yield and milking traits in Brown Swiss cows. Turkish Journal of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, 29, 275–278.Search in Google Scholar

Viguier C, Arora S, Gilmartin N, Welbeck K, O’Kennedy R (2009): Mastitis detection: Current trends and future perspectives. Trends in Biotechnology, 27, 486–493.10.1016/j.tibtech.2009.05.004Search in Google Scholar

Weiss D, Weinfurtner M, Bruckmaier RM (2004): Teat anatomy and its relationship with quarter and udder milk flow characteristics in dairy cows. Journal of Dairy Science, 87, 3280–3289.10.3168/jds.S0022-0302(04)73464-5Search in Google Scholar

Zwertvaegher I, Baert J, Vangeyte J, Genbrugge A, Van Weyenberg S (2011): Objective measuring technique for teat dimensions of dairy cows. Biosystems Engineering, 110, 206–212.10.1016/j.biosystemseng.2011.08.009Search in Google Scholar

Zwertvaegher I, Van Weyenberg S, Piepers S, Baert J, De Vliegher S (2012): Variance components of teat dimensions in dairy cows and associated factors. Journal of Dairy Science, 95, 4978–4988.10.3168/jds.2011-5296Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo