1. bookVolume 50 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)
Journal Details
First Published
23 Jun 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
access type Open Access

Interspecific Variability of Filarioid Nematodes of the Genus Setaria Viborg, 1795 Occurring in Wild Ruminants in Europe: A Review

Published Online: 06 Apr 2019
Page range: 29 - 39
Received: 09 Mar 2018
Accepted: 03 May 2018
Journal Details
First Published
23 Jun 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

Nematodes of the genus Setaria (Spirurida, Filarioidea) are parasites of vertebrates except fish. Dangerous are their larvae (microfilariae) that may migrate to the central nervous system of hosts causing serious neuropathic disorders of vertebrates including human. Setaria cervi, S. labiatopapillosa, and S. tundra are potential parasites in wild ruminants in Europe. The most recent studies of variability among Setaria spp. are based on a combination of morphometric and molecular methods. Although there is no clear consistency in the morphological structures used by different authors, a morphological key was compiled based on the body length, the arrangement of peribucal crown, and the number of papillae in the caudal part of the body. The barcoding system of Setaria genus is based on sequences of conserved gene polymorphisms such as COX1 and rDNA genes. The published sequences of COX1 gene in Setaria populations were analysed using in silico phylogenetic analysis by the maximum likelihood method (Tamura-Nei model). This analysis confirmed that the COX1 nucleotide polymorphisms genes are species-specific and represent the theoretical basis for the development of markers enabling barcoding system in the genus Setaria.


Aguirre A, Brojer C, Morner T (1999): Descriptive epidemiology of roe deer mortality in Sweden. Journal of Wildlife Disease, 35, 753–762. doi: 10.7589/0090-3558-35.4.753.10.7589/0090-3558-35.4.753Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Akaike H (1973): Information theory and an extension of the maximum likelihood principle. B. N. Petrov & B. F. Csaki (Eds.),Second International Symposium on Information Theory, Budapest, Academiai Kiado, 267–281.Search in Google Scholar

Alasaad S, Pascucci I, Jowers MJ, Soriguer RC, Zhu X-Q, Rossi L (2012): Phylogenetic study of Setaria cervi based on mitochondrial cox1 gene sequences. Parasitology Research, 110, 281–285. doi: 10.1007/s00436-011-2486-1.10.1007/s00436-011-2486-1Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Almeida AJ, Deobhankar KP, Bhopale MK, Zaman V, Renapurkar DM (1991): Scanning electron microscopy of Setaria cervi adult male worms. International Journal for Parasitology, 21, 119–121. doi: 10.1016/0020-7519(91)90130-Y.10.1016/0020-7519(91)90130-YOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Al-Sabi MNS, Harslund JLF, Oksanen A, Staal M, Chriel M, Enemark HL (2016): Setaria tundra isolate 2013-410-2 12S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; mitochondrial. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/KU508981.1. Accepted 08 Jan 2016Search in Google Scholar

Anderson RC (2000): Nematode parasites of vertebrates: their development and transmission. CABI Publishing, Wallingford.10.1079/9780851994215.0001Search in Google Scholar

Angelone-Alasaad S, Jowers MJ, Panadero R, Perez-Creo A, Pajares G, Diez-Banos P, Soriguer RC, Morrondo P (2016): First report of Setaria tundra in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus) from the Iberian Peninsula inferred from molecular data: epidemiological implications. Parasites and Vectors, 9, 521. doi: 10.1186/s13071-016-1793-x.10.1186/s13071-016-1793-xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Arya R, Tripathi LM, Srivastava VML (2003): Setaria cervi hexokinase mRNA, complete cds. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/45239017. Accessed 14 Jul 2003Search in Google Scholar

Baldacchino F, Muenworn V, Desquesnes M, Desoli F, Charoenviriyaphap T, Duvallet G (2013): Transmission of pathogens by Stomoxys flies (Diptera, Muscidae): A review. Parasite, 20, 1–13. doi: 10.1051/parasite/2013026.10.1051//2013026Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Barus V (1994): Revised checklist of filariids parasitizing in deer species (Cervidae) in the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. Folia Venatoria, 24, 69–75.Search in Google Scholar

Becklund WW, Walker ML (1969): Taxonomy, hosts and geographic distribution of the Setaria (Nematoda; Filaroidea) in the United States and Canada. The Journal of Parasitology, 55, 359–368.10.2307/3277411Search in Google Scholar

Bednarski M, Piasecki T, Bednarska M, Soltysiak Z (2010): Invasion of Setaria tundra in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). Medicina Veterinaria, 9, 21–25.Search in Google Scholar

Blazek K, Dykova I, Pav J (1968): The occurrence and pathogenicity of Setaria cervi Rud., in the central nervous system of deer. Folia Parasitologica, 15, 123–130.Search in Google Scholar

Boch J, Bauer C (2006): Veterinary Parasitology. Parey in MVS Medizinverlage, Stuttgart. (in German)Search in Google Scholar

Burger HJ, Eckert J, Kutzer E, Korting W, Rommel M (2006): Veterinary Parasitology. Parey in MVS Medizinverlage, Stuttgart. (in German)Search in Google Scholar

Cancrini G, Pietrobelli M, Frangipane R, Tampieri MP (1997): Mosquitoes as vectors of Setaria labiatopapillosa. International Journal of Parasitology, 27, 1061–1064.10.1016/S0020-7519(97)00081-7Search in Google Scholar

Casiraghi M, Bain O, Guerrero R, Martin C, Pocacqua V, Gardner SL, Franceschi A, Bandi C (2004): Mapping the presence of Wolbachia pipientis on the phylogeny of filarial nematodes: Evidence for symbiont loss during evolution. International Journal for Parasitology, 34, 191–203. doi: 10.1016/j.ijpara.2003. DOISearch in Google Scholar

Chamuah JK, Sakhrie A, Chigure GM, Perumal P, Jacob SS, Raina OK, Rajkhowa C (2014): Setaria digitata isolate Nagaland 5.8S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; internal transcribed spacer 2, complete sequence; and 28S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/KJ746437. Accessed 24 Apr 2014.Search in Google Scholar

Chandrasekharan NV, Karunanayake EH, Franzen L, Franzen A, Pettersson U (1998): Setaria digitata actin gene, complete cds. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/AF079359.1. Accessed 21 Jul 1998Search in Google Scholar

Chroust K, Forejtek P (2010): Nematodes of the gastrointestinal tract of cloven-hoofed game. Myslivost, 58, 72–74. (in Czech)Search in Google Scholar

Czajka C, Becker N, Poppert S, Jost H, Schmidt-Chanasit J, Kruger A (2012): Molecular detection of Setaria tundra (Nematoda: Filarioidea) and an unidentified filarial species in mosquitoes in Germany. Parasites and Vectors, 5, 1–14. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-5-14.10.1186/1756-3305-5-14327747522236560Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Darriba D, Taboada GL, Doallo R, Posada D (2012): jModel-Test 2: more models, new heuristics and high-performance computing. Nature Methods, 9, 722.10.1038/nmeth.2109Search in Google Scholar

Davoodi J (2014): Prevalence of setariosis in small and large ruminant in Miyaneh city, Northwest of Iran. Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances, 3, 1–5.Search in Google Scholar

Dehkordi ZS, Heidari H, Halajian A (2015): Case report of adult Setaria digitata in sheep, Hamedan province, Iran. Comparative Clinical Pathology, 24, 185–187. doi: 10.1007/s00580-014-1912-z.10.1007/s00580-014-1912-zOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Demiaszkiewicz AW, Kuligowska I, Pyziel AM, Lachowicz J (2015): First cases of nematode Setaria tundra invasion in elk in Poland. Medycyna Weterynaryjna, 71, 510–512.Search in Google Scholar

Enemark HL, Oksanen A, Chriel M, Harslund JF, Woolsey ID, Al-Sabi MNS (2017): Detection and molecular characterization of the mosquito-borne filarial nematode Setaria tundra in Danish roe deer (Capreolus capreolus). International Journal of Parasitology: Parasites and Wildlife, 6, 16–21.10.1016/j.ijppaw.2017.01.002Search in Google Scholar

Favia G, Cancrini G, Ricci I, Bazzocchi C, Magi M, Pietrobelli M, Genchi C, Bandi C (2000): 5 S ribosomal spacer sequences of some filarial parasites: comparative analysis and diagnostic applications. Molecular and Cellular Probes, 14, 285–290. doi: 10.1006/mcpr.2000.0317.10.1006/mcpr.2000.0317Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Favia G, Cancrini G, Ferroglio E, Casiraghi M, Ricci I, Rossi L (2003): Molecular assay for the identification of Setaria tundra. Veterinary Parasitology, 117, 139–145. doi: 10.1016/S0304-4017(03)00210-3.10.1016/S0304-4017(03)00210-3Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Fei ACY, Hung CC, Lin JHY (1992): A survey and pathological study of Setaria spp. infestation in Taiwan sika deer and cattle. Memoirs of the College of Agriculture, National Taiwan University, 32, 107–113.Search in Google Scholar

Ferri E, Barbuto M, Bain O, Galimberti A, Uni S, Guerrero R, Ferte H, Bandi C, Martin C, Casiraghi M (2009): Integrated taxonomy: Traditional approach and DNA barcoding for the identification of filarioid worms and related parasites (Nematoda). Frontiers in Zoology, 6, 1–12. doi: 10.1186/1742-9994-6-1.10.1186/1742-9994-6-1Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Gawor JJ (1995): The prevalence and abundance of internal parasites in working horses autopsied in Poland. Veterinary Parasitology, 58, 99–108. doi: 10.1016/0304-4017(94)00698-C.10.1016/0304-4017(94)00698-Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Ghedin E, Wang S, Spiro D, Caler E, Zhao Q, Crabtree J, Allen JE, Delcher AL, Guiliano DB, Miranda-Saavedra D, Angiuoli SV, Creasy T, Amedeo P, Haas B, El-Sayed NM, Wortman JR, Feldblyum T, Tallon L, Schatz M, Shumway M, Koo H, Salzberg SL, Schobel S, Pertea M, Pop M, White O, Barton GJ, Carlow CK, Crawford MJ, Daub J, Dimmic MW, Estes CF, Foster JM, Ganatra M, Gregory WF, Johnson NM, Jin J, Komuniecki R, Korf I, Kumar S, Laney S, Li BW, Li W, Lindblom TH, Lustigman S, Ma D, Maina CV, Martin DM, McCarter JP, McReynolds L, Mitreva M, Nutman TB, Parkinson J, Peregrin-Alvarez JM, Poole C, Ren Q, Saunders L, Sluder AE, Smith K, Stanke M, Unnasch TR, Ware J, Wei AD, Weil G, Williams DJ, Zhang Y, Williams SA, Fraser-Liggett C, Slatko B, Blaxter ML, Scott AL (2007): Draft genome of the filarial nematode parasite Brugia malayi. Science, 317, 1756–1760. doi: 10.1126/science.1145406.10.1126/.1145406Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Gibson D, Bray R, Hunt D, Georgiev B, Scholz T, Harris PD, Bakke TA, Pojmanska T, Niewiadomska K, Kostadinova A, Tkach V, Bain O, Durette-Desset, MC, Gibbons L, Moravec F, Petter A, Dimitrova ZM, Buchmann K, Valtonen ET, de Jong Y (2014): Fauna Europaea: Helminths (animal parasitic). Biodiversity Data Journal, 2, e1060. doi: 10.3897/BDJ.2.e1060.10.3897/BDJ.2.e1060420678225349520Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Guindon S, Gascuel O (2003): A simple, fast, and accurate algorithm to estimate large phylogenies by maximum likelihood. Systematic Biology, 52, 697–704. doi: 10.1080/10635150390235520.10.1080/1063515039023552014530136Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Chui H, Song Y, Li G, Wang S, Li Z, Li G (1995): Pathological changes in sika deer with paralysis of the hindquarters caused by Setaria labiatopapillosa. Journal of Jilin Agricultural University, 17, 81–83.Search in Google Scholar

Husak F, Wolf R, Lochman J (1986): Daněk, sika, jelenec. Státní zemědělské nakladatelství, Praha.Search in Google Scholar

Järvis T (1995): Helminthoses in the elk in Estonia. Estonian Veterinary Review, 21, 62–64Search in Google Scholar

Jayasena SM, Chandrasekharan NV, Karunanayake EH (1999): Molecular characterisation of a hsp70 gene from the filarial parasite Setaria digitata. International Journal for Parasitology, 29, 581–591.10.1016/S0020-7519(99)00002-8Search in Google Scholar

Katoh K, Toh H (2008): Improved accuracy of multiple ncRNA alignment by incorporating structural information into a MAFFT-based framework. BMC Bioinformatics, 9, 212. doi: 10.1186/1471-2105-9-212.10.1186/1471-2105-9-212238717918439255Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Kaur D, Ganai A, Parveen S, Borkataki S, Yadav A, Katoch R (2015): Occurrence of Setaria digitata in a cow. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 39, 477–478. doi: 10.1007/s12639-013-0376-4.10.1007/s12639-013-0376-4455457726345055Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Kemenesi G, Kurucz K, Kepner A, Dallos B, Oldal M, Herczeg R, Vajdovicz P, Banyai K, Jakab F (2015): Circulation of Dirofilaria repens, Setaria tundra, and Onchocercidae species in Hungary during the period 2011–2013. Veterinary Parasitology, 214, 108–113.10.1016/j.vetpar.2015.09.01026412142Search in Google Scholar

Khedri J, Radfar MH, Borji H, Azizzadeh M (2014): An epidemiological survey of Setaria in the abdominal cavities of Iranian Sistani and Brahman cattle in the Southeastern of Iran. Iranian Journal of Parasitology, 9, 249–253.Search in Google Scholar

Kim NS, Kim HC, Sim C, Ji JR, Kim NS, Park BK (2010): Congenital infection with Setaria digitata and Setaria marshalli in the thoracic cavity of a Korean calf: A case report. Veterinarni Medicina, 55, 275–280.10.17221/2987-VETMEDSearch in Google Scholar

Kostyaeva AT, Kostyaev PE (1969): On the helminth fauna of deer in Gorno-Altay autonomous region. Sbornik Nauchnykh Rabot Altaiskoi Nauchno Issledovatel’skoi Veterinarnoi Stantsii, 2, 155–162.Search in Google Scholar

Kotrla B (1984): Parasitoses of the cloven-hoofed game. Academia, Prague. (in Czech)Search in Google Scholar

Kowal J, Kornas S, Nosal P, Basiaga M, Lesiak M (2013): Setaria tundra in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus): New findings in Poland. Annals of Parasitology, 59, 179–182.Search in Google Scholar

Kronefeld M, Kampen H, Sassnau R, Werner D (2014): Molecular detection of Dirofilaria immitis, Dirofilaria repens and Setaria tundra in mosquitoes from Germany. Parasites and Vectors, 7, 30. doi: 10.1186/1756-3305-7-30.10.1186/1756-3305-7-30389882324433279Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Kumar R, Kumar U (2016): Ultrastructural studies on Setaria digitata by scanning electron microscopy. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 40, 1199–1203.10.1007/s12639-015-0649-1511827527876914Search in Google Scholar

Kumar R, Yadav S, Tiwari S, Rathaur S (2015): Setaria cervi phosphoglycerate kinase mRNA, partial cds. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/924626153. Accessed 10 Mar 2015.Search in Google Scholar

Laaksonen S, Kuusela J, Nylund M, Oksanen A (2005): Setaria tundra NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 and cytochrome c oxidase subunit I genes, partial cds; mitochondrial. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/68235686. Accessed 17 Jun 2005Search in Google Scholar

Laaksonen S, Solismaa M, Orro T, Kuusela J, Saari S, Kortet R, Nikander S, Oksanen A, Sukura A (2009a): Setaria tundra microfilariae in reindeer and other cervids in Finland. Parasitology Research, 104, 257–265. doi: 10.1007/s00436-008-1184-0.10.1007/s00436-008-1184-018810493Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Laaksonen S, Solismaa M, Kortet R, Kuusela J, Oksanen A (2009b): Vectors and transmission dynamics for Setaria tundra (Filaroidea; Onchocercidae), a parasite of reindeer in Finland. Parasites and Vectors, 2, 1–10.10.1186/1756-3305-2-3264538219126197Search in Google Scholar

Lefoulon E, Bain O, Bourret J, Junker K, Guerrero R, Canizales I, Kuzmin Y, Satoto TB, Cardenas-Callirgos JM, de Souza LS, Raccurt C, Mutafchiev Y, Gavotte L, Martin C (2015): Shaking the tree: Multi-locus sequence typing usurps current Onchocercid (filarial nematode) phylogeny. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 9, 1–19. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0004233.10.1371/journal.pntd.0004233465448826588229Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Liang-Sheng Y (1959): A revision of the nematode genus Setaria Viborg, 1795, its host–parasite relationship, speciation and evolution. Journal of Helminthology, 33, 1–98.10.1017/S0022149X00003709Search in Google Scholar

Liu GH, Li JY, Zhu XQ (2017): Characterization of the complete mitochondrial genome of Setaria digitata (Nematoda: Setariidae) from China. Journal of Helminthology, 91, 772–776. doi: 10.1017/S0022149X16000912.10.1017/S0022149X1600091228100285Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Marzok MA, Desouky ARY (2009): Ocular infection of donkeys (Equus asinus) with Setaria equina. Tropical Animal Health and Production, 41, 859–863. doi: 10.1007/s11250-008-9263-x.10.1007/s11250-008-9263-x19015947Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Minin V, Abdo Z, Joyce P, Sullivan J (2003): Performance-based selection of likelihood models for phylogeny estimation. Systematic Biology, 52, 674–683. doi: 10.1080/10635150390235494.10.1080/1063515039023549414530134Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Murugananthan A, Karunanayake EH, Tennekoon KH (2009): Setaria digitata alkali myosin light chain (MLC-3) gene, complete cds. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/251762814. Accessed 30 May 2009.Search in Google Scholar

Nabie R, Spotin A (2015): Setaria equina 12S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence; mitochondrial. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/KU291446. Published only in dataset.Search in Google Scholar

Nakano H, Tozuka M, Ikadai H, Ishida H, Goto R, Kudo N, Katayama Y, Muranaka M, Anzai T, Oyamada T (2007): Morphological survey of bovine Setaria in the abdominal cavities of cattle in Aomori and Kumamoto prefectures, Japan. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 69, 413–415. doi: 10.1292/jvms.69.413.10.1292/jvms.69.41317485931Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Nelson GS (1966): The pathology of filarial infections. Helminthological Abstracts, 35, 311–336.Search in Google Scholar

Oge S, Oge H, Yildirim A, Kircali F (2003): Setaria equina infection of Turkish equines: Estimates of prevalence based on necropsy and the detection of microfilaraemia. Annals of Tropical Medicine and Parasitology, 97, 403–409.10.1179/00034980323500243412831525Search in Google Scholar

Pietrobelli M, Regalbono F, Segato L, Tampieri MP (1995): Bovine setariasis in Friuli Venezia Giulia. Parassitologia, 37, 69–74.Search in Google Scholar

Rajsky D (2010): Inconspicuous Parasites. Poĺovnictvo & rybárstvo. https://www.pluska.sk/polovnictvo-rybarstvo/polovnik/polovnicka-prax/lov/2010/nenapadne-parazity.html. Accessed 25.10.2010. (in Slovak)Search in Google Scholar

Rajsky D (2015): Setariosis in cervids. Vojenské lesy, 9, 13. (in Czech)Search in Google Scholar

Rehbein S, Visser M (2007): Die Endoparasiten des Sika wildes (Cervus nippon) in Österreich. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 119, 96–101. (in German)10.1007/s00508-007-0865-517987366Search in Google Scholar

Rehbein S, Visser M, Jekel I, Silaghi C (2014): Endoparasites of the fallow deer (Dama dama) of the Antheringer Au in Salzburg, Austria. Wiener Klinische Wochenschrift, 126, 37–41. doi: 10.1007/s00508-014-0506-8.10.1007/s00508-014-0506-824535173Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Ruminski A (2015): The case of an unusual location of Setaria tundra in the roe deer. Veterynaria, 9, 1–4. (in Polish)Search in Google Scholar

Saparov KA, Azimiov DA, Kuchboev AE, Amirov OO, Golovanov VI, Aleoyshin VV (2015a): Setaria equina isolate 148 internal transcribed spacer 2 and 28S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/KP723854. Accessed 30.01.2015.Search in Google Scholar

Saparov KA, Azimiov DA, Kuchboev AE, Amirov OO, Golovanov VI, Aleoyshin VV (2015b): Setaria labiatopapillosa isolate 149 internal transcribed spacer 2 and 28S ribosomal RNA gene, partial sequence. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/KP723854. Accessed 30.01.2015.Search in Google Scholar

Sasisekhar B, Suba N, Sindhuja S, Sofi GM, Narayanan RB (2005): Setaria digitata: identification and characterization of a hypodermally expressed SXP/RAL2 protein. Experimental Parasitology, 111, 121–125. doi: 10.1016/j.exp-para.2005. DOISearch in Google Scholar

Schwangart F (1940): About the endemic paresis and tuberculosis in red deer. Die Berliner und Münchener Tierärztliche Wochenschrift, 6, 61–66. (in German)Search in Google Scholar

Schwarz G. (1978): Estimating the dimension of a model. Annals of Statistics, 6, 461–464.10.1214/aos/1176344136Search in Google Scholar

Shin SS, Cho KO, Wee SH (2002): Ocular infection of cattle with Setaria digitata. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 64, 7–10. doi: 10.1292/jvms. DOISearch in Google Scholar

Shoho C (1959): The Setaria of Capreolus capreolus in the Switzerland. Revue suisse de zoologie, 66, 233–258. (in German)10.5962/bhl.part.75213Search in Google Scholar

Shoho C, Uni S (1977): Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of some Setaria species (Filarioidea, Nematoda). Zeitschfrift für Parasitenkunde, 53, 93–104.10.1007/BF00383119Search in Google Scholar

Shol VA, Drobishchenko NI (1973): Development of Setaria cervi (Rudolphi, 1819) in Cervus elaphus maral. Helminthologia, 14, 214–246.Search in Google Scholar

Singh H, Singh NK, Singh ND, Jyoti, Rath SS (2015): Occurrence of Setaria labiatopapillosa in peritoneal cavity of a crossbred cattle. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 39, 152–154.10.1007/s12639-013-0308-3Search in Google Scholar

Sotiraky ST, Badouvas AG, Himonas CA (1997): A survey on the prevalence of internal parasites of equines in Macedonia and Thessalia – Greece. Journal of Equine Veterinary Science, 17, 550–552. doi: 10.1016/S0737-0806(97)80228-6.10.1016/S0737-0806(97)80228-6Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Soulsby EJL (1982): Helminths, arthropods and protozoa of domesticated animals. Baillière Tindall, London.Search in Google Scholar

Subhachalat P, Adachi Y (1997): Classification of Setaria worms from calves and adult cattle into Setaria digitata and Setaria marshalli by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Zentralblatt für Bacteriologie, 286, 527–533. doi: 10.1016/S0934-8840(97)80056-4.10.1016/S0934-8840(97)80056-4Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Subhachalat P, Shirasaka S, Nakajima H, Adachi Y (1999): Setaria digitata in cattle of Thailand identified by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 61, 443–445. doi: 10.1292/jvms.61.443.10.1292/jvms.61.44310342300Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Sundar STB, D’Souza PE (2015): Morphological characterization of Setaria worms collected from cattle. Journal of Parasitic Diseases, 39, 572–576. doi: 10.1007/s12639-013-0399-x.10.1007/s12639-013-0399-x455458126345074Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Takesue M, Osaka Y, Ikadai H (2015): Setaria digitata IFP gene for intermediate filament protein, partial cds. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/973412654. Accessed 6 Jul 2015.Search in Google Scholar

Tamura K, Nei M (1993): Estimation of the number of nucleotide substitutions in the control region of mitochondrial DNA in humans and chimpanzees. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 10, 512–526.Search in Google Scholar

Taylor MA, Coop RL, Wall RL (2015): Veterinary parasitology. Wiley Blackwell.10.1002/9781119073680Search in Google Scholar

Tung KC, Lai CH, Ooi HK, Yang CH, Wang JS (2003): Cerebrospinal setariosis with Setaria marshalli and Setaria digitata infection in cattle. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 65, 977–983. doi: 10.1292/jvms.65.977.10.1292/jvms.65.97714532689Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Wee SH, Jang H, Joo HD, Kang YB, Lee CG (1996): Setaria marshalli infection in neonatal calves. Korean Journal of Parasitology, 34, 207–210. doi: 10.3347/kjp.1996. DOISearch in Google Scholar

Wijesundera SS, Jayasinghe DR, Karunanayake EH (2000a): Setaria cervi clone Sc1 5S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/AF282181.1. Accessed 23 Jun 2000.Search in Google Scholar

Wijesundera SS, Jayasinghe DR, Karunanayake EH (2000b): Setaria digitata clone Sd6 5S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer region. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/AF282180.1. Accessed 23 Jun 2000.Search in Google Scholar

Wijesundera SS, Jayasinghe DR, Karunanayake EH (2000c): Setaria labiatopapillosa clone Slp2 5S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer region. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/AF282183.1. Setaria labiatopapillosa clone Slp2 5S ribosomal RNA intergenic spacer region. Accessed 23 Jun 2000.Search in Google Scholar

Wijesundera WSS, Chandrasekharan NV, Karunanayake EH, Dharmasena SP (1996): Development of a diagnostic DNA probe to detect Setaria digitata: the causative parasite of cerebrospinal nematodiasis in goats, sheep and horses. British Veterinary Journal, 152, 561–571. doi: 10.1016/S0007-1935(96)80008-X.10.1016/S0007-1935(96)80008-XOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Yadav SS, Singh VK, Liebau E, Rathaur S (2012a): Setaria cervi histone H2B mRNA, partial cds. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/384597843. Accessed 25 Jan 2012.Search in Google Scholar

Yadav SS, Singh VK, Liebau E, Rathaur S (2012b): Setaria cervi galectin mRNA, partial cds. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/384597845. Accessed 25 Jan 2012.Search in Google Scholar

Yadav SS, Singh VK, Liebau E, Rathaur S (2012c): Setaria cervi acid phosphatase mRNA, partial cds. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/375333350. Accessed 25 Jan 2012.Search in Google Scholar

Yatawara L, Wickramasinghe S, Nagataki M, Rajapakse RP, Agatsuma,T (2007): Molecular characterization and phylogenetic analysis of Setaria digitata of Sri Lanka based on CO1 and 12S rDNA genes. Veterinary Parasitology, 148, 161–165. doi: 10.1016/j.vetpar.2007. DOISearch in Google Scholar

Yatawara L, Wickramasinghe S, Rajapakse RP, Agatsuma T (2010): The complete mitochondrial genome of Setaria digitata (Nematoda: Filarioidea): Mitochondrial gene content, arrangement and composition compared with other nematodes. Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology, 173, 32–38. doi: 10.1016/j.molbiopara.2010. DOISearch in Google Scholar

Zdarska Z, Scholl VA (1978): Scanning electron microscopy of Setaria labiatopapillosa (Alessandrini, 1848) from cattle of Kazakhstan. Folia Parasitologica, 25, 137–140.Search in Google Scholar

Zittra C, Kocziha Z, Pinnyei S, Harl J, Kieser K, Laciny A, Eigner B, Silbermayr K, Duscher GG, Fok E, Fuehrer HP (2015): Screening blood-fed mosquitoes for the diagnosis of filarioid helminths and avian malaria. Parasites and Vectors, 8, 13–16. doi: 10.1186/s13071-015-0637-4.10.1186/s13071-015-0637-4430525625582219Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo