1. bookVolume 5 (2019): Issue 2 (December 2019)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Word order and closest-conjunct agreement in the Greek Septuagint: On the position of a biblical translation in the diachrony of a syntactic correlation

Published Online: 16 Dec 2019
Page range: 37 - 90
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Clauses can show closest-conjunct agreement, where the verb agrees only with one conjunct of a conjoined subject, and not with the full conjoined subject. The aim of this study is to examine the properties of word order and closest-conjunct agreement in the Greek Septuagint to distinguish which of them are due to the native syntax of Koiné Greek, possibly influenced by contact with Hebrew, and which of them are the result of a biblical translation effect. Both VSO and closest-conjunct agreement in the case of postverbal subjects have been considered characteristics of Biblical Hebrew. VSO becomes a neutral word order for Koiné Greek, and Koiné Greek exhibits examples of closest-conjunct agreement as well. The present study shows that VSO is the neutral word order for various types of texts of Koiné Greek (biblical and non-biblical, translations and non-translations) and that closest-conjunct agreement is also present with similar characteristics in pre-Koiné Greek. All relevant characteristics reflect a type of a syntactic change in Greek related to the properties of the T domain, and evidenced not only in translations or Biblical Greek. However, the frequencies of word orders are indeed affected by the source language, and indirect translation effects are evident in the Greek Septuagint.

Keywords

Abney, S. (1987). The English noun phrase in its sentential aspect. (Doctoral dissertation). Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.Search in Google Scholar

Abraham, W. (1997). The interdependence of case, aspect, and referentiality in the history of German: The case of the genitive. In A. van Kemenade and N. Vincent (Eds.), Parameters of morphosyntactic change (pp. 29-61). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Agbayani, B. and Golston, C. (2010). Phonological movement in Classical Greek. Language, 86(1), 133-167.Search in Google Scholar

Alexiadou, A. (2003). Subject agreement asymmetries in coordination. In C. Maienborn and M. Krifka (Eds.), Asymmetrien (pp. 1-23). Tübingen: Stauffenburg.Search in Google Scholar

Alexiadou, A. and Anagnostopoulou, E. (1998). Parametrizing AGR: Word order, V movement and EPP-checking. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 16, 491-539.Search in Google Scholar

Alexiadou, A., Anagnostopoulou, E., and Wurmbrand. S. (2014). Movement vs. long distance agree in raising: Disappearing phases and feature valuation. In H.-L. Huang, E. Poole, and A. Rysling (Eds.), Proceedings of the North Eastern Linguistics Society Annual Meeting 43 (pp. 1-12). Amherst: University of Massachusetts, GLSA.Search in Google Scholar

Badecker, W. (2007). A feature principle for partial agreement. Lingua, 117, 1541-1565.Search in Google Scholar

Bailey, N. A. (2009). Thetic constructions in Koiné Greek. (Doctoral dissertation). Vrije-Universiteit Amsterdam.Search in Google Scholar

Baker, M. (2008). The syntax of agreement and concord. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Belletti, A. (2001). ‘Inversion’ as focalization. In A. Hulk and J.-Y. Pollock (Eds.), Subject inversion and the theory of universal grammar (pp. 60-90). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Benmamoun, E., Bhatia, A., and Polinsky, M. (2009). Closest conjunct agreement in head final languages. Linguistic Variation Yearbook, 9, 67-88.Search in Google Scholar

Biberauer, T. and Roberts, I. (2010). Subjects, tense and verb-movement. In T. Biberauer, A. Holmberg, I. Roberts, and M. Sheehan (Eds.), Parametric variation: Null subjects in minimalist theory (pp. 263-302). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

BibleWorks (BNM and BLM). BibleWorks Greek New Testament Morphology (BNM). BibleWorks Greek LXX Morphology (BLM). Norfolk: BibleWorks, LLC. (2001). BibleWorks. v. 9.Search in Google Scholar

Blass, F. and Debrunner. A. (1961). A Greek grammar of the New Testament and other early Christian literature. Transl. and rev. Robert W. Funk. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Search in Google Scholar

Bobaljik, J. D. (2002). Realizing Germanic inflection: Why morphology does not drive Syntax. Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics, 6, 129-167.Search in Google Scholar

Bobaljik, J. D. (2008). Where’s phi? Agreement as a post-syntactic operation. In D. Harbour, D. Adger, and S. Béjar (Eds.), Phi-theory: Phi features across interfaces and modules (pp. 295-328). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Borer, H. (1986). I-subjects. Linguistic Inquiry, 17, 375-416.Search in Google Scholar

Bošković, Ž. (2005). On the locality of left branch extraction and the structure of NP. Studia Linguistica, 59, 1-45.Search in Google Scholar

Bošković, Ž. (2008). On Leo Tolstoy, its structure, case, left-branch extraction, and prosodic inversion. (Manuscript). University of Connecticut.Search in Google Scholar

Bošković, Ž. (2009). Unifying first and last conjunct agreement. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory, 27, 455-496.Search in Google Scholar

Bubenik, V. (1989). Hellenistic and Roman Greece as a sociolinguistic area. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Search in Google Scholar

Chomsky, N. (2000). Minimalist inquiries: The framework. In R. Martin, D. Michaels, and J. Uriagereka (Eds.), Step by step. Essays on minimalist syntax in honor of Howard Lasnik (pp. 89-155). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Search in Google Scholar

Chomsky, N. (2001). Derivation by phase. In M. Kenstowicz (Ed.), Ken Hale: A life in language (pp. 1-52). Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Search in Google Scholar

Chomsky, N. (2004). Beyond explanatory adequacy. In A. Belletti (Ed.), The cartography of syntactic structures. Vol. III: Structures and beyond (pp. 104-131). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Condoravdi, C. and Kiparsky, P. (2001). Greek clitics and clause structure. Journal of Greek Linguistics, 2, 1-39.Search in Google Scholar

Corbett, G. (1983). ‘Resolution rules’: Agreement in person, number, and gender. In G. Gazdar, E. Klein, and G. Pullum (Eds.), Order, concord and constituency (pp. 175-206). Dordrecht: Foris.Search in Google Scholar

Corbett, G. (2006). Agreement. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Costa, J. (2004). Subject positions and interfaces. The case of European Portuguese. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Search in Google Scholar

Davison, M. E. (1989). New Testament Greek word order. Literary and Linguistic Computing, 4(1), 19-28.Search in Google Scholar

Delbrück, B. (1900). Vergleichende Syntax der indogermanischen Sprachen. Vol. 1. Strassburg: Trübner.Search in Google Scholar

Denniston, J. D. (1996) [1st ed. 1934]. The Greek particles. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company.Search in Google Scholar

Devine, A. M. and Stephens, L. D. (2000). Discontinuous syntax: Hyperbaton in Greek. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Devine, A. M. and Stephens, L. D. (2006). Latin word order. Structured meaning and information. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Dik, H. (1995). Word order in Ancient Greek. A pragmatic account of word order variation in Herodotus (Amsterdam Studies in Classical Philology 5). Amsterdam: Gieben.Search in Google Scholar

Dik, H. (2007). Word order in Greek tragic dialogue. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Dik, S. C. (1978). Functional Grammar. Amsterdam: North-Holland.Search in Google Scholar

Doron, E. (2000). VSO and left-conjunct agreement: Biblical Hebrew vs. Modern Hebrew. In A. Carnie and E. Guilfoyle (Eds.), The syntax of verb-initial languages (pp. 75-95). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Dressler, W. U. (1969). Eine textsyntaktische Regel der idg. Wortstellung. Zeitschrift für vergleichende Sprachforshung auf dem Gebiet der Indogermanischen Sprachen, 83, 1-25.Search in Google Scholar

Franks, S. and Progovac, L. (1994). On the placement of Serbo-Croatian clitics. Indiana Linguistic Studies, 7, 69-78.Search in Google Scholar

Fraser, B. (2002). Word order in Greek stichic verse: Subject, verb, and object. Glotta, 28, 51-101.Search in Google Scholar

Friberg, T. (1982). New Testament Greek word order in light of discourse considerations. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Minnesota.Search in Google Scholar

Gelderen, E. van. (1997). Structures of tense and aspect. Linguistic Analysis, 27(3-4), 138-165.Search in Google Scholar

Gelderen, E. van. (2000). A history of English reflexive pronouns. Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Search in Google Scholar

Gelderen, E. van. (2011a). Valency changes in the history of English. Journal of Historical Linguistics, 1(1), 106-143.Search in Google Scholar

Gelderen, E. van. (2011b). The linguistic cycle. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Georgiafentis, M. and Laskaratou, C. (2013a). Words in order: Introduction. Journal of Greek Linguistics, 13, 177-180.Search in Google Scholar

Georgiafentis, M. and Laskaratou, C. (2013b). Word order flexibility and adjacency preferences: Competing forces and tension in the Greek VP. Journal of Greek Linguistics 13, 181-202.Search in Google Scholar

Gesenius, F. H. W. (1910). Hebrew Grammar. 2nd English edition revised by A.E. Cowley. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Search in Google Scholar

Gianollo, C. (2011). Native syntax and translation effects. Adnominal arguments in the Greek and Latin New Testament. In E. Welo (Ed.), Indo-European syntax and pragmatics: Contrastive approaches (Oslo Studies in Language 3.3) (pp. 75-101). Oslo: University of Oslo.Search in Google Scholar

Goldstein, D. (2015). Classical Greek syntax: Wackernagel’s law in Herodotos. Amsterdam: Brill.Search in Google Scholar

Goodwin, W. W. (1978) [1894]. A Greek grammar. Reprint. London: St. Martin’s Press.Search in Google Scholar

GRAMCORD. Greek New Testament and LXX for Windows. (2005). Vancouver, WA: The GRAMCORD Institute.Search in Google Scholar

Grohmann, K. K. (2003). Prolific domains: On the anti-locality of movement dependencies. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Search in Google Scholar

Guardiano, C. (2011). Parametric changes in the history of the Greek article. In D. Jonas, J. Whitman, and A. Garrett (Eds.), Grammatical change: Origins, nature, outcomes (pp. 179-197). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Guardiano, C. (2013). The Greek definite article across time. Studies in Greek Linguistics, 33, 76-91.Search in Google Scholar

Guardiano, C., Michelioudakis, D., Ceolin, A., Irimia, M.-A., Longobardi, G., Radkevich, N., Silvestri G., and Sitaridou, I. (2016). South by Southeast. A syntactic approach to Greek and Romance micro-variation. L’Italia dialettale, 77, 95-166.Search in Google Scholar

Heine, B. (2008). Contact-induced word order change without word order change. In P. Siemund and N. Kintana (Eds.), Language contact and contact languages (pp. 33-60). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Search in Google Scholar

Holmstedt, R. (2009). So-called first-conjunct agreement in Biblical Hebrew. In C. G. Häberl (Ed.), Afroasiatic studies in memory of Robert Hetzron: Proceedings of the 35th annual meeting of the North American Conference on Afroasiatic Linguistics (NACAL 35) (pp. 105-129). Newcastle: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Search in Google Scholar

Holton, D., Mackridge, P., Philippaki-Warburton. I., and Spyropoulos, V. (2012). Greek: A Comprehensive Grammar. 2nd revised edition. London: Routledge.Search in Google Scholar

Horrocks, G. (1981). Space and time in Homer: Prepositional and adverbial particles in the Greek epic. New York: Arno Press.Search in Google Scholar

Horrocks, G. (2007). Syntax: From Classical Greek to the Koiné. In A. Phoibos Christidis (Ed.), A History of Ancient Greek (pp. 618-631). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Horrocks, G. (2010). Greek: A history of the language and its speakers. 2nd edition. Chichester/Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.Search in Google Scholar

Horrocks, G. (2016). The phases of the Greek language. In E. Bons and J. Joosten (Eds.), Die Sprache der Septuaginta/The language of the Septuagint. Handbuch zur Septuaginta/Handbook of the Septuagint. Vol 3.1 (pp. 71-88). Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus.Search in Google Scholar

Humbert, J. (1930). La disparition du datif en grec. Paris: Champion.Search in Google Scholar

Humbert, J. (1945). Syntaxe Grecque. Paris: Librairie Klincksieck.Search in Google Scholar

Janse, M. (2002). Aspects of bilingualism in the history of the Greek language. In J. N. Adams, M. Janse, and S. Swain (Eds.), Bilingualism in ancient society: Language contact and the written word (pp. 332-390). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Janse, M. (2014). Bilingualism, diglossia and literacy in first-century Jewish Palestine. In G. K. Giannakis (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek language and linguistics. Brill Online. http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopedia-of-ancient-greek-language-and-linguistics/bilingualism-diglossia-and-literacy-in-first-century-jewish-palestine-EAGLL_COM_00000107 (First appeared online: 2013) (14 October, 2014)Search in Google Scholar

Johnson, C. A. (2013). Multiple antecedent agreement: A comparative study of Greek and Latin. In S. W. Jamison, H. C. Melchert, and B. Vine (Eds.), Proceedings of the 24th Annual UCLA Indo-European Conference (pp. 67-86). Bremen: Hempe.Search in Google Scholar

Joseph, B. D. and Philippaki-Warburton, I. (1987). Modern Greek. London and New York: Croom Helm.Search in Google Scholar

Joüon, P. (1923). Grammaire de l’Hébreu Biblique. Rome: Institut Biblique Pontifical.Search in Google Scholar

Kazana, D. (2011). Agreement in Modern Greek coordinate noun phrases. Essex: University of Essex dissertation.Search in Google Scholar

Keller, F. and Alexopoulou, T. (2001). Phonology competes with syntax: Experimental evidence for the interaction of word placement in the realization of information. Cognition, 79, 301-372.Search in Google Scholar

Kiparsky, P. (1996). The shift to head-initial VP in Germanic. In H. Thráinsson, S. D. Epstein, and S. Peter (Eds.), Comparative Germanic syntax (pp. 140-179). Dordrecht: Kluwer.Search in Google Scholar

Kiparsky, P. (1998). Partitive case and aspect. In M. Butt and W. Geuder (Eds.), The projection of arguments (pp. 265-307). Stanford: CSLI.Search in Google Scholar

Kirk, A. (2012). Word order and information structure in New Testament Greek. (Doctoral dissertation). Leiden University.Search in Google Scholar

Kiss. K. É. (1998). Identificational focus versus information focus. Language, 74(2), 245-273.Search in Google Scholar

Koppen, M. van. (2005). One probe - two goals: Aspects of agreement in Dutch dialects. (Doctoral dissertation). Leiden University.Search in Google Scholar

Koppen, M. van. (2006). A new view on first conjunct agreement. In J. Costa and M. Silva (Eds.), Studies on agreement (pp. 121-140). Amsterdam/Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Search in Google Scholar

Koppen, M. van. (2008). Agreement with coordinated subjects: A comparative perspective. Linguistic Variation Yearbook, 7, 121-161.Search in Google Scholar

Kroch, A. (1989). Reflexes of grammar in patterns of language change. Language Variation and Change, 1, 199-244.Search in Google Scholar

Kroch, A. (2001). Syntactic change. In M. Baltin and C. Collins (Eds.), The handbook of contemporary syntactic theory (pp. 699-729). Malden, MA/Oxford: Blackwell.Search in Google Scholar

Kühner, R. and Gerth, B. (1963) [1898/1904]. Ausführliche Grammatik der Griechischen Sprache. Zweiter Teil: Satzlehre. [Copious Grammar of the Greek Language. Second Part: Syntax]. Hannover: Hahn.Search in Google Scholar

Kulikov, L. and Lavidas, N. (2013). Reconstructing passive and voice in Proto-Indo-European. Journal of Historical Linguistics, 3(1), 98-121.Search in Google Scholar

Kwong, I. S. C. (2005). The word order of the Gospel of Luke: Its foregrounded message. London: T. and T. Clark.Search in Google Scholar

Laskaratou, C. (1984). The passive voice in Modern Greek. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Reading.Search in Google Scholar

Laskaratou, C. (1989). A functional approach to constituent order with particular reference to Modern Greek. Implications for language learning and language teaching. Athens: Parousia Monograph Series 5.Search in Google Scholar

Laskaratou, C. (1998). Basic characteristics of Modern Greek word order. In A. Siewierska (Ed.), Constituent order in the languages of Europe (pp. 151-174). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Search in Google Scholar

Lavidas, N. (2014a). Change in partial number agreement in Greek: How and why to change your agreement in various ways. In L. Veselovská and M. Janebová (Eds.), Complex visibles out there (pp. 217-233). Olomouc modern language series vol. 4. Olomouc: Palacký University.Search in Google Scholar

Lavidas, N. (2014b). The Greek Septuagint and language change at the syntax-semantics interface: from null to “pleonastic” object pronouns. In C. Gianollo, A. Jäger, and D. Penka (Eds.) Language change at the syntax-semantics interface (pp. 153-182). Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter Mouton.Search in Google Scholar

Lavidas, N. (2015). How does a basic word order become ungrammatical? SOV from Classical to Koine Greek. Studies in Greek Linguistics, 35, 323-335.Search in Google Scholar

Lavidas, N. (2017). Case in diachrony: Or, why Greek is not English. In E. Mathieu and R. Truswell (Eds.), Micro-change and macro-change in diachronic syntax (pp. 125-144). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Levinsohn, S. H. (2000). Discourse features of New Testament Greek: A coursebook on the information structure of New Testament Greek. 2nd edition. Dallas: SIL International.Search in Google Scholar

Levinsohn, S. H. (2006). The relevance of Greek discourse studies to exegesis. Journal of Translation, 2(2), 11-21.Search in Google Scholar

Li, C. N. and Thompson. S. A. (1976). Subject and topic: A new typology of language. In C. N. Li (Ed.), Subject and topic (pp. 457-489). New York: Academic Press.Search in Google Scholar

Luraghi, S. (1995). The function of verb initial sentences in some ancient Indo-European languages. In P. A. Downing and M. Noonan (Eds.), Word order in discourse (pp. 355-386). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Search in Google Scholar

Luraghi, S. (2010). The extension of the transitive construction in Ancient Greek. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia, 42(1), 60-74.Search in Google Scholar

Luraghi, S. (2014). Case syncretism (morphological aspects of). In G. K. Giannakis (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek language and linguistics. Brill Online. http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopedia-of-ancient-greek-language-and-linguistics/case-syncretism-morphological-aspects-of-EAGLL_COM_00000053 (First appeared online: 2013) (1 November, 2014).Search in Google Scholar

Maloney, E. C. (1979). A study of Semitic interference in Marcan Syntax. (Doctoral dissertation). Fordham University.Search in Google Scholar

Mambrini, F. and Passarotti, M. (2016). Subject-verb agreement with coordinated subjects in Ancient Greek. Journal of Greek Linguistics, 16(1), 87-116.Search in Google Scholar

Marušič, F., Nevins, A., and Saksida A. (2007). Last-conjunct agreement in Slovenian. In R. Compton, M. Goledzinowska, and U. Savchenko (Eds.), Proceedings of formal approaches to Slavic linguistics: The Toronto meeting 2006 (pp. 210-227). Ann Arbor: Michigan Slavic Publications.Search in Google Scholar

Mathieu, E. and Sitaridou, I. (2005). Split wh-constructions in Classical and Modern Greek: A diachronic perspective. In M. Batllori, M.-L. Hernanz, C. Picallo, and F. Roca. (Eds.), Grammaticalization and parametric variation (pp. 236-250). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Matić, D. (2003). Topic, focus, and discourse structure. Ancient Greek word order. Studies in Language, 27(3), 573-633.Search in Google Scholar

Meecham, H. G. (1932). The letter of Aristeas. A linguistic study with special reference to the Greek Bible. Manchester: Manchester University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Moser, A. (2008). The changing relationship of tense and aspect in Greek. Sprachtypologie und Universalienforschung / Typology and Universals (STUF), 61, 5-18.Search in Google Scholar

Moser, A. (2009). Apopsi ke xronos stin istoria tis Elinikis [Aspect and tense in the history of Greek]. Athens: National and Kapodistrian University of Athens.Search in Google Scholar

Moser, A. (2014). From aktionsart to aspect: Grammaticalization and subjectification in Greek. Acta Linguistica Hafniensia, 46(1), 64-84.Search in Google Scholar

Moulton, J. H. (1908). A grammar of New Testament Greek. Volume 1: Prolegomena. Edinburgh: T. and T. Clark.Search in Google Scholar

Munn, A. (1999). First conjunct agreement: Against a clausal analysis. Linguistic Inquiry, 30, 643-668.Search in Google Scholar

Otero, A. P. (2016). Hebraisms. In E. Bons and J. Joosten (Eds.), Die Sprache der Septuaginta/The language of the Septuagint. Handbuch zur Septuaginta/Handbook of the Septuagint. Vol 3.1 (pp. 182-192). Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus.Search in Google Scholar

Paton, W. R. (1968). Polybius: The Histories (Loeb Classical Library). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Philippaki-Warburton, I. (1982). Provlimata sxetika me ti seira ton oron stis ellinikes protaseis [Problems regarding word order in Greek clauses]. Glossologia, 1, 99-107.Search in Google Scholar

Philippaki-Warburton, I. (1985). Word order in Modern Greek. Transactions of the Philological Society, 2, 113-143.Search in Google Scholar

Philippaki-Warburton, I. (2001). Glossologiki theoria ke sintaxi tis Ellinikis: i poikilia sti seira ton oron tis protasis [Linguistic theory and Greek syntax: variation in clausal word order]. In Y. Aggouraki, A.Arvaniti, J. I. M. Davy, D. Goutsos, M. Karyolaimou, A. Panagiotou, A. Papapavlou, P. Pavlou, and A. Roussou (Eds.), Proceedings of the 4th international conference on Greek linguistics (pp. 217-231). Thessaloniki: University Studio Press.Search in Google Scholar

Philippaki-Warburton, I. and Spyropoulos, V. (2004). A change of mood: The development of the Greek mood system. Linguistics, 42, 523-549.Search in Google Scholar

Philippi, J. (1997). The rise of the article in Germanic languages. In A. van Kemenande and N. Vincent (Eds.), Parameters of morphosyntactic change (pp. 62-93). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Platzack, C. (2001). Multiple interfaces. In E. van der Zee and U. Nikanne (Eds.), Cognitive interfaces: Constraints on linking cognitive information (pp. 21-53). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Porter, S. E. (2000). Septuagint/Greek Old Testament. In C. A. Evans and S. E. Porter (Eds.), Dictionary of New Testament background: A compendium of contemporary biblical scholarship (pp. 1099-1106). Downers Grove, Illinois: IVP Academic.Search in Google Scholar

Porter, S. E. (2012). The Greek of the Jews and early Christians: The language of the people from a historical sociolinguistic perspective. In D. Burns and J. W. Rogerson (Eds.), Far from minimal: Celebrating the work and influence of Philip R. Davies (pp. 350-364). London: Bloomsbury Publishing.Search in Google Scholar

Porter, S. E. (2014). Septuagint. In G. K. Giannakis (Ed.), Encyclopedia of Ancient Greek language and linguistics. Brill Online. http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/encyclopedia-of-ancient-greek-language-and-linguistics/septuagint-EAGLL_COM_000029 (First appeared online: 2013) (4 December, 2014)Search in Google Scholar

Porter, S. E. (2016). History of scholarship on the language of the Septuagint. In E. Bons and J. Joosten (Eds.), Die Sprache der Septuaginta/The language of the Septuagint. Handbuch zur Septuaginta/Handbook of the Septuagint. Vol 3.1 (pp. 15-38). Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus.Search in Google Scholar

Rabin, C. (1976). Hebrew and Aramaic in the first century. In S. Safrai and M. Stern (Eds.), The Jewish people in the first century. vol. II (pp. 1007-1039). Philadelphia: Fortress.Search in Google Scholar

Revell, E. J. (1993). Concord with compound subjects and related uses of pronouns. Vetus Testamentum, 43(1), 69-87.Search in Google Scholar

Roberts, I. and Roussou, A. (1999). A formal approach to grammaticalization. Linguistics, 37, 1011-1041.Search in Google Scholar

Roberts, I. and Roussou, A. (2003). Syntactic change: A minimalist approach to grammaticalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Robertson, A. T. (1934). A grammar of the Greek New Testament in light of historical research. Nashville: Broadman Press.Search in Google Scholar

Ross, J. R. (1967). Constraints on variables in syntax. (Doctoral dissertation). Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA.Search in Google Scholar

Roussou, A. and Tsimpli, I. M. (2006). On Greek VSO again! Journal of Linguistics, 42, 317-354.Search in Google Scholar

Sáenz-Badillos, A. (1993). A history of the Hebrew language. (Translated by J. Elwolde). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Schifano, N. (2018). Verb placement in Romance: A comparative study. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Schwyzer, E. and Debrunner, A. (1950). Griechische Grammatik. Zweiter Band: Syntax und Syntaktische Stilistik. [Greek grammar. Second volume: Syntax and syntactic stylistics]. Munich: C. H. Beck.Search in Google Scholar

Seiler, H. (1959). Zur Systematik und Entwicklungsgeschichte der griechischen Nominaldeklination. [On the system and history of the development of the Greek nominal declination/inflection]. Glotta, 37, 41-67.Search in Google Scholar

Sifaki, E. (2003). EPP satisfiers: Verb-initial orders in Greek. (Doctoral dissertation). University of York.Search in Google Scholar

Smyth, H. W. (1956). Greek grammar. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Snædal, M. (2015). Gothic contact with Greek. Loan translations and a translation problem. In J. O. Askedal and H. F. Nielsen (Eds.), Early Germanic languages in contact (NOWELE supplement series 27) (pp. 75-90). Amsterdam, Philadephia: John Benjamins.Search in Google Scholar

Sollamo, R. (2016). The study of translation technique. In E. Bons and J. Joosten (Eds.), Die Sprache der Septuaginta/The language of the Septuagint. Handbuch zur Septuaginta/Handbook of the Septuagint. Vol 3.1. (pp. 161-171). Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus.Search in Google Scholar

Spolsky, B. (1983). Triglossia and literacy in Jewish Palestine of the first century. International Journal of the Sociology of Language, 42, 95-109.Search in Google Scholar

Spyropoulos, V. (2011). Some remarks on conjunction and agreement in Greek: Implications for the theory of agreement. Proceedings of the 7th international conference of Greek linguistics. http://83.212.19.218/icgl7/Spyropoulos.pdf (December 5, 2018)Search in Google Scholar

Spyropoulos, V. and Revithiadou, A. (2007). Subject chains in Greek and PF processing. (Manuscript). University of the Aegean. [lingBuzz/000497]Search in Google Scholar

Spyropoulos, V. and Revithiadou, A. (2009). Subject chains in Greek and PF processing. In C. Halpert, J. Hartman, and D. Hill (Eds.), Proceedings of the 2007 workshop in Greek syntax and semantics at MIT (pp. 293-309). Cambridge, MA: MITWPL.Search in Google Scholar

Stahl, J. M. (1907). Kritisch-historische Syntax des griechischen Verbums der klassischen Zeit. [A critical and historical syntax of the Classical Greek verb]. Heidelberg: Winter.Search in Google Scholar

Stjepanović, S. (1998). Scrambling in Serbo-Croatian. (Manuscript). University of Connecticut.Search in Google Scholar

Stjepanović, S. (1999). What do second position cliticization, scrambling, and multiple Wh-fronting have in Common? (Doctoral dissertation). University of Connecticut.Search in Google Scholar

Swete, H. B. (1914). An introduction to the Old Testament in Greek. Revised by Richard Rusden Ottley. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Tantalou, N. and Badecker, W. (2005). Experimental studies of agreement in Modern Greek and their consequences for grammatical theory. Poster presented at the 18th Annual Meeting of the CUNY Human Sentence Processing Conference. Tuscon, AZ.Search in Google Scholar

Taylor, A. (1994). The change from SOV to SVO in Ancient Greek. Language Variation and Change, 6(1), 1-37.Search in Google Scholar

Taylor, A. (2008). Contact effects of translation: Distinguishing two kinds of influence in Old English. Language Variation and Change, 20(2), 341-365.Search in Google Scholar

Terry, R. B. (1993). An analysis of certain features of discourse in the New Testament book of I Corinthians. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Texas at Arlington.Search in Google Scholar

Thackeray, H. St. J. (1909). A grammar of the Old Testament in Greek according to the Septuagint. Hildesheim: Georg Olms Verlag.Search in Google Scholar

The Holy Bible. New Revised Standard Version. Anglicized Edition. (1995). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Villavicencio, A., Sadler, L., and Doug, A. (2005). An HPSG account of closest conjunct agreement in NP coordination in Portuguese. In S. Müller (Ed.), Proceedings of the HPSG05 conference (pp. 427-447). Stanford: CSLI Publications.Search in Google Scholar

Viti, C. (2008). The verb-initial word order in the early poetry of Vedic and Homeric Greek. In K. J. Bley, M. E. Huld, A. D. Volpe, and M. R. Dexter (Eds.), Proceedings of the 19th annual UCLA Indo-European conference, selected papers (pp. 89-111). Washington: Institute for the Study of Man.Search in Google Scholar

Voitila, A. (2016). Septuagint syntax and Hellenistic Greek. In E. Bons and J. Joosten (Eds.), Die Sprache der Septuaginta/The language of the Septuagint. Handbuch zur Septuaginta/Handbook of the Septuagint. Vol 3.1 (pp. 109-118). Gütersloh: Gütersloher Verlagshaus.Search in Google Scholar

Wasserstein, A. and Wasserstein, D. J. (2006). The legend of the Septuagint: From classical antiquity to today. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Zlatic, L. (1997). The structure of the Serbian noun phrase. (Doctoral dissertation). University of Texas at Austin.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo