1. bookVolume 2020 (2020): Issue 2 (April 2020)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Explaining the Technology Use Behavior of Privacy-Enhancing Technologies: The Case of Tor and JonDonym

Published Online: 08 May 2020
Page range: 111 - 128
Received: 31 Aug 2019
Accepted: 16 Dec 2019
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Today’s environment of data-driven business models relies heavily on collecting as much personal data as possible. Besides being protected by governmental regulation, internet users can also try to protect their privacy on an individual basis. One of the most famous ways to accomplish this, is to use privacy-enhancing technologies (PETs). However, the number of users is particularly important for the anonymity set of the service. The more users use the service, the more difficult it will be to trace an individual user. There is a lot of research determining the technical properties of PETs like Tor or JonDonym, but the use behavior of the users is rarely considered, although it is a decisive factor for the acceptance of a PET. Therefore, it is an important driver for increasing the user base.

Keywords

[1] Ruba Abu-Salma, M Angela Sasse, Joseph Bonneau, Anastasia Danilova, Alena Naiakshina, and Matthew Smith. Obstacles to the Adoption of Secure Communication Tools. In IEEE Security & Privacy, pages 137 – 153, 2017.Search in Google Scholar

[2] Alessandro Acquisti, Roger Dingledine, and Paul Syverson. On the Economics of Anonymity Alessandro. In International Conference on Financial Cryptography, pages 84–102. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 2003.Search in Google Scholar

[3] Icek Ajzen. The Theory of Planned Behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2):179–211, 1991.Search in Google Scholar

[4] Mashael Alsabah and Ian Goldberg. Performance and security improvements for tor: A survey. ACM Comput. Surv., 49(2):32:1–32:36, September 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[5] Anonymized. Examining technology use factors of privacy-enhancing technologies: The role of perceived anonymity and trust. In 24th Americas Conference on Information Systems, AMCIS 2018, New Orleans, LA, USA, August 16-18, 2018. Association for Information Systems, 2018.Search in Google Scholar

[6] James Ball. Hacktivists in the frontline battle for the internet. https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2012/apr/20/hacktivists-battle-internet, 2012.Search in Google Scholar

[7] Mathieu Bédard. The underestimated economic benefits of the internet. Regulation series, The Montreal Economic Institute, 2016. Economic Notes.Search in Google Scholar

[8] Zinaida Benenson, Anna Girard, and Ioannis Krontiris. User Acceptance Factors for Anonymous Credentials: An Empirical Investigation. 14th Annual Workshop on the Economics of Information Security (WEIS), pages 1–33, 2015.Search in Google Scholar

[9] Zinaida Benenson, Anna Girard, Ioannis Krontiris, Vassia Liagkou, Kai Rannenberg, and Yannis C. Stamatiou. User Acceptance of Privacy-ABCs: An Exploratory Study. In Human–Computer Interaction, pages 375–386, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

[10] John J. Borking and Charles Raab. Laws, PETs and Other Technologies for Privacy Protection. Journal of Information, Law and Technology, 1:1–14, 2001.Search in Google Scholar

[11] Franziska Brecht, Benjamin Fabian, Steffen Kunz, and Sebastian Mueller. Are You Willing to Wait Longer for Internet Privacy? In ECIS 2011 Proceedings, 2011.Search in Google Scholar

[12] Kathy Charmaz. Constructing Grounded Theory. Sage Publications, London, 2nd editio edition, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

[13] Wynne W. Chin. The Partial Least Squares Approach to Structural Equation Modeling. In George A. Marcoulides, editor, Modern Methods for Business Research, pages 295–336. Lawrence Erlbaum, Mahwah, NJ, 1998.Search in Google Scholar

[14] Alina M. Chircu, Gordon B. Davis, and Robert J. Kauffman. Trust, Expertise, and E-Commerce Intermediary Adoption. In AMCIS 2000 Proceedings, 2000.Search in Google Scholar

[15] Richard Chirgwin. CloudFlare shows Tor users the way out of CAPTCHA hell, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[16] Jacob Cohen. Weighted kappa: Nominal scale agreement provision for scaled disagreement or partial credit., 1968.Search in Google Scholar

[17] L. F. Cranor and S. Garfinkel. Security and Usability: Designing Secure Systems that People Can Use. O’Reilly, Farnham, 2008.Search in Google Scholar

[18] F.D. Davis. A Technology Acceptance Model for Empirically Testing New End-User Information Systems: Theory and Results. Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 1985.Search in Google Scholar

[19] F.D. Davis. Perceived Usefulness, Perceived Ease of Use, and User Acceptance of Information Technology. MIS Quarterly, 13(3):319–340, 1989.Search in Google Scholar

[20] F.D. Davis, Richard P. Bagozzi, and Paul R. Warshaw. User Acceptance of Computer Technology: a Comparison of Two Theoretical Models. Management Science, 35(8):982–1003, 1989.Search in Google Scholar

[21] Benjamin Fabian, Florian Goertz, Steffen Kunz, Sebastian Müller, and Mathias Nitzsche. Privately Waiting – A Usability Analysis of the Tor Anonymity Network. In AMCIS 2010 Proceedings, 2010.Search in Google Scholar

[22] Martin Fishbein and Icek Ajzen. Belief, Attitude, Intention and Behavior: An Introduction to Theory and Research. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA, 1975.Search in Google Scholar

[23] R. A. Fisher. Statistical Methods for Research Workers. Oliver & Boyd, Edinburgh, 14 edition, 1970.Search in Google Scholar

[24] Andrea Forte, Nazanin Andalibi, and Rachel Greenstadt. Privacy, anonymity, and perceived risk in open collaboration: A study of tor users and wikipedians. In CSCW, pages 1800–1811, 2017.Search in Google Scholar

[25] Barney G. Glaser and Anselm L. Strauss. The Discovery of Grounded Theory. Aldine Pub., Chicago, 1967.Search in Google Scholar

[26] J. Hair, G. Tomas M. Hult, Christian M. Ringle, and Marko Sarstedt. A Primer on Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modeling (PLS-SEM). SAGE Publications, 2017.Search in Google Scholar

[27] J. Hair, Christian M. Ringle, and Marko Sarstedt. PLS-SEM: Indeed a Silver Bullet. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2):139–152, 2011.Search in Google Scholar

[28] David Harborth, Dominik Herrmann, Stefan Köpsell, Sebastian Pape, Christian Roth, Hannes Federrath, Dogan Kesdogan, and Kai Rannenberg. Integrating privacy-enhancing technologies into the internet infrastructure. arXiv preprint arXiv:1711.07220, 2017.Search in Google Scholar

[29] David Harborth and Sebastian Pape. Examining Technology Use Factors of Privacy-Enhancing Technologies: The Role of Perceived Anonymity and Trust. In Twenty-fourth Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS2018), pages 1–10, New Orleans, USA, 2018.Search in Google Scholar

[30] David Harborth and Sebastian Pape. JonDonym Users’ Information Privacy Concerns. In L. Janczewski and M. Kutyłowski, editors, ICT Systems Security and Privacy Protection - 33rd IFIP TC 11 International Conference, SEC 2018, pages 170–184, Poznan, Poland, 2018. Springer, Cham.Search in Google Scholar

[31] David Harborth and Sebastian Pape. How Privacy Concerns and Trust and Risk Beliefs Influence Users’ Intentions to Use Privacy-Enhancing Technologies - The Case of Tor. In Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences (HICSS) Proceedings, Hawaii, US, 2019.Search in Google Scholar

[32] Dominik Herrmann, Jens Lindemann, Ephraim Zimmer, and Hannes Federrath. Anonymity online for everyone: What is missing for zero-effort privacy on the internet? In International Workshop on Open Problems in Network Security, pages 82–94. Springer, 2015.Search in Google Scholar

[33] Rob Jansen, Marc Juarez, Rafael Galvez, Tariq Elahi, and Claudia Diaz. Inside Job: Applying Traffic Analysis to Measure Tor from Within. In Network and Distributed Systems Security (NDSS) Symposium, pages 1–15, 2018.Search in Google Scholar

[34] Aaron Johnson, Chris Wacek, Rob Jansen, Micah Sherr, and Paul Syverson. Users get routed: Traffic correlation on tor by realistic adversaries. In Proceedings of the 2013 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer & Communications Security, CCS ’13, pages 337–348, New York, NY, USA, 2013. ACM.Search in Google Scholar

[35] JonDos Gmbh. Official Homepage of JonDonym. https://www.anonym-surfen.de, 2018.Search in Google Scholar

[36] Sheharbano Khattak, David Fifield, Sadia Afroz, Mobin Javed, Srikanth Sundaresan, Vern Paxson, Steven J. Murdoch, and Damon McCoy. Do you see what I see?: Differential treatment of anonymous users. In Network and Distributed System Security Symposium, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[37] R. Koch, M. Golling, and G. D. Rodosek. How anonymous is the tor network? a long-term black-box investigation. Computer, 49(3):42–49, Mar. 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[38] Ioannis Krontiris, Zinaida Benenson, Anna Girard, Ahmad Sabouri, Kai Rannenberg, and Peter Schoo. Privacy-ABCs as a Case for Studying the Adoption of PETs by Users and Service Providers. In APF, pages 104–123, 2015.Search in Google Scholar

[39] Linda Lee, David Fifield, Nathan Malkin, Ganesh Iyer, Serge Egelman, and David Wagner. A Usability Evaluation of Tor Launcher. Proceedings on Privacy Enhancing Technologies, (3):90–109, 2017.Search in Google Scholar

[40] Naresh K. Malhotra, Sung S. Kim, and James Agarwal. Internet users’ information privacy concerns (IUIPC): The construct, the scale, and a causal model. Information Systems Research, 15(4):336–355, 2004.Search in Google Scholar

[41] Naresh K. Malhotra, Sung S. Kim, and Ashutosh Patil. Common Method Variance in IS Research: A Comparison of Alternative Approaches and a Reanalysis of Past Research. Management Science, 52(12):1865–1883, 2006.Search in Google Scholar

[42] Akshaya Mani, T. Wilson-Brown, Rob Jansen, Aaron Johnson, and Micah Sherr. Understanding Tor Usage with Privacy-Preserving Measurement. In 2018 Internet Measurement Conference (IMC’18), pages 1–13, 2018.Search in Google Scholar

[43] Antonio Montieri, Domenico Ciuonzo, Giuseppe Aceto, and Antonio Pescapé. Anonymity services tor, i2p, jondonym: Classifying in the dark. In Teletraffic Congress (ITC 29), 2017 29th International, volume 1, pages 81–89. IEEE, 2017.Search in Google Scholar

[44] Paul A. Pavlou. Consumer Acceptance of Electronic Commerce: Integrating Trust and Risk with the Technology Acceptance Model. International Journal of Electronic Commerce, 7(3):101–134, 2003.Search in Google Scholar

[45] paysafecard.com Deutschland. Website paysafecard. https://www.paysafecard.com/de-de/, 2018.Search in Google Scholar

[46] Andreas Pfitzmann and Marit Hansen. A terminology for talking about privacy by data minimization: Anonymity, unlinkability, undetectability, unobservability, pseudonymity, and identity management. 2010.Search in Google Scholar

[47] Philip M Podsakoff, Scott B MacKenzie, J. Y. Lee, and Nathan P Podsakoff. Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of Applied Psychology, 88(5):879–903, 2003.Search in Google Scholar

[48] Christian M. Ringle, S. Wende, and Jan Michael Becker. SmartPLS 3. www.smartpls.com, 2015.Search in Google Scholar

[49] L.D. Rosen, K. Whaling, L.M. Carrier, N.A. Cheever, and J. Rokkum. The Media and Technology Usage and Attitudes Scale: An empirical investigation. Comput Human Behav., 29(6):2501–2511, 2013.Search in Google Scholar

[50] Saad Saleh, Junaid Qadir, and Muhammad U. Ilyas. Shedding light on the dark corners of the internet: A survey of tor research. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 114:1 – 28, 2018.Search in Google Scholar

[51] Carsten Schmitz. LimeSurvey Project Team. http://www.limesurvey.org, 2015.Search in Google Scholar

[52] Blair H. Sheppard, Jon Hartwick, and Paul R. Warshaw. The Theory of Reasoned Action: A Meta-Analysis of Past Research with Recommendations for Modifications and Future Research. Journal of Consumer Research, 15(3):325–343, 1988.Search in Google Scholar

[53] Rachee Singh, Rishab Nithyanand, Sadia Afroz, Paul Pearce, Michael Carl Tschantz, Phillipa Gill, and Vern Paxson. Characterizing the nature and dynamics of tor exit blocking. In 26th USENIX Security Symposium (USENIX Security). USENIX Association, Vancouver, BC, pages 325–341, 2017.Search in Google Scholar

[54] Matthias Söllner, Izak Benbasat, David Gefen, Jan Marco Leimeister, and Paul A. Pavlou. Trust : An MIS Quarterly Research Curation Focus of the Research Curation. Management Information Systems Quarterly, (October):1–9, 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[55] Sarah Spiekermann. The Desire for Privacy: Insights into the Views and Nature of the Early Adopters of Privacy Services. International Journal of Technology and Human Interaction, 1(1):74–83, 2005.Search in Google Scholar

[56] The Tor Project. https://www.torproject.org, 2018.Search in Google Scholar

[57] Twitter Discussion. Twitter Tweet by Edward Snowden on Tails and Tor. https://twitter.com/Snowden/status/1165297667490103302, 2019.Search in Google Scholar

[58] G.W. van Blarkom, John J. Borking, and J.G.E. Olk. “PET”. Handbook of Privacy and Privacy-Enhancing Technologies. 2003.Search in Google Scholar

[59] V. Venkatesh and F. D. Davis. A theoretical extension of the technology acceptance model: Four longitudinal Studies. Management Science, 46(2):186–205, 2000.Search in Google Scholar

[60] Viswanath Venkatesh, James Thong, and Xin Xu. Consumer Acceptance and User of Information Technology: Extending the Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology. MIS Quarterly, 36(1):157–178, 2012.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo