1. bookVolume 28 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)
Journal Details
First Published
16 May 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
access type Open Access

Physical Fitness of Women From Biała Podlaska Aged 60 or Older

Published Online: 30 Jun 2021
Page range: 14 - 19
Received: 19 Mar 2021
Accepted: 28 Jun 2021
Journal Details
First Published
16 May 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Abstract Introduction

The ongoing process of aging in the Polish society generates the necessity to take interest in the problems and needs of the elderly population. Age-appropriate fitness is an important factor contributing to an optimal level of seniors’ life quality and maintaining their independence in everyday life. The aim of this research was to evaluate the level of physical fitness of elderly women from Biała Podlaska with respect to their age and body build.

Material and Methods

The research included 38 women attending activities in culture centers in Biała Podlaska. Measurements of basic somatic parameters were used to evaluate their body build on the basis of BMI. The Fullerton Test was applied to determine the level of physical fitness.


In all trials of the Fullerton tests, most of the seniors achieved normal or above normal results. Statistically significant correlations were found between BMI and the test results in most trials. Correlations between age and test results were observed only in the endurance test.


The female respondents present a high level of physical fitness in relation to American standards. Due to the high percentage of respondents with excessive body weight, there is a need to develop relevant physical activity programs for this age group of women.


1. Osiński W. (2002). Physical activity undertaken by elderly people. Antropomotoryka 24, 3-24. [in Polish]Search in Google Scholar

2. Duda K. (2012). The aging process. In: A. Marchewka, Z. Dąbrowski, J.A. Żołądź (eds), Aging physiology. Prevention and rehabilitation (pp. 1-31). Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe PWN. [in Polish]Search in Google Scholar

3. Budzińska K. (2005). The influence of organism aging on skeletal muscle biology. Gerontologia Polska 13(1), 1-7. [in Polish]Search in Google Scholar

4. Kozdroń E. (2014). Recreational activity in the process of successful aging. Zeszyty Naukowe Wyższa Szkoła Kultury Fizycznej i Turystyki 9, 75-84. [in Polish]Search in Google Scholar

5. Doherty TJ (2003). Invited review: Aging and sarcopenia. Journal of Applied Physiology 95(4), 1717-1727.Search in Google Scholar

6. Kaczmarczyk M., Trafiałek E. (2007). Activating the elderly as a chance for successful aging. Gerontologia Polska 15, 116-118. [in Polish]Search in Google Scholar

7. Sas-Nowosielski K., Hadzik A., Górna J., Grabara M. (2016). Applying the health belief model in explaining the stages of exercise change in older adults. Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism 23(4), 221-225. DOI: 10.1515/pjst-2016-0029Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

8. Razaghi S., Saemi E., Abedanzadeh R. (2020). The effect of external attentional focus and self-controlled feedback on motor learning in older adults. Polish Journal of Sport and Tourism 27(1), 9-13. DOI: 10.2478/pjst-2020-0002Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

9. Hagerman F.C., Walsh S.J., Staron R.S., Hikida R.S., Gilders R.M. et al. (2000). Effects of high-intensity resistance training on untrained older men. I. Strength, cardiovascular, and metabolic responses. The Journals of Gerontology, Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences 55(7), 336-346.Search in Google Scholar

10. Makuła W. (2010). Physical culture of aging generations in the light of research by selected Polish and foreign authors. Antropomotoryka 52, 119-130. [in Polish]Search in Google Scholar

11. World Health Organization (2020). WHO guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour. Geneva: World Health Organization.Search in Google Scholar

12. Umiastowska D., Kupczyk J. (2020). Factors Differentiating the Level of Functional Fitness in Polish Seniors. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 17(5), 1699.Search in Google Scholar

13. Drozdowski Z. (2002). Anthropology for teachers of physical education. Poznań: AWF. [in Polish]Search in Google Scholar

14. Jones C.J., Rikli R.E. (2002). Measuring functional fitness of older adults. The Journal on Active Aging 1(2), 25-30.Search in Google Scholar

15. Rikli R.E., Jones C.J. (1999). Development and validation of Functional Fitness Test for Community-residing Older Adults. Journal of Aging and Physical Activity 7, 129-161.Search in Google Scholar

16. Różańska-Kirschke A., Kocur P., Wilk M., Dylewicz P. (2006). Fullerton Test as a measure of physical fitness in the elderly. Rehabilitacja Medyczna 10(2), 15-19. [in Polish]Search in Google Scholar

17. Główny Urząd Statystyczny (2014). Demographic situation of the elderly and the consequences of the aging of the Polish population in the light of the forecast for 2014-2050. Warszawa. [in Polish]Search in Google Scholar

18. Ignasiak Z., Sławińska T. (2001). Physical fitness as a positive measure of health. Materials of the 10th Scientific Conference: Environmental determinants of children's health. Legnica. [in Polish]Search in Google Scholar

19. Malina R.M., Bouchard C., Bar-Or O. (2004). Growth, maturation, and physical activity. Champaign IL: Human Kinetics.Search in Google Scholar

20. Kozdroń E., Leś A. (2010). Motor activity in the process of successful aging. Postępy Rehabilitacji XXIV(I), 49-57. [in Polish]Search in Google Scholar

21. Zieliński W. (2005). Physical fitness of the Polish and American populations after 64 years of age. Annales Universitates Maria Curie-Sklodowska, Medycyna 60(16), 432-435. [in Polish]Search in Google Scholar

22. Król-Zielińska M., Osiński W., Zieliński J., Kusy K. (2006). Physical fitness of elderly people in Poland compared to the population of the United States. Studies in Physical Culture and Tourism 13, 53-55. [in Polish]Search in Google Scholar

23. Grześkowiak J., Wieliński D. (2009). Comparison of selected parameters of physical fitness of women over 65, tested by the Fullerton Functional Fitness Test method with population studies conducted in the USA by Rikli and Jones. Antropomotoryka 19(45), 77-82. [in Polish]Search in Google Scholar

24. Ignasiak Z., Kaczorowska A., Katan A., Domaradzki J. (2009). Physical fitness of older women as assessed by the Fullerton test. Fizjoterapia 17(2), 48-52. [in Polish]Search in Google Scholar

25. Zdrodowska A., Wiszomirska I., Niemierzycka A., Czajkowska A., Magiera A., Słoń M. (2012). Physical fitness of women over 60 participating in the classes of the University of the Third Age. Postępy Rehabilitacji 33(3), 19-25. [in Polish]Search in Google Scholar

26. Prystupa T., Bolach E., Bolach B., Migasiewicz J., Paliga Z. (2012). Assessment of physical fitness of women over 60 years of age. Pedagogy of Physical Culture and Sports 5, 137-147. [in Polish]Search in Google Scholar

27. Rutkowksa I., Marszałek J., Piotrowska J., Morgulec-Adamowicz N., Skowroński W. et al. (2011). Assessment of the functional fitness of students of the University of the Third Age of AWF in Warsaw. Postępy Rehabilitacji 25(4), 27-33. [in Polish]Search in Google Scholar

28. Rogowski Ł., Szarek K., Dąbrowska G., Dziubek W. (2014). Assessment of the physical fitness of a group of seniors using the Fullerton test. Gerontologia Współczesna 4, 167-173. [in Polish]Search in Google Scholar

29. Szczygielska-Babiuch A., Lipińska-Stańczak M., Skrzypek M., Smakowska K., Stopa A. et al. (2019). The problem of overweight and physical fitness of women with osteoporosis - a pilot study. Gerontologia Polska 27, 27-35. [in Polish]Search in Google Scholar

30. Osinski W. (2003). Anthropomotorics. Poznań: AWF. [in Polish]Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo