1. bookVolume 14 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1801-3422
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Understanding campaign “axiotechniques”: Their nature and practical usage in Ukrainian elections

Published Online: 07 Jun 2018
Volume & Issue: Volume 14 (2018) - Issue 1 (June 2018)
Page range: 7 - 33
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1801-3422
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

This article seeks to shed more light on Ukraine’s parliamentary elections by considering campaign tools that were derived from values in the electorate and used in elections between 2006 and 2012. The influence of political values on the electoral process was pointed out by American political scientists in the mid-20th century. My research demonstrates, however, that the political choices of Ukrainians in the 2006–2012 elections gave rise to campaign techniques that were not based on “classic” political values like freedom, human rights and democracy. Instead, their source was national identity-related values including the importance of a common history, culture and language along with religious and geopolitical preferences. These values differed between the western and central regions of Ukraine on the one hand and the southern and eastern parts of the state on the other. This regional polarisation did not seem very dangerous, however, until the emergence of election campaigns based on political ideology. As ideology gradually lost its mobilising potential, there was a need for an effective new system of political influence. Manipulative techniques were deployed to incite artificial clashes between citizens with different political identities. This article analyses specific uses of these techniques and uncovers links between their application and the destruction of the electoral space in Ukraine as well as the division of the country’s real political arena.

Keywords

Bachevskij, Dmytro (2006): Chomu vygrajut’ vybory, abo agresuvni texty jak najbil’sh efektyvni komunikacijni technologii. Ukrayins’ka Pravda (11 April); available at http://www.pravda.com.ua/articles/2006/04/11/3092442/ (22 May 2017).Search in Google Scholar

Balaban, Rostyslav (2007): Teorija vyborchojy systemy. Lybid’, Kyiv.Search in Google Scholar

Bafumi, Joseph – Shapiro, Robert (2009): A New Partisan Voter. The Journal of Politics 1 (71): 1–24.10.1017/S0022381608090014Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Bekeshkina, Iryna (2012): Ukrajina 2012: politycnyj portret (28 December 2012); available at http://dif.org.ua/article/ukraina-2012-politichniy-portret (28 May 2017).Search in Google Scholar

Byrne, Sean (1997): Growing up in a divided society: the influence of conflict on Belfast school-children. Associated University Presses, London.Search in Google Scholar

Central Election Committee of Ukraine (2006): Vybory do Verhovnojy Rady 2006. Rezul’taty golosuvannia po regionach Ukrajiny (lidery); available at http://www.cvk.gov.ua/pls/vnd2006/w6p001 (21 May 2017).Search in Google Scholar

Central Election Committee of Ukraine (2007): Pozachergovi vybory do Verhovnoji Rady 2007. Rezultaty golosuvannia po regionach Ukrajiny (lidery); available at http://www.cvk.gov.ua/pls/vnd2007/w6p001 (21 May 2017).Search in Google Scholar

Central Election Committee of Ukraine (2010): Chergovi vybory Presydenta Ukrajiny. Rezultaty golosuvannia u drugomu turi vyboriv po Ukrajini; available at: http://www.cvk.gov.ua/pls/vp2010/WP0011.Search in Google Scholar

Central Election Committee of Ukraine (2012): Chergovi parlaments’ki vybory 2012. Vidomosti pro pidrachunok golosiv po zagal’noderzhavnomu bagatomandatnomu okrugu v mezhach regioniv krajiny. Komunistychna partija Ukrajiny; available at http://www.cvk.gov.ua/vnd2012/wp302pt001f01=900pf7171=11.html (22 May 2017).Search in Google Scholar

Communist Party of Ukraine (CPU) (2012): Povernemo krajinu narodu! Peredvyborcha programa Komunistychnoji partiji Ukrajiny 2012 r. (1 August 2012) [official party website]; availableat:https://www.kpu.ua/uk/41336/povernemo-krainu-narodu-peredviborna-programa-komunistichnoi-partii-ukraini (22 May 2017).Search in Google Scholar

Coons Cristian – Weber, Michel (2014): Manipulation: Theory and Practice. Oxford University Press. Oxford.10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199338207.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Electoral platform of Serhiy Tigipko (2010). Presidential elections 2010. Vybir narodu Ukrajiny; available at: http://vybory.osp-ua.info/ch-1_fl-vybory_presidenta_2010_prog_14.htm (2 March 2018).Search in Google Scholar

Electoral platform of Viktor Yanukovich (2010). Presidential elections 2010. Vybir narodu Ukrajiny; available at: http://vybory.osp-ua.info/ch-1_fl-vybory_presidenta_2010_prog_17.html (2 March 2018).Search in Google Scholar

Electoral platform of Arseniy Yaceniuk (2010). Presidential elections 2010. Vybir narodu Ukrajiny; available at: http://vybory.osp-ua.info/ch-1_fl-vybory_presidenta_2010_prog_18.html (2 March 2018).Search in Google Scholar

Emr, Melanie – Writer, Staff (2013): Electoral systems in an ethnically divided society; available at: https://prospectjournal.org/2013/02/20/electoral-systems-in-an-ethnically-divided-society/ (1 December 2017).Search in Google Scholar

Gubskiy, Eduard – Korableva, Galina (2003): Filosofskiy enciklopedicheskiy slovar. INFRA, Moskva.Search in Google Scholar

Goodin, Richard (1980): Manipulatory Politics. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn.Search in Google Scholar

Goren, Paul (2005): Party Identification and Core Political Values. American Journal of Political Science 4(49): 882–897.10.1111/j.1540-5907.2005.00161.xSearch in Google Scholar

Guelke, Adrian (2012): Politics in Deeply Divided Societies. Polity Press, Cambridge.Search in Google Scholar

Hernandez, Pablo – Minor, Dylan (2015): Political Identity and Trust. Available at http://www.hbs.edu/faculty/Publication%20Files/16-012_5775a007-2276-45da-bde4-4b5d495b5712.pdf (30 November 2017).Search in Google Scholar

Institute of Sociology, National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (2015): Do Dnia Nezalezhnosti: sho ukrayintsi dumayut’ pro Ukrayinu. (21 August 2015); available at http://dif.org.ua/article/do-dnya-nezalezhnosti-shcho-ukraintsi-dumayut-pro-ukrainu (15 May 2017).Search in Google Scholar

Ishenko, Viktor (2013): Protesty i represiji v Ukrajini: rezul’taty monitoryngu 2012. Centr doslidzhennia suspil’stva. Kyiv.Search in Google Scholar

Jacobs, Lawrence – Shapiro, Robert (2000): Politiciansdon'tpander.Political manipulation and the loss of democratic responsiveness. University Of Chicago Press, Chicago.Search in Google Scholar

Kak Yanukovich i Tymoshenko podelili izberateley Tigipko, Yaceniuka, Yuschenka, Symonenko (2010): Politika Ukrainy. Censor.net (10 February 2010); available at: https://censor.net.ua/news/112590/kak_yanukovich_i_timoshenko_podelili_izbirateleyi_tigipko_yatsenyuka_yuschenko_simonenko__issledov (2 December 2017).Search in Google Scholar

Kasianov, Grygoriy (1999):Teorii naciitanacionalizmu.Lubid.Kyiv.Search in Google Scholar

Khobta, Yuriy (2000):Vybir Ukrayiny–99. Sho dali? Lubid.Kyiv.Search in Google Scholar

Kolesnikov, Oleksiy (2008): Tendenciji evoluciji vyborchych technologij v Ukrajini. Suchasna ukrajinska polityka: polityky I politology pro neji 5 (Specvypusk): 41–57.Search in Google Scholar

Korzh, Ihor (2007): Vybory v nezalezhniy Ukrayini. Visnyk Centralnoyi vyborchoyi komisii 1 (24): 25–34.Search in Google Scholar

Kryvytska, Olena (2015): Demarkacijni linii v etnopoliticnomu prostori Ukrajiny. IPIEND, Kyiv.Search in Google Scholar

Kutsenko, Yevhen (2012): Efektyvnist’ zastosuvannia vyborchych technologij na parlamentskych vyborach 2007 v Ukrajini. Naukovi zapysky IPiEND 57: 142–157.Search in Google Scholar

Lazarsfeld, Paul – Berelson, Bernard (1944): The people’s choice: How the voter makes up his mind in a presidential campaign. Duell, Sloan and Pearce, New York.Search in Google Scholar

Lelich, Milan (2012): Rada uchvalyla “zakon pro movy”. Ukrajinsky tyzhden; available at: http://tyzhden.ua/News/54404.Search in Google Scholar

Leshenko, Serhiy (2014): London’ska neruhomist’ ideologa ukrayins’koho rozkolu. Ukrayins’ka Pravda. (13 May 2014); available athttp://blogs.pravda.com.ua/authors/leschenko/53722f577a5cc/view_print/ (18 May 2017).Search in Google Scholar

McDermott, Rose (2010): Emotional Manipulation of Political Identity. Politics 15(1): 103–132.Search in Google Scholar

Macijevskij, Yuriy (2013): Sylaradykaliv, chyslabkist’ centrystiv: sho zumovylo elektoral’nuy uspich VO “Svoboda” ta KPU?(27 April 2013); available at http://www.slideshare.net/selectsage/ss-20922218 (22 May 2017).Search in Google Scholar

Mostova, Yulia (2014): Pisnia pro Bat’kivshunu. Slova narodni. Dzerkalo tyzhnia (26 December 2014);available athttp://gazeta.dt.ua/internal/pisnya-pro-batkivschinu-slova-narodni-_.html (18 May 2017).Search in Google Scholar

Mychalchenko, Mykola (2011): Politychni ryzyky v sychasniy Ukrajini. IPIEND, Kyiv.Search in Google Scholar

Nagorna, Larysa (2008): Regional’na identychnist: ukrayinskiy context. IPiEND imeniI.F. Kurasa NAN Ukrayiny. Kyiv.Search in Google Scholar

Official results of the first Presidential elections’ round (2010): Chergovi vybory Presydenta Ukrajiny. Ukrajinska Pravda; available at: https://www.pravda.com.ua/articles/2010/01/18/4630133/.Search in Google Scholar

O’Flynn, Ian (2010): Democratic theory and practice in deeply divided societies. Journal of Representative Democracy 3(46): 281–293.10.1080/00344893.2010.499696Search in Google Scholar

Ostriakova, Elena (2016): Yanukovich: “Maidan” podtolknul Krym k otdeleniyu. Politnavigator (25 November 2016); available at: http://www.politnavigator.net/yanukovich-majjdan-podtolknul-krym-k-otdeleniyu.html (5 December 2017).Search in Google Scholar

Pacharev, Dmytro – Rudych, Felix (2011): Politycni instytuty i procesy v suchasniy Ukrajini. IPIEND, Kyiv.Search in Google Scholar

Parris, John – Le Chemiant, Wayne (2011): Manipulating Democracy: Democratic Theory, Political Psychology, and Mass Media. Routledge. New York.Search in Google Scholar

Parker, Christopher – Baretto, Matt (2013): Change They Can’t Believe In The Tea Party and Reactionary Politics in America. Princeton University Press, Princeton.10.23943/princeton/9780691163611.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Poltorak, Volodymyr (2015): Technologii modeliuvannia v elektoralnych kampanijach: paradoxy „Daunsa”, “Olsena”, “golosuvannia”. Visnyk Kharkivskogo nacionalnogo universitetu im. V. N. Karazina 34 (1148): 82–85.Search in Google Scholar

Razumkov Research Centre (2007): Yake iz navedenych vyznacen’ ukrayins’koyi nacii ye dl’a Vas naybil’sh priyniatnym? (dymanika 2006–2007, regionalnuy rozpodil) (10 September 2007); available at http://old.razumkov.org.ua/ukr/poll.php?poll_id=715 (17 May 2017).Search in Google Scholar

Razumkov Research Centre (2016): Chyisnuyut’ mizh zahidnymy ishidnymy regionami Ukrajiny glyboki politichni, movni, kulturni ta ekonomichni vidminnosti, sho v perspektuvi vony zmozhut’ rozjednatysia i stvoryty svoji vlastni derzhavy abo vvijty do skladu inshih derzhav?. Nacionalna bezpeka i oborona 3–4: 84–87.Search in Google Scholar

Razumkov Research Centre (2012): Ostannim chasom govoriat pro te, sho ukrajinske suspil’stvo rozdilulosia na dvi majzhe vorogujich i chzaregional’noju oznakoju. Jak vy vvazhajete, chy isnuje takyj rozkol suspil’stva? (14 January 2013); available at http://old.razumkov.org.ua/ukr/poll.php?poll_id=871 (20 May 2017).Search in Google Scholar

Razumkov Research Centre (2016): Chy potribno Ukrajini vstupaty do Evropejskoho Soyuzu? (regional’nyj rozpodil) (10 May 2016); available at http://old.razumkov.org.ua/ukr/poll.php?poll_id=1034 (20 May 2017).Search in Google Scholar

Religious Informational Service of Ukraine (2017): Religijna merezha v Ukrajini za rik suttevo ne zminulas (12 June 2017); available at https://risu.org.ua/ua/index/all_news/state/authorities_religious_affairs/67280/ (15 June 2017).Search in Google Scholar

Reytyng Yaceniuka vyros bolee chem. V dva raza (2009): Politika Urajiny. Cenzor.net (16 February 2009); available at: https://censor.net.ua/news/84751/reyiting_yatsenyuka_vyros_bolee_chem_v_dva_raza__sotsiologi.Search in Google Scholar

Riker, William Harrison (1986): The Art of Political Manipulation. Yale University Press, New Haven, Conn.Search in Google Scholar

Schaap, Andrew (2006): Agonism in divided societies. Philosophy & Social Criticism 2(32): 25–39.10.1177/0191453706061095Search in Google Scholar

Shulman, Stephen (2005): National Identity and Public Support for Political and Economic Reform in Ukraine. Slavic Review 1: 54–78.10.2307/3650067Search in Google Scholar

Smoliy, Valeriy – Levenets, Yuriy (2007): Ukrayina: politychna istoria XX-pochatku XXI st. Parlaments’ke vydavnyctvo, Kyiv.Search in Google Scholar

Stepyko, Mychailo (2011): Ukrayins’ka identychnist: fenomen i zasady formuvannia’. Nacionalniy instutyt strategichnyh doslidgen. Kyiv.Search in Google Scholar

Variy, Myron (2003): Polityko-psychologichni peredvyborni ta vyborchi technologii. El’ga, Nika Centr, Kyiv.Search in Google Scholar

VO Svoboda (2011): Programa VO “Svoboda” (chynna) – programa zachustu ukrajintsiv [official party website] (12 November 2011); available at http://svoboda.org.ua/party/program/ (22 May 2017).Search in Google Scholar

VO “Svoboda” YouTube Channel (2012): Oficijna agitacia VO “Svoboda” u 2012 roci (17 September 2012); available at http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QmFtfi6tsqA (22 May 2017).Search in Google Scholar

V Ukrajini stvoryly koaliciyu Anty-Tabachnyk (2010): Vgolos (23. 05. 2010); available at: http://www.vgolos.com.ua/news/v_ukraini_stvoryly_koalitsiyu_antytabachnyk_52023.html?print.Search in Google Scholar

Vydrin, Dmitriy (1991): Ocherki praktickeskoy politologii. Polaris, Kyiv.Search in Google Scholar

Zolkina, Maria (2013):European integration of Ukraine: Experiences of yesterday for the development of tomorrow. Public Opinion 13: 15–27.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo