1. bookVolume 54 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)
Journal Details
First Published
17 Oct 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
access type Open Access

How does Perceived Organizational Support Affect Psychological Capital? The Mediating Role of Authentic Leadership

Published Online: 26 Mar 2021
Page range: 82 - 95
Received: 31 Aug 2020
Accepted: 23 Jan 2021
Journal Details
First Published
17 Oct 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

Background and Purpose: Authentic leadership, the most noteworthy positive leadership style accepted by positive organizational behavior scholars, is famous for its contributions to psychological capitals. And, in fact, this leadership style can flourish and be experienced more easily in situations where there are supportive organizational conditions. Hence, in this study, we assume that organizational support is an important antecedent for experiencing and displaying authentic leadership. Furthermore, in organizations wherein authentic leadership is practiced, people may assume organizational support comes about thanks to their leaders’s management style, particularly where authentic leadership may shadow the effect of perceived organizational support on the psychological capitals of individuals. So, in our model we proposed that perceived organizational support will have a positive effect on both authentic leadership style and the psychological capitals of individuals. Moreover, authentic leadership will act as a mediator in this relationship.

Design/Methodology/Approach: For the related field research we collected data from professionals working in the service sector in Istanbul. Related data have been analysed with structural equation modelling in order to test our hypotheses.

Results: Results of this study confirmed our assumptions regarding the positive effects of perceived organizational support on authentic leadership and on four basic dimensions of psychological capital: self-efficacy, optimism, resilience, and hope. Moreover, our results confirmed the statistically significant effect of authentic leadership on psychological capital and partial mediator effect of authentic leadership in the relationship between perceived organizational support and psychological capital.

Conclusion: Our results indicate the importance of empowering employees and engaging in authentic leadership behaviour in increasing psychological capitals of employees and psychologically creating a more powerful work-force.


Albalawi, A. S., Naugton, S., Elayan, M. B., & Sleimi, M. T. (2019). Perceived organizational support, alternative job opportunity, organizational commitment, job satisfaction and turnover intention: A moderated-mediated model. Organizacija, 52(4), 310-324. https://doi.org/10.2478/orga-2019-0019Search in Google Scholar

Alilyyani, B., Wong, C. A., & Cummings, G. (2018). Antecedents, mediators, and outcomes of authentic leadership in healthcare: A systematic review. International journal of nursing studies, 83, 34-64. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2018.04.001Search in Google Scholar

Amunkete, S., & Rothmann, S. (2015). Authentic leadership, psychological capital, job satisfaction and intention to leave in state-owned enterprises. Journal of Psychology in Africa, 25(4), 271-281. https://doi.org/10.1080/14330237.2015.1078082Search in Google Scholar

Andersen, O., & Kheam, L. S. (1998). Resource-based theory and international growth strategies: an exploratory study. International Business Review, 7(2), 163-184. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-5931(98)00004-3Search in Google Scholar

Arbuckle, J. (2008). Amos 17.0 user’s guide. SPSS Inc..Search in Google Scholar

Aria, A., Jafari, P., & Behifar, M. (2019). Authentic Leadership and Teachers’ Intention to Stay: The Mediating Role of Perceived Organizational Support and Psychological Capital. World Journal of Education, 9(3), 67-81. https://doi.org/10.5430/wje.v9n3p67Search in Google Scholar

Armstrong-Stassen, M., & Ursel, N. D. (2009). Perceived organizational support, career satisfaction, and the retention of older workers. Journal of occupational and organizational psychology, 82(1), 201-220. https://doi.org/10.1348/096317908X288838Search in Google Scholar

Avey, J. B. (2014). The left side of psychological capital: New evidence on the antecedents of PsyCap. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 21(2), 141-149. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1548051813515516Search in Google Scholar

Azim, A. M. M., & Dora, M. T. (2016). Perceived organizational support and organizational citizenship behavior: The mediating role of psychological capital. Journal of Human Capital Development (JHCD), 9(2), 99-118.Search in Google Scholar

Bagozzi, R. R. P., & Yi, Y. (1988). On the Evaluation of Structural Equation Models. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 16(1), 74–94.Search in Google Scholar

Bandura, A. (2010). Self-Efficacy. In The Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology (eds I.B. Weiner and W.E. Craighead). https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470479216.corpsy0836Search in Google Scholar

Baykal, E. (2018). Promoting Resilience through Positive Leadership during Turmoil. International Journal of Management and Administration, 2(3), 34-48. https://doi.org/10.29064/ijma.396199Search in Google Scholar

Baykal, E. (2020). Effects of Servant Leadership on Psychological Capitals and Productivities of Employees. Ataturk University Journal of Economics & Administrative Sciences, 34(2).Search in Google Scholar

Black, J. K., Balanos, G. M., & Whittaker, A. C. (2017). Resilience, work engagement and stress reactivity in a middle-aged manual worker population. International Journal of Psychophysiology, 116, 9-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2017.02.013Search in Google Scholar

Cheavens, J. S., Heiy, J. E., Feldman, D. B., Benitez, C., & Rand, K. L. (2019). Hope, goals, and pathways: Further validating the hope scale with observer ratings. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 14(4), 452-462. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2018.1484937Search in Google Scholar

Csikszentmihalyi, M., & Hunter, J. (2003). Happiness in everyday life: The uses of experience sampling. Journal of Happiness Studies, 4, 185–199. https://doi.org/10.1023/A:1024409732742Search in Google Scholar

Dimovski, V., Grah, B., Penger, S., & Peterlin, J. (2010). Authentic leadership in contemporary Slovenian business environment: explanatory case study of HERMES SoftLab. Organizacija, 43(5). https://doi.org/10.2478/v10051-010-0021-2Search in Google Scholar

Dimovski, V., Marič, M., Uhan, M., Đurica, N., & Ferjan, M. (2012). Sun Tzu’s” The Art of War” and implications for leadership: Theoretical discussion. Organizacija, 45(4). 151-158. http://doi.org/10.2478/v10051-012-0017-1Search in Google Scholar

Eisenberger, R., Huntington, R., Hutchison, S., & Sowa, D. (1986). Perceived organizational support. Journal of Applied psychology, 71(3), 500-507. https://psycnet.apa.org/doi/10.1037/0021-9010.71.3.500Search in Google Scholar

Fletcher, J. (2018). Crushing hope: Short term responses to tragedy vary by hopefulness. Social Science & Medicine, 201, 59-62. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.socscimed.2018.01.039Search in Google Scholar

Fredrickson, B. L. (2004). The broaden–and–build theory of positive emotions. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B: Biological Sciences, 359(1449), 1367-1377.Search in Google Scholar

Hair, J. F. J., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate Data Analysis, Seventh Edition. Prentice Hall.Search in Google Scholar

He, F., Zhou, Q., Zhao, Z., Zhang, Y., & Guan, H. (2016). Effect of perceived social support and dispositional optimism on the depression of burn patients. Journal of Health Psychology, 21(6), 1119-1125. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1359105314546776Search in Google Scholar

Hox, J. J., & Bechger, T. M. (1998). An introduction to structural equation modeling. Family Science Review, 11, 354-373.Search in Google Scholar

Hsiu-Fen Hsieh, Shu-Chen Chang & Hsiu-Hung Wang (2017) The relationships among personality, social support, and resilience of abused nurses at emergency rooms and psychiatric wards in Taiwan, Women & Health, 57:1, 40-51. https://doi.org/10.1080/03630242.2016.1150385Search in Google Scholar

Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cut-off criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural equation modelling: a multidisciplinary journal, 6(1), 1-55. https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118Search in Google Scholar

Imran, M. Y., Elahi, N. S., Abid, G., Ashfaq, F., & Ilyas, S. (2020). Impact of perceived organizational support on work engagement: Mediating mechanism of thriving and flourishing. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 6(3), 82. https://doi.org/10.3390/joitmc6030082Search in Google Scholar

Kim, J. O., & Kim, S. Y. (2017). Person-organization value congruence between authentic leadership of head nurses and organizational citizenship behavior in clinical nurses. Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration, 23(5), 515-523. https://doi.org/10.11111/jkana.2017.23.5.515Search in Google Scholar

Klassen, R. M., & Tze, V. M. (2014). Teachers’ self-efficacy, personality, and teaching effectiveness: a meta-analysis. Educational Research Review, 12, 59–76. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.edurev.2014.06.001Search in Google Scholar

Leupold, C. R., Lopina, E. C., & Erickson, J. (2020). Examining the effects of core self-evaluations and perceived organizational support on academic burnout among undergraduate students. Psychological reports, 123(4), 1260-1281. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0033294119852767Search in Google Scholar

Liu, H. X., Huang, Y., & Jiang, S. S. (2016). The impact of optimism on turnover intention for Low-Wage White-collars: The moderating effect of perceived organizational support. DEStech Transactions on Computer Science and Engineering. https://doi.org/10.12783/dtcse/mcsse2016/11017Search in Google Scholar

Lupșa, D., Vîrga, D., Maricuțoiu, L. P., & Rusu, A. (2020). Increasing psychological capital: A pre-registered meta-analysis of controlled interventions. Applied Psychology, 69(4), 1506-1556. https://doi.org/10.1111/apps.12219Search in Google Scholar

Luthans, F., Avey, J. B., Avolio, B. J., Norman, S. M., & Combes, G. M. (2006). Psychological capital development: Toward a micro-intervention. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 27, 387-393. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.373Search in Google Scholar

Luthans, F., Youssef, C. M., & Avolio, B. J. (2007). Psychological capital: Developing the human competitive edge. New York: Oxford Unıversıty PressSearch in Google Scholar

Madani, H., Pourmemari, M., Moghimi, M., & Rashvand, F. (2018). Hopelessness, perceived social support and their relationship in Iranian patients with cancer. Asia-Pacific journal of oncology nursing, 5(3), 314. https://dx.doi.org/10.4103%2Fapjon.apjon_5_18Search in Google Scholar

McDowell, J., Huang, Y. K., & Caza, A. (2018). Does identity matter? An investigation of the effects of authentic leadership on student-athletes’ psychological capital and engagement. Journal of Sport Management, 32(3), 227-242. https://doi.org/10.1123/jsm.2017-0241Search in Google Scholar

Meredith, L. S., Sherbourne, C. D., Gaillot, S. J., Hansell, L., Ritschard, H. V., Parker, A. M., & Wrenn, G. (2011). Promoting psychological resilience in the US military. Rand health quarterly, 1(2).Search in Google Scholar

Miller, C. W., Roloff, M. E., & Reznik, R. M. (2014). Hopelessness and interpersonal conflict: Antecedents and consequences of losing hope. Western Journal of Communication, 78(5), 563-585. https://doi.org/10.1080/10570314.2014.896026Search in Google Scholar

Nguyen, H. M., & Ngo, T. T. (2020). Psychological Capital, Organizational Commitment and Job Performance: A Case in Vietnam. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics, and Business, 7(5), 269-278. https://doi.org/10.13106/jafeb.2020.vol7.no5.269Search in Google Scholar

Peterson, S. J., Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., & Hannah, S. T. (2012). The relationship between authentic leadership and follower job performance: The mediating role of follower positivity in extreme contexts. The Leadership Quarterly, 23, 502–516. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2011.12.004Search in Google Scholar

Phan, N., & Locke, T. (2016). Vietnamese teachers’ self-efficacy in teaching English as a foreign language: does culture matter? English Teaching: Practice & Critique, 15(1), 105–128. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/ETPC-04-2015-0033Search in Google Scholar

Podsakoff, P. M., MacKenzie, S. B., Lee, J. Y., & Podsakoff, N. P. (2003). Common method biases in behavioral research: a critical review of the literature and recommended remedies. Journal of applied psychology, 88(5), 879-903. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.88.5.879Search in Google Scholar

Preacher, K. J., & Hayes, A. F. (2008). Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behavior Research Methods, 40(3), 879-891. https://doi.org/10.3758/brm.40.3.879Search in Google Scholar

Qu, Y. E., Dasborough, M. T., Zhou, M., & Todorova, G. (2019). Should authentic leaders value power? A study of leaders’ values and perceived value congruence. Journal of Business Ethics, 156(4), 1027-1044. https://doi.org/10.1007%2Fs10551-017-3617-0Search in Google Scholar

Rockow, S., Kowalski, C. L., Chen, K., & Smothers, A. (2016). Self-efficacy and Perceived Organizational Support by Workers in a Youth Development Setting. Journal of Youth Development, 11(1), 35-48. https://doi.org/10.5195/jyd.2016.432Search in Google Scholar

Saleem, M. A., Bhutta, Z. M., Nauman, M., & Zahra, S. (2019). Enhancing performance and commitment through leadership and empowerment. International Journal of Bank Marketing. 37(1), 303-322. https://doi.org/10.1108/IJBM-02-2018-0037Search in Google Scholar

Scheier, M. F., & Carver, C. S. (1985). Optimism, coping, and health: Assessment and implications of generalized outcome expectancies. Health Psychology, 4(3), 219–247. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.4.3.219Search in Google Scholar

Seligman, M. (1998), Learned optimism. New York: Pocket.Search in Google Scholar

Shapira-Lishchinsky, O. (2014). Toward developing authentic leadership: Team-based simulations. Journal of School Leadership, 24(5), 979-1013. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F105268461402400506Search in Google Scholar

Shifren, K., & Hooker, K. 1995. Stability and change in optimism: A study among spouse caregivers. Experimental Aging Research, 21(1), 59-76. https://doi.org/10.1080/03610739508254268Search in Google Scholar

Simons, T., Leroy, H., Collewaert, V., & Masschelein, S. (2015). How leader alignment of words and deeds affects followers: A meta-analysis of behavioral integrity research. Journal of Business Ethics, 132(4), 831-844. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10551-014-2332-3Search in Google Scholar

Snyder, C. R. (2002). Hope theory: Rainbows in the mind. Psychological Inquiry, 13(4), 249-275. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15327965PLI1304_01Search in Google Scholar

Stinglhamber, F., Ohana, M., Caesens, G., & Meyer, M. (2020). Perceived organizational support: the interactive role of coworkers’ perceptions and employees’ voice. Employee Relations: The International Journal. 42(1), 107-124. https://doi.org/10.1108/ER-05-2018-0137Search in Google Scholar

Tews, M. J., Michel, J. W., & Ellingson, J. E. (2013). The impact of co-worker support on employee turnover in the hospitality industry. Group & Organization Management, 38, 630–653. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1059601113503039Search in Google Scholar

Ullah, I., Elahi, N. S., Abid, G., & Butt, M. U. (2020). The impact of perceived organizational support and proactive personality on affective commitment: Mediating role of prosocial motivation. Business, Management and Education, 18(2), 183-205. https://doi.org/10.3846/bme.2020.12189Search in Google Scholar

Valsania, S. E., Moriano, J. A., & Molero, F. (2016). Authentic leadership and intrapreneurial behavior: cross-level analysis of the mediator effect of organizational identification and empowerment. International Entrepreneurship and Management Journal, 12(1), 131-152. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11365-014-0333-4Search in Google Scholar

Walker, K. D. (2006). Fostering hope: A leader’s first and last task. Journal of Educational Administration. 44(6). 540-569. https://doi.org/10.1108/09578230610704783Search in Google Scholar

Walumbwa, F. O., Avolio, B. J., Gardner, W. L., Wernsing, T. S., & Peterson, S. J. (2008). Authentic leadership: Development and validation of a theory-based measure. Journal of Management, 34, 89–126. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0149206307308913Search in Google Scholar

Whelan, N., McGilloway, S., Murphy, M. P., & McGuinness, C. (2018). EEPIC-Enhancing Employability through Positive Interventions for improving Career potential: the impact of a high support career guidance intervention on the wellbeing, hopefulness, self-efficacy and employability of the long-term unemployed-a study protocol for a randomised controlled trial. Trials, 19(1), 141. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13063-018-2485-ySearch in Google Scholar

Whitehead, G. (2009). Adolescent leadership development: Building a case for an authenticity framework. Educational Management Administration and Leadership, 37(6), 847–872. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1741143209345441Search in Google Scholar

Wong C.A., Cummings G.G. & Ducharme L. (2013). The relationship between nursing leadership and patient outcomes: a systematic review update. Journal of Nursing Management 21(5), 709–724. https://doi.org/10.1111/jonm.12116Search in Google Scholar

Xiyuan, L., Lin, W., Si, C., & Bei, X. (2016). Effect of Authentic Leadership on Voice Behavior of Subordinate: Mediating Role of Supervisory Support. Technology Economics, 3(35), 38-44.Search in Google Scholar

Xu, Z., & Yang, F. (2018). The Cross-Level Effect of Authentic Leadership on Teacher Emotional Exhaustion: The Chain Mediating Role of Structural and Psychological Empowerment. Journal of Pacific Rim Psychology, 12, E35. https://doi.org/10.1017/prp.2018.23Search in Google Scholar

Youssef, C. M., & Luthans, F. (2007). Positive organizational behavior in the workplace: The impact of hope, optimism, and resilience. Journal of Management, 33(5), 774-800. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0149206307305562Search in Google Scholar

Zehir, C., & Narcıkara, E. (2016). Effects of resilience on productivity under authentic leadership. Procedia-Social and Behavioural Sciences, 235, 250-258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2016.11.021Search in Google Scholar

Zimmerman, M. A. (1990). Toward a theory of learned hopefulness: A structural model analysis of participation and empowerment. Journal of Research in Personality, 24(1), 71-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/0092-6566(90)90007-SSearch in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo