1. bookVolume 11 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1338-4309
ISSN
1337-9038
First Published
03 Aug 2009
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

The Instrumental and Ideological Politicisation of Senior Positions in Poland’s Civil Service and its Selected Consequences

Published Online: 17 Jul 2018
Volume & Issue: Volume 11 (2018) - Issue 1 (June 2018)
Page range: 63 - 89
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1338-4309
ISSN
1337-9038
First Published
03 Aug 2009
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The article focuses on the problem of the civil service’s dependence on its political superiors in Poland in 1996–2017. It aims to analyse the motivations of politicians responsible for civil service reforms and to assess the impact of these reforms on the effectiveness of the corps’ functioning. The authors conceptualise the problem of politicisation of the civil service by referring to the theory of politicisation adding an extra dimension of political ideas and institutions as an important factor of change in Poland’s public administration system. The article describes the stages of civil service reform in Poland over the last twenty years, taking into account the political context, the most important postulated changes and the associated controversies with reference to the concepts outlined in the theoretical part. The study also comprises a relevant literature review based on a number of sources, including the reports published by the Head of the Civil Service in Poland, international databases (including Quality of Government) and specialist reports with a particular emphasis on research devoted to Central Europe. The findings paint a multi-layered and nuanced picture of the evolution of the Polish civil service and its strong associations with the issue of the so-called “unfinished transformation”. In addition the article confirms that both the instrumentalisation of institutions by the “camp” of political opportunists and their formal, radical reconstruction by the “ideological contrarians” resulting in the centralisation of power around the ruling parties have had a negative effect on the quality of civil service functioning in Poland.

Keywords

Aberbach, Joel D, Robert D. Putnam and Bert A. Rockman. 1981. Bureaucrats and Politicians in Western Democracies. Boston: Harvard University Press.10.4159/9780674020047Search in Google Scholar

Aberbach, Joel D. and Bert A. Rockman. 1988. “Mandates or Mandarins ? Control and Discretion in the Modern Administrative State.” Public Administration Review 48: 602 – 612.10.2307/975761Search in Google Scholar

Aucoin, Peter. 2001. “Politicians, Public Servants, and Public Management, Getting Government Right.” In B. Guy Peters and Donald J. Savoie (eds). Governance in a Changing Environment. Montreal, Kingston: Canadian Center for Management Development, McGill-Queen’s University Press, 606 – 612.Search in Google Scholar

Blau, Peter M. and Marshall W. Meyer. 1971. Bureaucracy in Modern Society. New York: Random House.Search in Google Scholar

Briggs, Biogele R. 2007. “Problems of Recruitment in Civil Service: Case of the Nigerian Civil Service.” African Journal of Business Management 1(6), 142 – 153.Search in Google Scholar

Burnetko, Krzysztof. 2003. Służba cywilna w III RP. Punkty krytyczne. Warszawa: Fundacja im. Stefana Batorego.Search in Google Scholar

Campbell, Colin and Graham Wilson. 1995. The End of Whitehall: A Comparative Perspective. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell.Search in Google Scholar

Central Statistical Office 2015. Yearbook of Labour Statistics, Warszawa: Zakład Wydawnictw Statystycznych.Search in Google Scholar

Christensen, Tom and Per Lægreid. 2001. “New Public Management: Undermining Political Control ?” In Tom Christensen and Per Lægreid (eds). New Public Management. The Transformation of Ideas and Practice. Aldershot: Ashgate: 93 – 119.Search in Google Scholar

Czaputowicz, Jacek. 2005. “Służba cywilna w Polsce – między polityzacją, a profesjonalizacją.” Służba Cywilna 9: 27 – 46.Search in Google Scholar

Dahlström, Carl and Birgitta Niklasson. 2013. “The Politics of Politicization in Sweden.” Public Administration 91(4): 891 – 907.10.1111/j.1467-9299.2012.02113.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Dahlström, Carl V., Victor Lapuente and Jan Teorell. 2012. “The Merit of Meritocratization: Politics, Bureaucracy, and the Institutional Deterrents of Corruption.” Political Research Quarterly 65(3): 656 – 668.10.1177/1065912911408109Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Dahlström, Carl, Jan Teorell, Stefan Dahlberg, Felix Hartmann, Annika Lindberg and Marina Nistotskaya. 2015. The QoG Expert Survey Dataset II. Gothenburg: University of Gothenburg, The Quality of Government Institute.Search in Google Scholar

Department of Civil Service (DCS). 2008. Zatrudnienie i wynagrodzenia w służbie cywilnej w 2007 r. Warszawa: The Chancellery of the Prime Minister.Search in Google Scholar

Derlien, Hans-Ulrich. 1996. “The Politicization of Bureaucracies in Historical and Comparative Perspective.” In B. Guy Peters and Bert A. Rockman (eds). Agenda for Excellence 2. Administering the State edited by Chatham, NJ: Chatham House Publishers.Search in Google Scholar

Doherty, Kathleen, David Lewis and Scott Linbocker. 2014. “Politics or Performance in Regulatory Personnel Turnover.” Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, August 28 – 31, in Washington D.C., USA.Search in Google Scholar

Downs, Anthony. 1967. Inside Bureaucracy. Boston: Little, Brown and Company. Drobny, Wojciech, Marcin Mazuryk and Piotr Zuzankiewicz. 2010. ABC służby cywilnej. Warszawa: Wolters Kluwer Polska.Search in Google Scholar

Eichbaum, Chris and Richard Shaw. 2007. “Ministerial Advisers, Politicisation and the Retreat from Westminster: The Case of New Zealand.” Public Administration 85(3), 609-640.Search in Google Scholar

Ennser-Jedenastik, Laurenz. 2014. “The Politics of Patronage and Coalition. How Parties Allocate Managerial Positions in State-Owned Enterprises.” Political Studies 62(2): 398 – 417.10.1111/1467-9248.12031Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Etzioni-Halevy, Eva. 1983. Bureaucracy and Democracy. A Political Dilemma. Boston: Routledge & Kegan Paul.Search in Google Scholar

Farazmand, Ali (ed.). 2009. Bureaucracy and Administration. Public Administration and Public Policy Series 153, Boca Raton: CRC Press.10.1201/NOE0824723699-c1Search in Google Scholar

Finer, Herman. 1941. “Administrative Responsibility in Democratic Government.” Public Administration Review 1(4): 335 – 350.10.2307/972907Search in Google Scholar

Friedrich, Carl J. 2000. “Public Policy and the Nature of Administrative Responsibility.” In Tadao Miyakawa (eds). The Science of Public Policy: Essential readings in policy sciences II, Volume VII – Policy Process, Part III. London and New York: Routledge, 114 – 132.Search in Google Scholar

Gadowska, Kaja. 2015. Dysfunkcje administracji. Służba cywilna w perspektywie neoinstytucjonalnej. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Jagiellońskiego.Search in Google Scholar

Goetz, Klaus H. 2001. “Making Sense of Post-Communist Central Administration: Modernization, Europeanization or Latinization ?” Journal of European Public 8(6): 1032 – 1051.Search in Google Scholar

Goetz, Klaus H. and Hellmut Wollmann. 2001. “Governmentalizing Central Executives in Postcommunist Europe: A Four-Country Comparison.” Journal of European Public Policy 8(6): 864 – 887.10.1080/13501760110098260Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Góra, Jolanta. 2006. “Koniec służby cywilnej.” Gazeta prawna, 6 April.Search in Google Scholar

Hall, Peter A. and Rosemary C. R. Taylor. 1996. “Political Science and the Three New Institutionalisms.” MPIFG Discussion Paper 96 / 6, June.Search in Google Scholar

Head of Civil Service (HCS). 2010 – 2018. Report of the Head of Civil Service on the state of Civil Service in the years 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017. Warszawa: The Chancellery of The Prime Minister.Search in Google Scholar

Heywood, Paul and Jan-Henrik Meyer-Sahling. 2008. Corruption Risks and the Management of the Ministerial Bureaucracy in Poland. Warszawa: Ernst & Young Poland.Search in Google Scholar

Heywood, Paul and Jan-Henrik Meyer-Sahling. 2013. “Danger Zones of Corruption: How Management of the Ministerial Bureaucracy Affects Corruption Risks in Poland”. Public Administration and Development, Volume33, Issue 3: 191 – 204.10.1002/pad.1644Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Holmberg, Sören and Bo Rothstein. 2012. Good Government. The Relevance of Political Science. Cheltenham: Edward Elgar.10.4337/9780857934932Search in Google Scholar

Hood, Christopher and Martin Lodge. 2006. The Politics of Public Service Bargains: Reward, Competency, Loyalty – and Blame. Oxford: Oxford University Press.10.1093/019926967X.001.0001Search in Google Scholar

Hughes, Owen E. 2003. Public Management and Administration: An Introduction. Place: Palgrave Macmillan.Search in Google Scholar

Hustedt, Thurid and Heidi Houlb Salomonsen. 2014. “Ensuring Political Responsiveness: Politicization Mechanisms in Ministerial Bureaucracies.” International Review of Administrative Sciences 80(4): 746 – 765.10.1177/0020852314533449Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

König, Klaus. 1992. “The Transformation of a Real-Socialist Administrative System into a Conventional West European System.” International Review of Administrative Science 58; 147 – 161.10.1177/002085239205800201Search in Google Scholar

Kopińska, Grażyna. 2018. Stanowiska publiczne jako Łup polityczny. Polityka personalna w okresie od 16 listopada 2015 do 31 października 2017 roku. Warszawa: Fundacja im. Stefana Batorego.Search in Google Scholar

Kopyt, Beata and Bernadetta Waszkielewicz. 2002. “Administracja p.o.” Rzeczpospolita, 11 December.Search in Google Scholar

Lewis, David E. 2008. The Politics of Presidential Appointments: Political Control and Bureaucratic Performance. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.10.1515/9781400837687Search in Google Scholar

McCubbins, Mathew D., Roger G. Noll and Barry R. Weingast. 1987. “Administrative Procedures as Instruments of Political Control.” Journal of Law, Economics and Organizations 3(2): 243 – 277.Search in Google Scholar

McCubbins, Mathew D. and Thomas Schwartz. 1984. “Congressional Oversight Overlooked: Police Patrols Versus Fire Alarms.” American Journal of Political Science 28(1): 165 – 179.10.2307/2110792Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Mair, Peter, Petr Kopecky and Maria Spirova (eds). 2012. Party Patronage and Party Government: Public Appointments and Political Control in European Democracies. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Mazur, Stanisław and Piotr Kopyciński (eds). 2017. Public Policy and the Neo-Weberian State. London, New York: Routledge.10.4324/9781315187945Search in Google Scholar

Meyer-Sahling, Jan-Henrik. 2009. Sustainability of Civil Service Reforms in Central and Eastern Europe Five Years After EU Accession. SIGMA Papers No. 44. Paris: OECD Publishing.Search in Google Scholar

Meyer-Sahling, Jan-Henrik. 2011. “The Durability of EU Civil Service Policy in Central and Eastern Europe after Accession.” Governance 24(2): 231 – 260.10.1111/j.1468-0491.2011.01523.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Meyer-Sahling, Jan-Henrik and Tim Veen. 2012. “Governing the Post-Communist State: Government Alternation and Senior Civil Service Politicisation in Central and Eastern Europe.” East European Politics 28(1): 4 – 22.10.1080/13523279.2011.635651Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Moe, Terr M. 1998. “Political Institutions: The Neglected Side of the Story.” Journal of Law, Economics and Organizations 6 (Special Issue): 213 – 253.Search in Google Scholar

Moynihan, Donald P. and Alasdair S. Roberts. 2010. “The Triumph of Loyalty Over Competence: The Bush Administration and the Exhaustion of the Politicized Presidency.” Public Administration Review 70(40): 572 – 581.10.1111/j.1540-6210.2010.02178.xOpen DOISearch in Google Scholar

Najwyższa Izba Kontroli (NIK). 2011. Funkcjonowanie służby cywilnej w ramach obowiązujących regulacji prawnych. Informacja o wynikach kontroli. Warszawa: NIK.Search in Google Scholar

Neuhold, Christine, Sophie Vanhoonacker and Luc Verhey. 2013. Civil Servants and Politics. A Delicate Balance. London: Palgrave Macmillan.10.1057/9781137316813Search in Google Scholar

Niklasson, Birgitta. 2013. “Does NPM Increase the Politicization of the Civil Service?” Working Paper Series 2013:3. Göteborg: The Quality of Government Institute.Search in Google Scholar

Niskanen, William. 1971. Bureaucracy and Representative Government. Chicago: Aldine Press.Search in Google Scholar

Nunberg, Barbara. 1999. Rethinking Civil Service Reform. PREM Note 31. Washington D.C: World Bank.Search in Google Scholar

Paczocha, Janusz. 2018. Partia w państwie. Bezprecedensowa wymiana kadr w administracji rządowe i jej legislacyjne podstawy. Warszawa: Fundacja Forum Obywatelskiego Rozwoju.Search in Google Scholar

Page, Edward C. and Vincent Wright (eds). 1999. Bureaucratic Elites in Western European States: A Comparative Analysis of Top Officials in Eleven Countries. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Painter, Martin and B. Guy Peters (eds). 2010. Tradition and Public Administration. London: Palgrave Macmillan.10.1057/9780230289635Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Peters, B. Guy and John Pierre (eds). 2004. Politicization of the Civil Service in Comparative Perspective: The Quest for Control. London, New York: Routledge.10.4324/9780203799857Search in Google Scholar

Pierson, Paul. 2000. “Increasing Returns, Path Dependence and the Study of Politics.” American Political Science Review 94(2): 251 – 267.10.2307/2586011Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Pollitt, Christopher. 2006. “Performance Management in Practice: A Comparative Study of Executive Agencies.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory 16(1): 25 – 44.10.1093/jopart/mui045Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Pollitt, Christopher and Geert Bouckaert. 2011. Public Management Reform: a Comparative Analysis: New Public Management, Governance and the Neo-Weberian State. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Putnam R. T. 1975, “The Political Attitudes of Senior Civil Servants In Britain, Germany, and Italy.” In Mattei Dogan (ed.), The Mandarins of Western Europe. New York: Sage Publication: 87 – 127.Search in Google Scholar

Rouban, Luc. 2005. “Politicization of the Civil Service.” In B. Guy Peters, and John Pierre (ed.). Handbook of Public Administration. London: Sage: 310 – 320.Search in Google Scholar

Wójcik, Katarzyna, Wojciech Federczyk o rekrutacji do Krajowej Szkoły Administracji Publicznej, Rzeczpospolita daily, 8 February 2018. Source: http://www.rp.pl/Urzednicy/302089981-Wojciech-Federczyk-o-rekrutacji-do-Krajowej-Szkoly-Administracji-Publicznej.htmlSearch in Google Scholar

Snyder, Susan K. and Barry R. Weingast. 2000. “The American System of Shared Powers: The President, Congress, and the NLRB.” Journal of Law, Economics, and Organization 16: 269 – 305.10.1093/jleo/16.2.269Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Springer, Beata. 2002. “Wybrane instytucje polskiej służ by cywilnej na przestrzeni lat 1996 – 2009. Perspektywa poró wnawcza”, Zarzą dzanie Publiczne No 3(21) / 2012: 66 – 82.Search in Google Scholar

Ståhlberg, Krister. 1986. “The Politicization of Recruitment to Central Public Administration in Finland.” Statsvetenskapliga tidskrift 89, 159 – 169.Search in Google Scholar

Transcript. 1998. Posiedzenie Komisji Sejmowej ds. Administracji i Spraw Wewnętrznych z dn. 28 października 1998 roku [Meeting of the Sejm Committee on Administration and Internal Affairs dated October 28, 1998], Bulletin of the Sejm Committee no.: 943 / III.Search in Google Scholar

Thatcher, Mark and Alec Stone Sweet. 2002. “Theory and Practice of Delegation to Non-Majoritarian Institutions.” West European Politics 25(1): 1 – 22.10.1080/713601583Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Van der Meer Frits M., C. N. Raadschelders and Theo A. J. Toonen. 2015. Comparative Civil Service Systems in the 21st Century. Place: Palgrave Macmillan.10.1057/9781137491459Search in Google Scholar

Weber, Max, H. H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills. 1946. From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo