1. bookVolume 5 (2019): Issue 1 (June 2019)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2382-9230
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

The U.S. Foreign Policy Towards The Baltic States: The Implications Of Ukraine Crisis

Published Online: 02 Aug 2019
Volume & Issue: Volume 5 (2019) - Issue 1 (June 2019)
Page range: 27 - 39
Received: 03 Mar 2018
Accepted: 15 Mar 2018
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2382-9230
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

This paper aims to discuss the implications of Ukraine crisis to the U.S. foreign policy towards the Baltic States. This paper consists of several parts. To begin with, political discourse of Obama‘s and Trump‘s administrations‘ is analysed. The second part presents an analysis of practical level of U.S. relations with Baltic States during and after Ukraine crisis, focusing on three dimensions: political/diplomatic, military and economic. In the third part of this paper, implications of the Ukrainian crisis on U.S. relations with Baltic States are assessed, comparing trends in official political discourse and practical foreign policy of Baltic States prior to and after the Ukraine crisis.

Keywords

Barnes, J. E. and Troianovski, A. (2016). NATO Allies Preparing to Put Four Battalions at Eastern Border With Russia. The Wall Street Journal. [online] Available at: http://www.wsj.com/articles/nato-allies-preparing-to-put-four-battalions-at-eastern-border-with-russia-1461943315 [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

Belkin, P., Mix, D. E. and Woehrel, S. (2014). NATO: Response to the Crisis in Ukraine and Security Concerns in Central and Eastern Europe. Congressional Research Service. [online] Available at: https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/R43478.pdf [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

Coffey, L. (2013). The Baltic States: Why the United States Must Strengthen Security Cooperation. Backgrounder 2851 (2013): 1-22.Search in Google Scholar

Coffey, L. and Kochis, D. (2015). The Baltic States: The United States Must Be Prepared to Fulfill Its NATO Treaty Obligations. The Heritage Foundation. [online] Available at: http://www.heritage.org/research/reports/2015/09/the-baltic-states-the-united-states-must-be-prepared-to-fulfill-its-nato-treaty-obligations#_ftn64 [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

Croft, A. (2014). NATO to triple Baltic air patrol from next month. Reuters. [online] Available at: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-ukraine-crisis-nato-idUSBREA371WH20140408 [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

Fisher, M. (2016). Donald Trump’s Ambivalence on the Baltics Is More Important Than It Seems. The New York Times. [online] Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2016/07/22/world/europe/donald-trump-nato-baltics-interpreter.html [Accessed 03 March 2018]Search in Google Scholar

Jakniunaite, D. (ed.) (2015). Ambicingas dešimtmetis. Vilniaus universiteto leidykla.Search in Google Scholar

Jurgeleviciute, D. (2015). What can Lithuania offer for its Security?: Foreign Policy Dilemmas in Lithuania’s Relations with the United States. Lithuanian Foreign Policy Review 34 (2015): 7-33.Search in Google Scholar

Kanter, J. (2014). Lithuania Offers Example of How to Break Russia’s Grip on Energy. The new York Times. [online] Available at: https://www.nytimes.com/2014/10/28/business/energy-environment/lithuania-offers-example-of-how-to-break-russias-grip-on-energy.html?_r=0 [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

Lamoreaux, J. W. and Galbreath, D. J. (2008). The Baltic States As ‘Small States’: Negotiating The ‘East’ By Engaging The ‘West’. Journal of Baltic Studies 39:1 (2008): 1-14.Search in Google Scholar

LR Prezidentė, (2014). Lietuva-patraukli šalis JAV investicijoms. [online] Available at: https://www.lrp.lt/lt/lietuva-patraukli-salis-javinvesticijoms/pranesimai-spaudai/19305 [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

Ministry of National Defence Republic of Lithuania, (2016a). Bilateral Cooperation. [online] Available at: http://www.kam.lt/en/international_cooperation_1089/bilateral_cooperation.html [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

Ministry of National Defence Republic of Lithuania, (2016b). NATO Force Integration Unit (NFIU). [online] Available at: http://www.kam.lt/en/international_cooperation_1089/nato_1282/nato_force_integration_unit.html [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

Mix, D. E. (2015). The United States and Europe: Current Issues. Congressional Research Service: 2-3. [online] Available at: https://www.fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RS22163.pdf [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

Molis, A. and Vaisnoras, T. (2014). Energy Security Through Membership in Nato and the Eu: Interests and Achievements of Lithuania. Lithuanian Foreign Policy Review 32 (2014): 13-32.Search in Google Scholar

Puksto, A., Karpaviciute, I. and Norkevicius, M. (2014). The Dynamics of Lithuanian-Polish Strategic Partnership. Lithuanian Annual Strategic Review 12:1, (2014): 115-149.Search in Google Scholar

Radio Free Europe/Radio Liberty, (2009). An Open Letter To The Obama Administration From Central And Eastern Europe. [online] Available at: http://www.rferl.org/content/An_Open_Letter_To_The_Obama_Administration_From_Central_And_Eastern_Europe/1778449.html [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

Raik, K. (2016). Liberalism and Geopolitics in EU-Russia Relations: Rereading the ‘Baltic factor’. European Security 25:2, (2016): 237-255.Search in Google Scholar

Shlapak, D. A. and Johnson, M. W. (2016). Reinforcing Deterrence on NATO’s Eastern Flank. RAND, 2016. [online] Available at: http://www.rand.org/pubs/research_reports/RR1253.html [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

The American Presidency Project, (2017a). Remarks by the Vice President to Enhanced Forward Presence and Estonian Troops in Tallinn, Estonia. [online] Available at: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=126716&st=Baltic&st1=Lithuania [Accessed 25 February 2018]Search in Google Scholar

The American Presidency Project, (2017b). Remarks by the Vice President with Baltic Leaders in a Joint Press Availability in Tallinn, Estonia. [online] Available at: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=126713&st=Baltic&st1=Lithuania [Accessed 25 February 2018]Search in Google Scholar

The American Presidency Project, (2014a). The President’s News Conference With President Toomas Hendrik Ilves of Estonia in Tallinn, Estonia. [online] Available at: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=107471&st=Baltic&st1=Lithuania [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

The American Presidency Project, (2014b). Remarks Following a Meeting With President Toomas Hendrik Ilves of Estonia, President Dalia Grybauskaitė of Lithuania, and President Andris Bērziņš of Latvia in Tallinn, Estonia. [online] Available at: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=107472&st=Baltic&st1=Lithuania [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

The American Presidency Project, (2014c). Remarks to European Youth in Brussels, Belgium. [online] Available at: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/index.php?pid=105073&st=Baltic&st1=Lithuania [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

The American Presidency Project, (2002). Remarks to the People of Lithuania in Vilnius. [online] Available at: http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=64476 [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

The White House, (2016). Fact Sheet: The FY2017 European Reassurance Initiative Budget Request. [online] Available at: https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2016/02/02/fact-sheet-fy2017-european-reassurance-initiative-budget-request [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

The White House, (2014a). Readout of President Obama’s Call with President Putin. [online] Available at: https://www.whitehouse.gov/the-press-office/2014/03/01/readout-president-obama-s-call-president-putin [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

The White House, (2014b). Remarks by President Obama to the People of Estonia. [online] Available at: https://obamawhitehouse.archives.gov/the-press-office/2014/09/03/remarks-president-obama-people-estonia [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

U.S. Department of Commerce, (2015). U.S. International Trade in Goods and Services. Estonia. [online] Available at: http://www.bea.gov/international/factsheet/factsheet.cfm?Area=331 [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

U.S. Department of State, (2010). Hillary Rodham Clinton Remarks With Lithuanian Foreign Minister Audronius Azubalis After Their Meeting. [online] Available at: https://2009-2017.state.gov/secretary/20092013clinton/rm/2010/11/150917.htm [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

U.S. Department of State, (2013a). Press Statement of John Kerry, Secretary of State on Estonia’s National Day. [online] Available at: http://www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2013/ [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

U.S. Department of State, (2013b). Statement on the Occasion of Latvia’s National Day. [online] Available at: http://www.state.gov/secretary/remarks/2013/ [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

Wright, H. (2015). US Military Hardware Arrives in Estonia. The Baltic Times. [online] Available at: http://www.baltictimes.com/us_military_hardware_arrives_in_estonia/ [Accessed 30 July 2017]Search in Google Scholar

Zdanavicius, L. and Czekaj, M. (ed.) (2015). Russia‘s Zapad 2013 Military Exercise. Lessons for the Baltic states. The Jamestown Foundation.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo