1. bookVolume 67 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Scope of herbal mucilage in pharmaceutical formulations. A review

Published Online: 21 May 2021
Page range: 46 - 57
Received: 20 Jul 2020
Accepted: 06 Feb 2021
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
04 Apr 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Summary

The aim of the article was to obtain maximum information about plant mucilage, its sources and applications in the pharmaceutical industry. This study focuses on the scientific articles and books available in Internet resources and college library that deal with the sources, applications, extraction and isolation of plant mucilage. Mucilage is obtained mainly from plant sources and can be isolated easily. Due to the low cost, easy availability, non-toxicity, non-irritancy, and biocompatibility, mucilage is of great demand in the field of pharmaceuticals. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L., Trigonella foenum-graecum L., Abelmoschus esculentus L, Plantago ovata Forssk. and Aloe barbadensis L. are some common sources of mucilage. The isolation methods vary depending on the part of the plant where mucilage is present. It is commonly used as gelling agent, suspending agent, binder, and disintegrant. Since it is hydrophilic in nature, chances of deterioration are higher. In this review, different mucilage sources and their isolation methods are discussed in detail. Mucilage is used as excipient in many formulations of tablets, suspensions, gels, etc. The study explores the potential of plant mucilage as an excipient in pharmaceutical formulations. The biodegradable and biocompatible properties of this inexpensive excipient make it more favourable for the newer formulation development.

Keywords

1. Malviya R, Srivastava P, Kulkarni GT. Applications of mucilages in drug delivery-a review. Advan Biol Res 2011; 5(1):1-7. Search in Google Scholar

2. Farooq U, Malviya R, Sharma PK. Extraction and characterization of Okra mucilage as pharmaceutical excipient. Acad J Plant Sci 2013; 6(4):168-172. Search in Google Scholar

3. Haruna S, Aliyu BS, Bala A. Plant gum exudates (Karau) and mucilages, their biological sources, properties, uses and potential applications: A review. Bayero J Pur Appl Sci 2016; 9(2):159-165. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.4314/bajopas.v9i2.30 Search in Google Scholar

4. Gowthamarajan K, Kulkarni GT, Muthukumar A, Mahadevan N, Samantha MK, Suresh B. Evaluation of Fenugreek mucilage as gelling agent. Int J Pharma Excip 2002; 3:16-9. Search in Google Scholar

5. Nayak AK, Pal D, Pradhan J, Ghorai T. The potential of Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seed mucilage as suspending agent. Indian J Pharm Educ Res 2012; 46(3):12-7. Search in Google Scholar

6. Deogade UM, Deshmukh VN, Sakarkar DM. Natural gums and mucilage’s in NDDS: applications and recent approaches. Int J Pharmtech Res 2012; 4(2):799-814. Search in Google Scholar

7. Alalor CA, Avbunudiogba JA, Augustine K. Isolation and characterization of mucilage obtained from Colocasia esculenta. Int J Pharm Biol Sci 2014; 4:25-29. Search in Google Scholar

8. Bhosale RR, Osmani RA, Moin A. Natural gums and mucilages: a review on multifaceted excipients in pharmaceutical science and research. Int J Pharmacogn Phytochem Res 2014; 15(4). Search in Google Scholar

9. Jani GK, Shah DP, Prajapati VD, Jain VC. Gums and mucilages: versatile excipients for pharmaceutical formulations. Asian J Pharm 2009; 4(5):309-323. Search in Google Scholar

10. Grundmann O. Aloe vera gel research review. An overview of its clinical uses and proposed mechanisms of action. Nat Med J 2012; 4(9). Search in Google Scholar

11. Choudhary PD, Pawar HA. Recently investigated natural gums and mucilages as pharmaceutical excipients: an overview. J Pharm 2014, 9 pages. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/204849 Search in Google Scholar

12. Choi S, Chung MH. A review on the relationship between Aloe vera components and their biologic effects. Semin Integr Med 2003; 1(1):53-62. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S1543-1150(03)00005-X Search in Google Scholar

13. Ramachandra CT, Rao PS. Processing of Aloe vera leaf gel: a review. Am J Agril Biol Sci 2008; 3(2): 502-510. Search in Google Scholar

14. Surjushe A, Vasani R, Saple DG. Aloe vera: a short review. Indian J Dermatol 2008; 53(4):163. Search in Google Scholar

15. Kar SK, Bera TK. Phytochemical constituents of Aloe vera and their multifunctional properties: A Comprehensive Review. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2018; 9(4):1416-1423. Search in Google Scholar

16. Ahad HA, Kumar CS, Kumar BA, Reddy BA, Shekar AC, Ravindra BV et al. Development and in vitro evaluation of glibenclamide Aloe barbadensis Miller leaves mucilage controlled release matrix tablets. Int J Pharmtech Res 2010; 2(2):1018-1021. Search in Google Scholar

17. Prajapati VD, Maheriya PM, Jani GK, Patil PD, Patel BN. Lepidium sativum Linn. A current addition to the family of mucilage and its applications. Int J Biol Macromol 2014; 65:72-80. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2014.01.008. Search in Google Scholar

18. Behrouzian F, Razavi SM, Phillips GO. Cress seed (Lepidium sativum) mucilage, an overview. Bioact Carbohydr Diet Fibre 2014; 3(1):17-28. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bcdf.2014.01.001 Search in Google Scholar

19. El-Aziz M, Haggag HF, Kaluoubi MM, Hassan LK, El-Sayed MM, Sayed AF. Characterization of ethanol precipitated cress seed and flaxseed mucilages compared with commercial guar gum. AM J Food Technol 2016; 11:84-91. Search in Google Scholar

20. Kaur L, Bala R, Kanojia N, Nagpal M, Dhingra GA. Formulation development and optimization of fast dissolving tablets of Aceclofenac using natural superdisintegrant. Int Sch Res Notices 2014;1-10. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/242504 Search in Google Scholar

21. Alok S, Jain SK, Verma A, Kumar M, Mahor A, Sabharwal M. Plant profile, phytochemistry and pharmacology of Asparagus racemosus (Shatavari): A review. Asian Pacific J Trop Dis 2013; 3(3):242-251. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2222-1808(13)60049-3 Search in Google Scholar

22. Mishra JN, Verma NK. Asparagus racemosus: chemical constituents and pharmacological activities - a review. European J Biomed Pharm Sci 2017; 4:207-213. Search in Google Scholar

23. Singla R, Jaitak V. Shatavari Asparagus racemosus Wild: a review on its cultivation, morphology, phytochemistry and pharmacological importance. Int J Pharm Life Sci 2014; 1:5(3). doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.13040/IJPSR.0975-8232.5(3).742-57 Search in Google Scholar

24. Kulkarni TG, Gowthamarajan K, Rao GB, Suresh B. Evaluation of binding properties of selected natural mucilages. J Sci Ind Res 2002; 61(7):529-532. Search in Google Scholar

25. Matsuhiro B, Lillo LE, Sáenz C, Urzúa CC, Zárate O. Chemical characterization of the mucilage from fruits of Opuntia ficus indica. Carbohydr Polym 2006; 63(2): 263-267. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.08.062 Search in Google Scholar

26. Andreu L, Nuncio-Jáuregui N, Carbonell-Barrachina ÁA, Legua, P and Hernández F. Antioxidant properties and chemical characterization of Spanish Opuntia ficus-indica Mill. cladodes and fruits. J Sci Food Agric 2018; 98(4):1566-1573. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.8628 Search in Google Scholar

27. Butera D, Tesoriere L, Di Gaudio F, Bongiorno A, Allegra M, Pintaudi AM et al. Antioxidant activities of Sicilian prickly pear Opuntia ficus indica fruit extracts and reducing properties of its betalains: betanin and indicaxanthin. J Agric Food Chem 2002; 50(23):6895-6901. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf025696p Search in Google Scholar

28. Zegbe JA, Mena-Covarrubias J, Dominguez-Canales VS. Cactus mucilage as a coating film to enhance shelf life of unprocessed guavas (Psidium guajava L.). In: Proceedings of the 8th International Congress on Cactus Pear and Cochineal 2013; 1067:423-427. Search in Google Scholar

29. Del-Valle V, Hernández-Muñoz P, Guarda A, Galotto MJ. Development of a Cactus-mucilage edible coating (Opuntia ficus indica) and its application to extend strawberry (Fragaria ananassa) shelf-life. Food Chem 2005; 91(4):751-756. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.food-chem.2004.07.002 Search in Google Scholar

30. Fathalla N, Bishr M, Singab AN, Salama O. Phyto-chemical and biological evaluation of Cassia tora, L. seeds. IOSR J Pharm Biol Sci 2015; 10(1):1-8. Search in Google Scholar

31. Jain S, Patil UK. Phytochemical and pharmacological profile of Cassia tora Linn. An overview. Indian J Nat Prod Res 2010; 1(4):430-437. Search in Google Scholar

32. Mann AS, Jain NK, Kharya MD. Evaluation of the suspending properties of Cassia tora mucilage on sulphadimidine suspension. Asian J Exp Sci 2007; 21(1):63-67. Search in Google Scholar

33. Prabhu KS, Lobo R, Shirwaikar AA. Ocimum gratissimum: a review of its chemical, pharmacological and ethnomedicinal properties. Open Compl Med J 2009; 1:1-15. Search in Google Scholar

34. Matasyoh LG, Matasyoh JC, Wachira FN, Kinyua MG, Muigai AW, Mukiama TK. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Ocimum gratissimum L. from different populations of Kenya. Afr J Trad Complement Altern Med 2008; 5(2):187-193. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v5i2.31272 Search in Google Scholar

35. Shirwaikar AA, Shirwaikar A, Prabu SL, Mahalaxmi R, Rajendran K, Kumar CD. Studies of disintegrant properties of seed mucilage of Ocimum gratissimum. Indian J Pharm Sci 2007; 69(6):753. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0250-474X.39428 Search in Google Scholar

36. Anroop B, Ghosh B, Parcha V, Vasanti S. Studies on Ocimum gratissimum L. seed mucilage: evaluation of binding properties. Int J Pharm 2006; 325(1-2):191-193. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2006.06.030 Search in Google Scholar

37. Anroop B, Bhatnagar SP, Ghosh B, Parcha V. Studies on Ocimum gratissimum L. seed mucilage: evaluation of suspending properties. Indian J Pharm Sci 2005; 67(2):206. Search in Google Scholar

38. Gupta R, Gupta GD. A review on plant Cordia obliqua Willd. (Clammy cherry). Pharmacogn Rev 2015; 9(18):127-131. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.162124 Search in Google Scholar

39. Thirupathi K, Kumar SS, Raju VS, Ravikumar B, Krishna DR, Mohan GK. A review of medicinal plants of the genus Cordia: their chemistry and pharmacological uses. J Nat Remedies 2008; 8(1):1. Search in Google Scholar

40. Gupta R, Gupta GD. Pharmacognostic, phyto-chemical and antioxidant activity studies on Cordia obliqua Willd. leaf. Int J Pharm Sci Res 2016; 7(11):4669-4677. Search in Google Scholar

41. Dinda SC, Mukharjee B. Gum cordia. A new tablet binder and emulsifier. Acta Pharm Sci 2009; 51(2): 189-198. Search in Google Scholar

42. Mukherjee B, Dinda SC, Barik BB. Gum cordia: a novel matrix forming material for enteric resistant and sustained drug delivery – a technical note. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech 2008; 9(1):330. Search in Google Scholar

43. Mehta DG. Dillenia indica Linn. and Dillenia pentagyna Roxb.: pharmacognostic, phytochemical and therapeutic aspects. J Appl Pharm Sci 2013;3(11):134-142. Search in Google Scholar

44. Dharmendra K, Bhanupriya, Gupta SK. Develop- ment of domperidine nasal gel using natural mucoadhesive agent obtained from the fruits of Dellinia indica L. Pharmatutor 2013:1745. Search in Google Scholar

45. Kuotsu K, Bandyopadhyay AK. Development of Oxytocin nasal gel using natural mucoadhesive agent obtained from the fruits of Dellinia indica L. Sci Asia 2007; 33:57-60. Search in Google Scholar

46. Sahu BP, Sharma HK, Das MK. Development and evaluation of a mucoadhesive nasal gel of felodipine prepared with mucoadhesive substance of Dillenia indica L. Asian J Pharm 2011; 5:175-187. Search in Google Scholar

47. Sharma HK, Nath LK. Study of the effect of Dillenia indica fruit mucilage on the properties of metformin hydrochloride loaded spray dried microspheres. Int Sch Res Notices 2014. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/628382 Search in Google Scholar

48. Shailajan S, Sayed N, Menon S, Singh A. A validated RP-HPLC method for quantitation of trigonelline from herbal formulations containing Trigonella foenum-graecum L. seeds. Pharm methods 2011; 2(3):157-60. doi: http://doi.org/10.4103/2229-4708.90354 Search in Google Scholar

49. Kumar R, Patil S, Patil MB, Patil SR, Paschapur MS. Isolation and evaluation of disintegrant properties of Fenugreek seed mucilage. Int J Pharmtech Res 2009; 1(4):982-996. Search in Google Scholar

50. Hajare AA, Kale SN, Powar TA. Freeze dried fenugreek seed mucilage as disintegrant for fast dissolving tablets of Valsartan. Res J Pharm Technol 2018; 11(1):328-336. doi: http:dx.doi.org/10.5958/0974-360X.2018.00060.4 Search in Google Scholar

51. Waqas MK, Akhtar N, Ahmad M, Murtaza G, Khan HM, Iqbal M et al. Formulation and characterization of a cream containing extract of Fenugreek seeds. Acta Pol Pharm 2010; 67(2):173. Search in Google Scholar

52. Ahad HA, Kumar CS, Ravindra BV, Sasidhar CG, Ramakrishna G, Venkatnath L et al. Characterization and permeation studies of Diltiazem hydrochloride-Ficus reticuleta fruit mucilage transdermal patches. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2010; 1(2). Search in Google Scholar

53. Rao KM, Gnanaprakash K, Badarinath AV, Chetty CM, Alagusundaram M. Preparation and evaluation of flurbiprofen gel; mucilage of Cocculus hirsutus leaf powder as gel base. Int J Pharmtech Res 2010; 2(2):1578-1583. Search in Google Scholar

54. Vignesh RM, Nair BR. Extraction and characterisation of mucilage from the leaves of Hibiscus rosa-sinensis Linn. (Malvaceae). Int J Pharm Sci Res 2018; 6(2):542-555. Search in Google Scholar

55. Jani GK, Shah DP. Evaluation of mucilage of Hibiscus rosasinensis Linn as rate controlling matrix for sustained release of diclofenac. Drug Dev Ind Pharm 2008; 34(8):807-816. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/03639040801925768. Search in Google Scholar

56. Sargam, Dharmendra Kumar, Garima Garg. Pharmaceutical and pharmacological activities of Hibiscus rosa sinensis mucilage. The Glob J Pharm Res, 2013; 2(3):1822-1829. Search in Google Scholar

57. Kaleemullah M, Jiyauddin K, Thiban E, Rasha S, Al-Dhalli S, Budiasih S et al. Development and evaluation of ketoprofen sustained release matrix tablet using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage. Saudi Pharm J 2017; 25(5):770-779. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsps.2016.10.006 Search in Google Scholar

58. Ahad HA, Kumar CS, Kumar K. Designing and evaluation of Diclofenac sodium sustained release matrix tablets using Hibiscus rosa-sinensis leaves mucilage. Int J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2010; 1(2):29-31. Search in Google Scholar

59. Sengupta RU, Banik JK. Evaluation of Hibiscus sabdariffa leaf mucilage as a suspending agent. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2011; 3(5):184-187. Search in Google Scholar

60. Jarald E, Sheeja E, Shweta D, Raj A, Smita G. Application of hibiscus leaves mucilage as suspending agent. Indian J Pharm Educ Res 2007; 41(4):373-375. Search in Google Scholar

61. Shah V, Patel R. Studies on mucilage from Hibuscus rosasinensis Linn. as oral disintegrant. Int J Appl Pharm 2010; 2(1):18-21. Search in Google Scholar

62. Swathi S, Neeharika V, Lakshmi PK. Formulation and evaluation of fast dissolving tablets of freely and poorly soluble drug with natural and synthetic super disintegrants. Drug Invent Today 2011; 3(10):250-256. Search in Google Scholar

63. Prabhu KH, Omer S, Rajanna SG, Pranesh KP. Formulation and evaluation of mouth disinte-grating tablets of Famotidine by using Hibiscus-rosa-sinensis mucilage and treated Agar. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2010; 1(2):497-505. Search in Google Scholar

64. Bolla SP, Segji S, Nallipogu VK, Kumar VV, Chetty CM. Formulation and evaluation of orodispersible tablets of Clonazepam using natural super-disintegrants. J Pharm Biol Sci, 2014; 9(4):47-52. Search in Google Scholar

65. Morton JF. Mucilaginous plants and their uses in medicine. J Ethnopharmacol 1990; 29(3):245-66. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(90)90036-S Search in Google Scholar

66. Thari VL, Battepati CB, Chinnari S, Adari AC, Saibaba KV, Gopinadh R. Review on the characteristics and applications of Psyllium (Plantago ovata). Int J Biotech Res 2018; 1(1):31-41. Search in Google Scholar

67. Kumar D, Pandey J, Kumar P, Raj V. Psyllium mucilage and its use in pharmaceutical field: an overview. Curr Synthetic Sys Biol 2017; 5(1):134 doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4172/2332-0737.1000134. Search in Google Scholar

68. Anderson E, Fireman M. The mucilage from Psyllium seed, Plantago psyllium L. J Biol Chem 1935; 109(1):437-442. Search in Google Scholar

69. Deveswaran R, Furtado S, Bharath S, Sindhu A, Veerabhadraiah BB, Madhavan V. Isapgol mucilage as a potential natural suspending agent. Int J Res Ayurveda Pharm 2010; 1(2):543-548. Search in Google Scholar

70. Shirsand SB, Suresh S, Para MS, Swamy PV, Kumar DN. Plantago ovata Forssk. mucilage in the design of fast disintegrating tablets. Indian J Pharm Sci 2009; 71(1):41. Search in Google Scholar

71. Srinivas K, Prakash K, Kiran HR, Prasad PM, Rao ME. Study of Ocimum basilicum and Plan-tago ovata Forssk. as disintegrants in the formulation of dispersible tablets. Indian J Pharm Sci 2003; 65(2):180. Search in Google Scholar

72. Ghumman SA, Noreen S, Muntaha ST. Linum usitatissimum seed mucilage-alginate mucoadhesive microspheres of metformin HCl: Fabrication, characterization and evaluation. Int J Biol Macromol 2020; 155:358-368. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2020.03.181 Search in Google Scholar

73. Hadad S, Goli SAH. Fabrication and characterization of electrospun nanofibers using flax-seed (Linum usitatissimum) mucilage. Int J Biol Macromol 2018;114:408-414. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2018.03.154 Search in Google Scholar

74. Hafsa A, Sakshi S, Anurag M, Rajiv G. Mimosa pudica L. Laajvanti: An overview. Pharmacogn Rev 2012; 6:115-124. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0973-7847.99945 Search in Google Scholar

75. Ahuja M, Kumar A, Yadav P, Singh K. Mimosa pudica seed mucilage: Isolation, characterization and evaluation as tablet disintegrant and binder. Int J Biol Macromol 2013; 57:105-110. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2013.03.004 Search in Google Scholar

76. Singh K, Kumar A, Langyan N. Ahuja M. Evaluation of Mimosa pudica seed mucilage as sustained-release excipient. AAPS Pharm Sci Tech 2009; 10(4):1121-1127. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12249-009-9307-1 Search in Google Scholar

77. Ahuja M, Kumar S, Yadav M. Evaluation of mimosa seed mucilage as bucoadhesive polymer. Yakugaku Zasshi 2010; 130(7): 937-944. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1248/yakushi.130.937 Search in Google Scholar

78. Chanchal DK, Alok S, Kumar M, Bijauliya RK, Rashi S, Gupta S. A brief review on Abelmoschus esculentus Linn. Okra. Int J Pharm Sci 2018; 9(1):58-66. Search in Google Scholar

79. Kumar A, Kumar P, Nadendla R. A review on: Abelmoschus esculentus (okra). Int Res J Pharm App Sci 2013; 3(4):129-132. Search in Google Scholar

80. Kumar R, Patil MB, Patil SR, Paschapur MS. Evaluation of disintegrating properties of Abel-moschus esculentus mucilage. Int J Pharmtech Res 2009; 1(2):241-246. Search in Google Scholar

81. Biswajit B, Nabin K, Rashmika P. Okra mucilage act as a potential binder for the preparation of tablet formulation. Der Pharm Lett 2014; 6(3):31-39. Search in Google Scholar

82. Ofoefule SI, Chukwu A, Anyakoha N, Ebebe IM. Application of Abelmoschus esculentus in solid dosage formulation 1: Use as a binder for a poorly water soluble drug. Indian J Pharm Sci 2001; 63(3):234-238. Search in Google Scholar

83. Cotrim M, Mottin AC, Ayres E. Preparation and characterization of okra mucilage (Abelmoschus esculentus) edible films. Macromol Symp 2016; 367(1):90-100. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/masy.201600019 Search in Google Scholar

84. Rao PP, Nagoji KE, Jayaveera K. Formulation, in vitro evaluation and comparison of sustained release matrix tablets of diclofenac sodium using okra gum as release modifier. Int J Adv Pharm Biol Chem 2012; 1(3):428-433. Search in Google Scholar

85. Ilango K, Mishra M, Devi S, Rajsekaran A, Senthil Kumar M, Subburaju T. In vitro and in vivo evaluation of okra polysaccharide-based colon targeted drug delivery systems. Inj J Pharm Sci Rev Res 2010; 5(1):138-145. Search in Google Scholar

86. Ahad HA, Reddy BK, Ishaq BM, Kumar CH, Kumar CS. Fabrication and in vitro evaluation of glibenclamide Abelmoschus esculentus fruit mucilage controlled release matrix tablets. J Pharm Res 2010; 3(5): 943-946. Search in Google Scholar

87. Kumar R, Patil MB, Patil SR, Paschapur MS. Evaluation of Abelmoschus esculentus mucilage as suspending agent in paracetamol suspension. Int J Pharmtech Res 2009; 1(3):658-665. Search in Google Scholar

88. Roach JS, McLean S, Reynolds WF, Tinto WF. Cassane diterpenoids of Caesalpinia pulcherrima. J Nat Prod 2003; 66(10):1378-1381. doi: https://doi.org/10.1021/np0302955 Search in Google Scholar

89. Selvi RS, Gopalakrishanan S, Ramajayam M, Soman R. Evaluation of mucilage of Caesalpinia pulcherrima as binder for tablets. Int J Chemtech Res 2010; 2(1):436-442. Search in Google Scholar

90. Ige PP, Agrawal K, Patil U. Enhanced in vitro dissolution of Iloperidone using Caesalpinia pulcherrima mucoadhesive microspheres. Beni-Suef Univ J Basic Appl Sci 2015; 4(1):26-32. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bjbas.2015.02.004 Search in Google Scholar

91. Khanam Z, Singh O, Singh R, Bhat IU. Safed musli (Chlorophytum borivilianum): A review of its botany, ethnopharmacology and phytochemistry. J Ethnopharmacol 2013; 150(2):421-441. doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2013.08.064 Search in Google Scholar

92. Vijaya K, Chavan P. Chlorophytum borivilianum (Safed musli): a review. Pharmacogn Rev 2009; 3(5):154. Search in Google Scholar

93. Deore SL, Khadabadi SS. Standardisation and pharmaceutical evaluation of Chlorophytum borivilianum mucilage. Rasayan J Chem 2008; 1(4):887-92. Search in Google Scholar

94. Gill NS, Kaur R, Arora R, Bali M. Phytochemical investigation of Caesalpinia crista seed extract for their therapeutic potential. Res J Medicinal Plant 2012; 6:100-107. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.3923/rjmp.2012.100.107 Search in Google Scholar

95. Ravi K, Rajarajeshwari N, Swamy VB. Exploitation of Borassus flabellifer fruit mucilage as novel natural gelling agent. Der Pharm Lett 2012; 4(4):1202-1213. Search in Google Scholar

96. Hariharshan V. Design and in-vitro characterization of Metadoxine buccal patches using Borassus flabellifer fruit resin- a novel mucoadhesive polymer. In: Proceedings of the doctoral dissertation, Sri Ramakrishna Institute of Paramedical Sciences, Coimbatore 2018. Search in Google Scholar

97. Ravi K, Rajarajeshwari N, Swamy VB. Exploitation of Borassus flabellifer fruit mucilage as novel natural gelling agent. Der Pharm Lett 2012; 4(4):1202-1213. Search in Google Scholar

98. Ravi K, Rajarajeshwari, Narayana VBS. Borassus flabellifer fruit mucilage: potential biodegradable carrier for Colon specific drug delivery. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2012; 4(4):522-531. Search in Google Scholar

99. Ravi K, Rajarajeshwari, Narayana VBS. Isolation and evaluation of Borassus flabellifer mucilage as a natural suspending agent. Int. J Pharmtech Res 2012; 4:1614-1630. Search in Google Scholar

100. Ravi K, N Rajarajeshwari. Isolation and evaluation of Borassus flabellifer mucilage as matrix former for transdermal delivery of diclofenac. Int J Pharm Sci 2013; 5(1):2016-2026. Search in Google Scholar

101. Ravi K, Rajarajeshwari, Narayana VBS. Isolation and preliminary evaluation of Borassus flabellifer fruit mucilage as a novel excipient for matrix of Ranitidine HCl floating tablet. Am J Pharmtech Res 2013; 3(2):584-601. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo