1. bookVolume 16 (2020): Issue 2 (December 2020)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
31 Jan 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Low-Power Agriculture IoT System with LoRa: Open Field Storage Observation

Published Online: 12 Apr 2021
Page range: 88 - 94
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
31 Jan 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The last decade has seen multiple research work on the use of LoRaWAN technology in smart agriculture. In open field storage, monitoring is crucial for increasing the logistics efficiency and improving crop quality. As battery maintenance is expensive in such areas, LoRa is a suitable technology that allows for low-power communications. Within the framework of the research, a prototype has been built for tracking goods in open field storage. The battery lifetime has been analysed through calculations and measurements using LoRa communications. Our findings indicate that although sleeping current has the smallest percentage, it has the greatest effect on increasing the battery life, for longer battery life LoRa node must have a low self-discharge battery, and finally, sensors are the main battery depleting factor on the LoRa node.

Keywords

[1] W. Ayoub, A. E. Samhat, F. Nouvel, M. Mroue, and J.-C. Prévotet, “Internet of mobile things: Overview of lorawan, DASH7, and NB-IoT in LPWANs standards and supported mobility,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 1561–1581, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1109/COMST.2018.2877382Search in Google Scholar

[2] Lora-Alliance, “Why lorawan is the logical choice for asset-tracking connectivity,” White paper, April 2020.Search in Google Scholar

[3] Semtech, “Lora devices: Smart agriculture real world solutions,” White paper, 2021.Search in Google Scholar

[4] F. Javed, M. K. Afzal, M. Sharif, and B.-S. Kim, “Internet of things (IoT) operating systems support, networking technologies, applications, and challenges: A comparative review,” IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, vol. 20, no. 3, pp. 2062–2100, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1109/COMST.2018.2817685Search in Google Scholar

[5] I. Mohanraj, K. Ashokumar, and J. Naren, “Field monitoring and automation using iot in agriculture domain,” Procedia Computer Science, vol. 93, pp. 931–939, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2016.07.275Search in Google Scholar

[6] D. Kumar and P. Kalita, “Reducing postharvest losses during storage of grain crops to strengthen food security in developing countries,” Foods, vol. 6, no. 1, p. 8, 2017. https://doi.org/10.3390/foods6010008Search in Google Scholar

[7] D. de Carvalho Lopes, J. H. Martins, A. F. Lacerda Filho, E. de Cas- tro Melo, P. M. de Barros Monteiro, and D. M. de Queiroz, “Aeration strategy for controlling grain storage based on simulation and on real data acquisition,” Computers and Electronics in Agriculture, vol. 63, no. 2, pp. 140–146, 2008. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compag.2008.02.002Search in Google Scholar

[8] D. Grover and J. Singh, “Post-harvest losses in wheat crop in Punjab: Past and present,” Agricultural Economics Research Review, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 293–297, 2013.Search in Google Scholar

[9] M. Sharon, C. Abirami, and K. Alagusundaram, “Grain storage management in india,” Journal of Postharvest Technology, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 12–24, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

[10] T. Bouguera, J.-F. Diouris, J.-J. Chaillout, and G. Andrieux, “Energy consumption modeling for communicating sensors using LoRa technology,” in 2018 IEEE Conference on Antenna Measurements & Applications (CAMA), Vasteras, pp. 1–4, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1109/CAMA.2018.8530593Search in Google Scholar

[11] E. Kokten, B. C. Caliskan, S. Karamzadeh, and E. Gelal Soyak, “Low-Powered agriculture IoT systems with LoRa,” in 2020 IEEE Workshop on Microwave Theory and Techniques in Wireless Communications, Riga, Latvia, Sep. 2020. https://doi.org/10.1109/MTTW51045.2020.9244927Search in Google Scholar

[12] Y.-C. Chang, T.-W. Huang, and N.-F. Huang, “A machine learning based smart irrigation system with LoRa P2P networks,” in 2019 20th Asia- Pacific Network Operations and Management Symposium (APNOMS). IEEE, 2019, pp. 1–4. https://doi.org/10.23919/APNOMS.2019.8893034Search in Google Scholar

[13] S. Gutiérrez, I. Martínez, J. Varona, M. Cardona, and R. Espinosa, “Smart mobile LoRa agriculture system based on internet of things,” in 2019 IEEE 39th Central America and Panama Convention (CONCAPAN XXXIX). IEEE, 2019, pp. 1–6. https://doi.org/10.1109/CONCAPANXXXIX47272.2019.8977109Search in Google Scholar

[14] A. Grunwald, M. Schaarschmidt, and C. Westerkamp, “LoRaWAN in a rural context: Use cases and opportunities for agricultural businesses,” in Mobile Communication Technologies and Applications; 24 ITG-Symposium, VDE, 2019, pp. 1–6.Search in Google Scholar

[15] J. D. Adriano, Y. C. Mendes, G. A. Marcondes, V. Furtado, and J. J. Rodrigues, “An IoT sensor mote for precision agriculture with several mac layer protocols support,” in 2018 International Conference on Information and Communication Technology Convergence (ICTC). IEEE, 2018, pp. 684–688.Search in Google Scholar

[16] W. R. Da Silva, L. Oliveira, N. Kumar, R. A. Rabêlo, C. N. Marins, and J. J. Rodrigues, “An internet of things tracking system approach based on LoRa protocol,” in 2018 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM), IEEE, 2018, pp. 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1109/GLOCOM.2018.8647984Search in Google Scholar

[17] I. Buchmann, Batteries in a Portable World: A Handbook on Rechargeable Batteries for Non-engineers. Cadex Electronics Incorporated, 2016. [Online]. Available: https://books.google.com.tr/books?id=Nt2RnQAACAAJSearch in Google Scholar

[18] S. Cheng, B. Li, Z. Yuan, F. Zhang, and J. Liu, “Development of a lifetime prediction model for lithium thionyl chloride batteries based on an accelerated degradation test,” Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 65, pp. 274–279, 2016. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.microrel.2016.07.152Search in Google Scholar

[19] I. Buchmann, Batteries in a portable world: a handbook on rechargeable batteries for non-engineers, 2nd ed. Cadex Electronics Inc, 2001.Search in Google Scholar

[20] R. de Fazio, D. Cafagna, G. Marcuccio, and P. Visconti, “Limitations and characterization of energy storage devices for harvesting applications,” Energies, vol. 13, no. 4, p. 783, 2020. https://doi.org/10.3390/en13040783Search in Google Scholar

[21] F. Pitu and N. C. Gaitan, “Surveillance of SigFox technology integrated with environmental monitoring,” in 2020 International Conference on Development and Application Systems (DAS), IEEE, 2020, pp. 69–72. https://doi.org/10.1109/DAS49615.2020.9108957Search in Google Scholar

[22] N. Naik, “LPWAN technologies for IoT systems: choice between ultra narrow band and spread spectrum,” in 2018 IEEE International Systems Engineering Symposium (ISSE), IEEE, 2018, pp. 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1109/SysEng.2018.8544414Search in Google Scholar

[23] S. Jacob, “Don’t overdesign your battery for IIOT applications,” Tadiran Batteries, White paper, 2019.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo