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An Effective Digital Safeguarding System in University Libraries: A Model Plan

Published Online: 07 Nov 2021
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Received: 15 Aug 2020
Accepted: 24 Aug 2021
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
30 Mar 2017
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The purpose of the study is to present a model plan for developing an effective digital maintenance system with the help of institutional repository software in university library premises. This work is an investigative study of digital maintenance activities for sustainable development of the digital publications and intellectual outputs of universities in Bangladesh. The researchers investigated the university and university website and found that only 11% university libraries were active in preserving their digital resources while 89% of university libraries were either in the dark or less reluctant to adopt the system. Researchers realized that due to lack of proper guidelines and an ideal model plan, most of the university libraries were far behind in adopting a repository system for safeguarding their intellectual outputs. Hence this study describes a model plan for the university libraries of Bangladesh to create a sustainable preservation system easily and effectively. The model plan in this study was based on observation and review of the literature in the concerned field. All university authorities can follow the mentioned model for sustainable maintenance of their intellectual digital assets.

Keywords

Introduction

Bangladesh is one of the countries that is on its way to becoming a developing country in the world. The universities of Bangladesh are mainly categorized into public and private universities. The public universities are funded by the government, whereas private universities are funded by nongovernmental organizations and private bodies. There are also a number of international universities in Bangladesh. These are governed and funded by international bodies. At present, there are 46 public (government), 106 private (nongovernment), and 3 international universities in Bangladesh (UGC, 2020.). All of them have their library services with modern digital library (DL) software facilities. However, experience has shown that the university libraries of Bangladesh tend to place more overt importance on “collections” rather than on services to users; on “administrative procedures”, rather than on ease of use; and on “rules and regulations”, rather than on what users want. Although a number of researches (Hossain & Islam, 2012) were conducted on digital preservation, more attention was paid to the judgment of total library services. The most important problem for scholars and researchers in universities and research organizations of developing countries is the lack of access to the current literature in their subjects. Since important research output is most often published in journals with high subscription fees, collecting the required journals exceeds the capacity of most libraries. Moreover, in developing countries also the research infrastructure and the capacity to absorb scientific and technical knowledge are weak, leading to low levels of scientific output and further underdevelopment (Islam & Akter, 2013; Okerson, 2004). In the past decade a great number of DL and Digital Repository (DR) systems have been developed and published as open-source software. The variety of available software systems becomes a headache when an organization plans to build a repository infrastructure to host its collections (Pyrounakis, Nikolaidou, & Hatzopoulos, 2014).

As it is clear that the usage and present scenario of digital preservation through the Institutional Repository software in public and private university libraries of Bangladesh is not at a satisfactory level to meet the present demands of researchers, an attempt has been made to propose a fundamental model plan for establishing an effective Institutional Repositories (IR) system in the university libraries of Bangladesh. The model will help those libraries using IR and also other university libraries that are planning and interested to establish the DL Software for building an Institutional Repository. The prime objective of the library of a higher educational institution is to fulfill the needs and demands of the students, faculty, and research fellows. Most of the public and private university libraries of Bangladesh contribute tremendously by preserving the digital publications to ensure open access to the institutional repository. A good number of faculty members, research scholars, and students are encompassed in teaching and research activities, and they need immense information and resources related to their research areas. Information seekers depend on university libraries for their required research and advance searching.

Objectives of the Study

This study is designed and carried out with a view to propose a model plan for sustainable digital preservation system in the university libraries of Bangladesh. More specifically:

To present a model plan of DR and

Put forward some recommendations that would be more effective for using the Digital Library System (DLS) as IR for the university libraries of Bangladesh.

Literature Review

The first Open Access (OA) movement in Bangladesh started from icddr,b by making publicly available icddr,b Journal of Diarrhoeal Disease Research (JDDR) in 1997, later the Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition (JHPN) in 2000, and then building an IR in 2005 (Uddin, K. & Hossain, 2014). Mostofa, Begum and Mezbah-ul-Islam (2015) discussed the roles of IR in enhancing higher education and scholarly communication in Bangladesh. Tabassum, Roknuzzaman, and Islam (2015) explored the factors that influenced usage of digital libraries based on a case study of East West University Digital Library (EWUDL) in Bangladesh. Chowdhury et al. (2011) particularly focused on the development of IR using DSpace software in Bangladesh, provided a review of the current situation, and examined the prospects of IR. Islam and Akter (2013) focused on the different aspects of OA in developing countries and on the OA status in Bangladesh. The greatest challenge toward digitization programs in Bangladesh is the continuing cost of assembling content and providing access to users in the country (Alam, 2012). Ahmed et al. (2014) mentioned the theses and dissertations to be included in the institutional repository. Hossain and Islam (2012) discussed the use of the institutional repository software, but attention was paid to the judgment of the total library services. Ahmed and Shoeb (2009) described the functionality of the institutional repository of DSpace and Greenstone. Although it is difficult to determine which one is the best, DSpace can be used in university libraries. Some research mentioned that theses and dissertations should be included in the institutional repository. They suggested that digital publications should be included in the IR. Choosing among the variety of available software systems becomes a huge task when an organization plans to build a repository infrastructure to host its collections (Pyrounakis, Nikolaidou, & Hatzopoulos, 2014). However, the success of IR is dependent on the contribution of researchers and faculty members (Alemayehu, 2010). Kumar (2009) stated that most institutes adopt the open-source IR software for creating/developing their own repositories. Bankier and Gleason (2014) compared the five most widely adopted IR platforms: Digital Commons, DSpace, Eprints, Fedora, and Islandora. Another comparison studied by Castagné (2013) reported an environmental scan of institutional repository software packages and frameworks. DSpace, Eprints, Digital Commons, and Fedora Commons were selected based on their ROAR statistics and overall suitability for a large research library. Dhanavandan and Tamizhchelvan (2014) discussed about the recent trends and growth of IR in south Asian countries. They found that five countries, India (62, 82.67%), Bangladesh (7, 9.33%), Pakistan (3, 4.00%), Sri Lanka (2, 2.67%), and Nepal (1, 1.33%), have developed IR. Pyrounakis et al. (2014) discussed five widely used IR, namely, DSpace, Fedora, Greenstone, EPrint, and Invenio and proposed suitable software for the scholarly publication. Alemay (2010) described that IR is considered one of the disseminating and preserving methods of digital publication of the institution. Jose (2007) tried to identify the worldwide extent of adoption of open-source DL software packages in various organizations through an online survey. Jain, Bentley, and Oladiran (2010) discussed the benefits and obstacles of setting up an IR, and librarians’ and authorities’ roles in the successful management of an IR. This is a clear indication that the movement of the green road to open access through institutional repository in the Asian region is in the age of infancy (Nazim & Mukherjee, 2011).

Materials and Methods
Population and Sampling

To examine the study and to get the concept of DL, Digital Preservation and IR literatures on digital preservation, DL, and institutional repository from the national and international arena were reviewed. Additionally, to catch the existing scenario of digital preservation in higher educational institutions of Bangladesh, an overview has been carried out in all the public and private university libraries of Bangladesh. As a result, we found that some leading university libraries were using the Open-Source Digital Library Software (OSDLS) for building IR, while most of the university libraries were not using the Institutional Repository for digital preservation. Finally, a survey was carried out in the 17 university libraries of Bangladesh (7 public (Table 1), 10 private university libraries (Table 2)), which are conducting their digital preservation activities entirely through the institutional repository software. Based on the survey, observation, and literature study the researchers made a model plan for successful implementation of IR in university libraries commonly.

Public University Library Repository and Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

S. NoLibrary nameIR nameURL
1Bangladesh Agricultural University LibraryDSpacehttp://dspace.bau.edu.bd/
2Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology LibraryDSpacehttp://lib.buet.ac.bd:8080/xmlui/
3Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University LibraryDSpacehttp://101.2.160.165:8080/
4Khulna University of Engineering and Technology LibraryDSpacehttp://library.kuet.ac.bd:8001/jspui/
5Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University LibraryCustomized/DSpacehttp://www.saulibrary.edu.bd/daatj/public/index.php
6University of Dhaka Central LibraryDSpacehttp://repository.library.du.ac.bd/xmlui
7University of Rajshahi Central LibraryDSpacehttp://repository.ubn.ru.nl/

IR, Institutional Repositories.

Private University Library Repository and Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

S. NoLibrary nameIR nameURL
1Ayesha Abed Library, BRAC UniversityDSpacehttp://dspace.bracu.ac.bd/oai/request
2Daffodil International University LibraryDSpacehttp://dspace.daffodilvarsity.edu.bd:8080/
3Eastern University LibraryDSpace, Greenstonehttp://dspace.easternuni.edu.bd:8080/xmlui/http://gsdl.easternuni.edu.bd/greenstone/cgi-bin/library.cgi
4East West University LibraryDSpace, Greenstonehttp://dspace.diu.ac.bd/oai/requesthttp://gsdl.ewubd.edu/greenstone/cgi-bin/linux/library.cgi
5International Islamic University Chittagong LibraryDSpacehttps://dspace.iiuc.ac.bd/xmlui/
6Independent University Bangladesh LibraryDSpacehttp://www.dir.iub.edu.bd:8180/
7North South University LibraryDSpacehttp://dspace.2283337.n4.nabble.com
8Northern University Bangladesh LibraryDSpacehttp://202.74.245.22:8080/xmlui/
9Premier University Chittagong LibraryDSpacehttp://101.2.163.148:8080/xmlui/
10Stamford University LibraryDSpacehttp://182.160.110.28:8080/jspui/

IR, Institutional Repositories.

Statement of the Problem

Most of the university libraries of Bangladesh have not been yet used DLS for building Institutional Repository; there are even some libraries that are unaware about it. OSDLS as IR system has created opportunities for the universities of Bangladesh whose library budgets are comparatively less and who cannot afford to purchase, maintain, and upgrade proprietary IRS. The OSDLS is more cost-effective than the proprietary Integrated Library Systems (ILS). University libraries internationally tend to move toward the adoption of OSDLS for safeguarding the institutional publications. Although the experience of library professionals on the repository software has concerns with the installation process, they are modestly more satisfied than users of proprietary ILS. From the literature review, it is found that there are some studies conducted on the practical experience in implementation of the specific Open-Source Software (OSS) as Institutional Repository, comparative analysis of different IRs packages, library professionals’ perception, and satisfaction with the various or particular aspect of IRs worldwide. However, comparatively less initiative has been taken to present the overall condition of IR and to present any model plan for implementing IR in other university libraries. In Bangladesh, very few studies have been conducted on describing the practical experience of implementation of DSpace, and usability of the DSpace interface, but no effort has been made to study the overall status of building institutional repository, factors, and challenges for the adoption of IRS in higher educational institutions, especially in the university libraries. Most of the university libraries are not yet using repositories due to lack of clear guidelines and a model. A model is needed for them and for the convenience of library professionals. The proposed model plan will play an effective role in filling that gap. So, it is expected to determine the extent that application of the DL Software in university libraries will have, for building awareness among library professionals, users, and university authorities regarding the preservation and distribution through IR. It is also needed to describe the challenges, probable benefits, and actual remedies for the adoption of IRS to enhance the extent of implementation and use of IRS in universities.

Model Plan
Characteristics of the Model Plan

University libraries try to provide information according to the users’ interests. The performance of the respective university libraries depends on the satisfaction level of the faculty members, researchers, and students. To meet up the maximum demands of the users regarding repository services the library should ensure an effective IR policy and present an ideal IR model. It is necessary to build a system that can meet the information needs and expectations of the researchers and advanced level students. The model plan has the following characteristics:

It has been proposed based on the economic condition of Bangladesh;

The plan includes all the necessary elements that should be inserted in the repository system;

The model plan has been proposed to set up a modern IR system by ensuring all modern tools and technological advancements;

The plan has been proposed to set a DR system suitable and affordable for all university libraries of Bangladesh.

Objectives of the Model Plan

The ultimate goals of the proposed model are to preserve all university publications and intellectual outputs digitally and to establish a useful IR system to meet up the needs and demands of the faculty members, research fellows, and advanced level students of universities of Bangladesh. However, based on the survey result, the following objectives were selected for the proposed model plan:

Develop a comprehensive mechanism to get access in institutional repository swiftly;

Establish an effective information dissemination system in university libraries of Bangladesh;

Help the faculty and other researchers for teaching and research activities;

Develop and increase the users’ satisfaction level;

Ensure digital preservation of university research outputs;

Ensure open access to the university resources;

Propose guidelines for designing a very effective IR system for higher educational institutions;

Propose a standard model for establishing an IR system in university libraries;

Indicate and give the right directions for implanting the IR system in a cost-effective way.

Probable Benefit

Probable benefits of the model plan will be as follows:

Effective IR system of the university libraries for long-time preservation;

All kinds of institutional publications and intellectual research outputs will be properly preserved;

Better management and maximum accessibility to the institutional resources will be ensured;

Appropriate utilization of the institutional publications and research outputs on digital format adopting modern IR systems;

Development of DLS for preserving the valuable publications of respected higher educational institutions.

Functions of the Model Plan

Bearing in mind the current position of university libraries of Bangladesh, the following tasks and actions were selected for the proposed model plan:

Collecting and preserving the university resources with the help of modern IR tools and techniques;

Introducing with new facilities and enhancing the effectiveness of the IR facilities.

Making a standard format for IR system;

Groundwork of development stages to implement the DL management system in the university libraries of Bangladesh.

Scope of the Model Plan

The model plan comprises all the key components required for development of an Institutional Repository system in university libraries. Therefore, it makes provisions not only for ensuring the effective guidelines for the university publications policymakers from the university authority to collect, preserve, and disseminate the university publications but also the University Grant Commission (UGC) will find a helpful direction to monitor the university publications. The areas that have been covered by the plan are the necessity for standard DL services through the university libraries; providing efficient services to the faculty members, researchers, and research students and bringing digital collection to the remote users; introduction of Institutional Repository and development strategies; and proposing standards for the university repository growth and development.

Strategy of the Model Plan

This model plan has been suggested in the perspective of the socio-economic condition of Bangladesh and has been prepared with detailed attention and review of the university library atmosphere, including university vision, mission, objectives, repository users, annual budget, library staffs, repository collection, users’ satisfaction, deposit tendency of faculty, university act, UGC regulation, library standard, information needs and demand, and impact of repository collections.

Possible Barriers of the Model Plan

Bearing in mind the present university library status in Bangladesh and reviewing the significant literature, the following barriers may be faced by the suggested model plan:

Unwillingness of the university authority to build IR;

Copyright permission for digital preservation of the university publications;

Inadequate financial support;

Absence of national and university repository policy/standard;

Lack of skilled and trained professionals;

Absence of appropriate library standard;

Lacking of infrastructural and technological facilities;

Absence of cooperation for founding consortium and networking from participating university libraries;

Reluctance to register in OpenDOAR.

Components of the Model Plan

The following necessary components were recognized for establishing the repository system in public and private university libraries and distributed commonly for setting an Institutional Repository platform:

An OSDLS

DSpace Institutional Repository Software

Repository administrator

Skilled IR professional

Item collections, such as thesis, dissertation, article, report, and presentation

Structural development of the repository software

Operational activities

Target

OpenDOAR/DL Consortium

Library IR branch

Monitoring by UGC wing

In view of the earlier discussion, and based on the previous theoretical literature review, a conceptual model of institutional repository for university libraries of Bangladesh is proposed in Figures 1 and 2, respectively.

Figure 1

Proposed model of IR system for university library.

Figure 2

Proposed user's satisfaction model.

Open-Source Digital Library System (OSDLS)

There are many alternatives for choosing the repository software nowadays. The university authority should select an ideal DLS for IR purposes. Like many of the DL projects, the university libraries should use OSS as its repository. The main advantage of OSS is that it provides tractability for homegrown customization and attractive module enhancements. Many universities have the limitation to build IR for the financial condition. Cost-saving software can be the ideal solution in this field.

DSpace Institutional Repository Software

IR ensures the long-time preservation of the institutional publications. Publicly accessible, standard, provision for searching and retrieving the desired documents should be included in the repository software. Considering the observational experience and reviewing the related literature DSpace has been proposed for the university libraries of Bangladesh as well as considering the following standards:

provide network access and user and repository administrator friendly interface;

easy functions;

support multimedia content;

allow users to search the text of all documents in different ways.

Repository Administrator

For supervising and maintaining the repository work, responsible personnel have been proposed in the model, who will be called the repository administrator.

Skilled IR Professional

To operate and coordinate all repository activities, a skilled IR professional should be responsible in the IR section of the library premises.

Items Should Be Collected

IR should have to create in each library for collecting, preserving, and showcasing intellectual research items produced by faculty members, researchers, and students of the university. Furthermore, administrative documents, reading materials, important presentations, valuable images, teaching materials, curricula, and prospectuses can be preserved in the institutional repository. To maintain the standard the following items should be preserved in the repository:

PhD thesis

MPhil thesis

Dissertation

MS thesis

Journal article

Research work

Clinical and productive report

All important university publications

Structural Development Competition

To operate the repository software and to search and find the collection easily and smoothly, it should be uploaded properly and effortlessly. The collection should be categorized under the following structure:

Community: all collections should be categorized broadly and primarily in community basis. Every faculty will be included in the community.

Sub community: Every community will consist of some sub-communities.

Department and subject: Department and subject-wise collecting will be preserved in the community and subcommunity.

Mention the number of copies: Community or all subject basis collection should be mentioned with the amount of copy.

Multiple search: searching option should be multiple like author, title, subject, year, etc.

Format: format should be pdf, MS word, html, jpeg, image, audio, video, etc.

There should be login option for categorical users.

Operational Activities

The following options should remain in operational activities:

IR policy: The university authority will make an IR policy. The following policy issues should be included during the early stage of planning of IR:

All IR collection totally open and accessible to all. If a faculty member wishes to restrict access to the document, it will not be accepted or will be accepted with some restriction.

Researchers will submit the hard copy of the paper giving permission to preserve it for users and the repository administrator will take the initiative.

Uninterrupted power supply: The authority will ensure the repository collection publicly accessible always. The users can be frustrated in getting his/her desired documents due to uninterrupted power supply.

Active server: Most of the time the documents can be missed if the server is not active properly. So the authority should make sure that the server is always active.

Regular collection: Authority will make sure of regular basis collection.

Continuous upload and update: The university collections will be collected on a regular basis and all collection will be uploaded and updated continuously.

Target

The following options will be targeted for this model plan:

Ensure open access: One of the prime objectives of maintaining the repository is to ensure open access to university publications and intellectual writings. For society, it provides access to the world's research and activities.

Open data: People have the right to get right information in the right time. To ensure this theme the institutional repository can be a good media. Higher educational institutions can take necessary steps to ensure open access to its scholarly publications. All faculty members, students, and researchers of institutions should stand to preserve publications and make it freely accessible to all through IR.

Open research: For society, it provides access to the world's research and ensures the long-term preservation of the research publications.

Intellectual property right: Some of researchers are unaware of submitting their works in the Repository. They have misunderstandings about open access. Actually, it is their misapprehension. They do not know that OA ensures their work originality. It protects work from being plagiarized. The IR administrator should make them understand.

Remote access: The institutional repository acts as a central archive for the university works, representing an outlook that provides a complete list of their research over the years.

Increasing the impact: Because it is open access, it increases the dissemination and impact of the work of higher educational institutions. For institutions, IR acts to preserve the university resources. It increases the visibility and prestige, and can act as an advertisement for funding sources and industrial sponsors.

Ensure digital preservation: It ensures a means for institutions to create archives and make available their wealth of knowledge. It allows researchers to self-archive their own material and ensure the long-term preservation of their research items through digital preservation.

IR Section

University authority will create an IR section to ensure the total repository functions in the library atmosphere.

Monitoring by UGC Wing

The aim and role of UGC in higher education is to coordinate, determine, and maintain the ethics in higher educational institutions. The commission maintains the interpretation among the universities, government, and the communities. UGC has also set some standards for the universities for being standard university. With the growth of higher educational institutions in Bangladesh, many top, medium, and small universities are being established day by day. For ensuring that higher education universities maintain the standard level, UGC can play a significant role to keep the repository standard at the university level. Universities can be asked for accountability of their digital preservation activities or OA movement.

They perform their role observing the following activities:

UGC can make a separate wing which will monitor the preservation activities of university publications through repository software;

UGC may be the right body to ensure OA. UGC authority can make a committee to observe the open access movement by the respective universities;

They should give directions to the university authority and observe the condition occasionally;

Make a repository standard for university;

They can ask for an annual report from the university authority about repository development of the respective university.

User Satisfaction

Users’ expectations are formed on the basis of adequate resources, services, and facilities. Quality library resources, services, and facilities can meet the expectations of the users. To meet up the needs and demands of the university faculty member, researchers, research fellow, students, and remote users, the plan should be flexible and easy to access following the purpose, media, and target.

Purpose:

to develop the research activities;

to help teaching related education for faculty members;

to acquire research knowledge related to his/her study;

to preserve the university publications and intellectual outputs of the researchers for a long time.

Media:

adequate repository collection,

qualitative resource

library facilities

remote access

Target:

The target is to meet the users’ demand, so that the satisfaction level of the users will be high and reaches the standard level.

Model Validation

A model is an explanation of reality, and there is tradeoff between difficulty and usability. Model validation is a method designed to ascertain the restrictions of a model and help accomplish the connected threats. An effective model includes probable benefits as well as plausible barriers. There are some steps to validate the effectiveness of model such as usefulness of the model, review of data, assumptions and methodologies, model performance, outcome analysis, and validation report. Reflecting these steps the prescribed model plan highlights the characteristics, objectives, probable benefits, functions, scope, strategy, possible barriers, components, and suggestions briefly, which examines the effectiveness of the model and proves to be an effective model for the university libraries to implement the IR system.

Conclusion

The success in implementation of a model plan depends mainly on the methodical approach, economical competency, and administrative provision from the concerned authority. As libraries work to define their role in the constantly changing university environment, focusing on how research and scholarship is disseminated will provide unique and important opportunities. Libraries are well suited to support these efforts on both an individual researcher and university-wide basis. However, as new tools and services develop, it will be important for library staff to focus on providing qualitative repository services while also meeting the individualized needs. The models described in this paper will serve as a valuable starting place for libraries wishing to accomplish these goals (Armstrong, 2014). Users are the main focus of the library. The effectiveness and efficiency of the library totally depends on the satisfaction of the users (Islam, 2014). Both public and private university libraries of Bangladesh are trying to meet the research needs and satisfaction of the users. In this regard, an organized system is very necessary, especially in the repository scheme. University authorities can follow the model for establishing an Institutional Repository. It may be concluded that this is an effort to present a model plan or study on the use of institutional repository in university libraries that can be followed by all university libraries.

Figure 1

Proposed model of IR system for university library.
Proposed model of IR system for university library.

Figure 2

Proposed user's satisfaction model.
Proposed user's satisfaction model.

Public University Library Repository and Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

S. NoLibrary nameIR nameURL
1Bangladesh Agricultural University LibraryDSpacehttp://dspace.bau.edu.bd/
2Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology LibraryDSpacehttp://lib.buet.ac.bd:8080/xmlui/
3Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sciences University LibraryDSpacehttp://101.2.160.165:8080/
4Khulna University of Engineering and Technology LibraryDSpacehttp://library.kuet.ac.bd:8001/jspui/
5Sher-e-Bangla Agricultural University LibraryCustomized/DSpacehttp://www.saulibrary.edu.bd/daatj/public/index.php
6University of Dhaka Central LibraryDSpacehttp://repository.library.du.ac.bd/xmlui
7University of Rajshahi Central LibraryDSpacehttp://repository.ubn.ru.nl/

Private University Library Repository and Uniform Resource Locator (URL)

S. NoLibrary nameIR nameURL
1Ayesha Abed Library, BRAC UniversityDSpacehttp://dspace.bracu.ac.bd/oai/request
2Daffodil International University LibraryDSpacehttp://dspace.daffodilvarsity.edu.bd:8080/
3Eastern University LibraryDSpace, Greenstonehttp://dspace.easternuni.edu.bd:8080/xmlui/http://gsdl.easternuni.edu.bd/greenstone/cgi-bin/library.cgi
4East West University LibraryDSpace, Greenstonehttp://dspace.diu.ac.bd/oai/requesthttp://gsdl.ewubd.edu/greenstone/cgi-bin/linux/library.cgi
5International Islamic University Chittagong LibraryDSpacehttps://dspace.iiuc.ac.bd/xmlui/
6Independent University Bangladesh LibraryDSpacehttp://www.dir.iub.edu.bd:8180/
7North South University LibraryDSpacehttp://dspace.2283337.n4.nabble.com
8Northern University Bangladesh LibraryDSpacehttp://202.74.245.22:8080/xmlui/
9Premier University Chittagong LibraryDSpacehttp://101.2.163.148:8080/xmlui/
10Stamford University LibraryDSpacehttp://182.160.110.28:8080/jspui/

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