1. bookVolume 36 (2023): Issue 1 (March 2023)
Journal Details
First Published
30 May 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Open Access

Mephedrone – a synthetic derivative of cathinone

Published Online: 01 May 2023
Volume & Issue: Volume 36 (2023) - Issue 1 (March 2023)
Page range: 54 - 64
Received: 20 Mar 2023
Accepted: 03 Apr 2023
Journal Details
First Published
30 May 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

Al-Hebshi NN, Skaug N. Khat (Catha edulis) – An updated review. Addict Biol. 2005;10(4):299-307. Search in Google Scholar

Abebe M, Kindie S, Adane K. Adverse health effects of khat: a review. Fam Med Med Sci Res. 2015;04(01). Search in Google Scholar

Coppola M, Mondola R. Synthetic cathinones: Chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology of a new class of designer drugs of abuse marketed as “bath salts” or “plant food.” Toxicol Lett. 2012;211(2):144-9. Search in Google Scholar

Kelly JP. Cathinone derivatives: A review of their chemistry, pharmacology and toxicology. Drug Test Anal. 2011;3(7-8):439-53. Search in Google Scholar

Gregg R,. Rawls S M. Behavioral pharmacology of designer cathinones: a review of the preclinical literature. Life Sci. 2014;97(1): 27-30. Search in Google Scholar

Carroll FI, Lewin AH, Mascarella SW, Seltzman HH, Reddy PA. Designer drugs: a medicinal chemistry perspective. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2012;1248(1):18-38. Search in Google Scholar

Kalix P. Cathinone, a Natural Amphetamine. Pharmacol Toxicol. 1992;70(2):77-86. Search in Google Scholar

Al-Habori M. The potential adverse effects of habitual use of Catha edulis (khat). Expert Opin Drug Saf. 2005;4(6):1145-54. Search in Google Scholar

Gunaid AA, Sumairi AA, Shidrawi RG, Al-Hanaki A, Al-Absi S, Al-Hureibi MA, et al. Oesophageal and gastric carcinoma in the Republic of Yemen. Br J Cancer. 1995;71(2):409-10. Search in Google Scholar

El-Setouhy M, Alsanosy R, Alsharqi A, Ismail AA. Khat dependency and psychophysical symptoms among chewers in Jazan Region, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. BioMed Res Int. 2016;2016:2642506. Search in Google Scholar

Bongard S, al’Absi M, Khalil NS, Al Habori M. Khat use and trait anger: effects on affect regulation during an acute stressful challenge. Eur Addict Res. 2011;17:285-91. Search in Google Scholar

Kalakonda B, Al-Maweri SA, Al-Shamiri HM, Ijaz A, Gamal S, Dhaifullah E. Is Khat (Catha edulis) chewing a risk factor for periodontal diseases? A systematic review. J Clin Exp Dent. 2017;9(10):e1264. Search in Google Scholar

EMCDDA. European drug report 2017: trends and developments. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union; 2017. Search in Google Scholar

Peacock A, Bruno R, Gisev N, Degenhardt L, Hall W, Sedefov R, et al. New psychoactive substances: challenges for drug surveillance, control, and public health responses. The Lancet. 394(10209):1668-84. Search in Google Scholar

Schifano F, Albanese A, Fergus S, Stair JL, Deluca P, Corazza O, et al. Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone; ’Meow meow’): Chemical, pharmacological and clinical issues. Psychopharmacol (Berl). 2011;214(3):593-602. Search in Google Scholar

EMCDDA. Europol-EMCDDA joint report on a new psychoactive substance: 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone). Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg; 2010. Search in Google Scholar

EMCDDA. Report on the risk assessment of mephedrone in the framework of the Council Decision on new psychoactive substances. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg; 2011. Search in Google Scholar

de Burnaga Sanchez S. Sur un homologue de l’ephedrine. Bull Soc Chim Fr. 1929;45:284-6. Search in Google Scholar

Brunt TM, Poortman A, Niesink RJM, van den Brink W. Instability of the ecstasy market and a new kid on the block: Mephedrone. J Psychopharmacol. 2011;25(11):1543-7. Search in Google Scholar

van Hout MC, Bingham T. “A Costly Turn On”: Patterns of use and perceived consequences of mephedrone based head shop products amongst Irish injectors. Int J Drug Policy. 2012;23(3):188-97. Search in Google Scholar

Wood DM, Measham F, Dargan PI. “Our favourite drug”: Prevalence of use and preference for mephedrone in the London night-time economy 1 year after control. J Subst Use. 2012;17(2):91-7. Search in Google Scholar

EMCDDA. Perspectives on drugs: Injection of synthetic cathinones. Perspectives on Drugs Series. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg; 2014. Search in Google Scholar

EMCDDA. European drug report 2020: trends and developments. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg; 2020; Search in Google Scholar

Hockenhull J, Murphy K, Lancet SPT. Mephedrone use is increasing in London. The Lancet. 2016;387(10029):1719-20. Search in Google Scholar

Ordak M, Nasierowski T, Muszyńska E. The growing problem of mephedrone use in Warsaw, Poland, 2010-18. The Lancet Psychiatry. 2018;5(10):787. Search in Google Scholar

EMCDDA. Risk assessment report of a new psychoactive substance: 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone)]. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg; 2010. Search in Google Scholar

Martínez-Clemente J, López-Arnau R, Carbó M, Pubill D, Camarasa J, Escubedo E. Mephedrone pharmacokinetics after intravenous and oral administration in rats: Relation to pharmacodynamics. Psychopharmacol (Berl). 2013;229(2):295-306. Search in Google Scholar

Kapitány-Fövény M, Mervõ B, Kertész M, Corazza O, Farkas J, Kökönyei G, et al. Is there any difference in patterns of use and psychiatric symptom status between injectors and non-injectors of mephedrone? Hum Psychopharmacol. 2015;30(4):233-43. Search in Google Scholar

Lõpez-Arnau R, Martínez-Clemente J, Pubill D, Escubedo E, Camarasa J. Comparative neuropharmacology of three psychostimulant cathinone derivatives: Butylone, mephedrone and methylone. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;167(2):407-20. Search in Google Scholar

Šíchová K, Pinterová N, Židková M, Horsley RR, Lhotková E, Štefková K, et al. Mephedrone (4-Methylmethcathinone): Acute behavioral effects, hyperthermic, and pharmacokinetic profile in rats. Front Psychiatry. 2018;8. Search in Google Scholar

Carhart-Harris RL, King LA, Nutt DJ. A web-based survey on mephedrone. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2011;118(1):19-22. Search in Google Scholar

Karila L, Billieux J, Benyamina A, Lanç C, Cottencin O. The effects and risks associated to mephedrone and methylone in humans: a review of the preliminary evidences. Brain Res Bull. 2016;126:61-7. Search in Google Scholar

Green A, King M, Shortall S E, Fone KCF. The preclinical pharmacology of mephedrone; not just MDMA by another name. Br J Pharmacol. 2014;171(9):2251-68. Search in Google Scholar

Papaseit E, Pérez-Mañá C, et al. Human pharmacology of mephedrone in comparison with MDMA. Neuropsychopharmacol. 2016;41(11), 2704-13. Search in Google Scholar

Dybdal-Hargreaves N, Holder N, Ottoson PE, Sweeney MD, Williams T. Mephedrone: Public health risk, mechanisms of action, and behavioral effects. Eur J Pharmacol. 2013;714(1-3):32-40. Search in Google Scholar

COUNCIL DECISION of 2 December 2010 on submitting 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone) to control measures (2010/759/EU). Official Journal of the European Union; 2010. Search in Google Scholar

The law of 10 June 2010 amending the Act on Counteracting Drug Addiction. Polish Internet Database System of Legal Acts.; 2010. Search in Google Scholar

Statutory Instrument 2010 No: 1207, Dangerous Drugs. Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order; 2010. Search in Google Scholar

Baumann M, Ayestas M, Partilla JS, Sink JR, Shugin AT, Daley PF, et al. The designer methcathinone analogs, mephedrone and methylone, are substrates for monoamine transporters in brain tissue. Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012;37(5):1192-203. Search in Google Scholar

Hadlock G, Webb K, et al. Methylmethcathinone (mephedrone): neuropharmacological effects of a designer stimulant of abuse. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2011;339(2):530-6. Search in Google Scholar

Martínez-Clemente J, Escubedo E, Pubill D, Camarasa J. Interaction of mephedrone with dopamine and serotonin targets in rats. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2012;22(3):231-6. Search in Google Scholar

Pifl C, Reither H, Hornykiewicz O. The profile of mephedrone on human monoamine transporters dif fers from 3, 4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine primarily by lower potency at the vesicular. Eur J Pharmacol. 2015;755:119-26. Search in Google Scholar

Shortall SE, Macerola AE, Swaby RTR, Jayson R, Korsah C, Pillidge KE, et al. Behavioural and neurochemical comparison of chronic intermittent cathinone, mephedrone and MDMA administration to the rat. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2013;23(9):1085-95. Search in Google Scholar

Luethi D, Kolaczynska KE, Docci L, Krähenbühl S, Hoener MC, Liechti ME. Pharmacological profile of mephedrone analogs and related new psychoactive substances. Neuropharmacol. 2018;134:4-12. Search in Google Scholar

Eshleman A, Wolfrum K, Hatfield M G, Johnson RA, Murphy K V, Janowsky A. Substituted methcathinones differ in transporter and receptor interactions. Biochem Pharmacol. 2013;85(12):1803-15. Search in Google Scholar

Mayer FP, Wimmer L, Dillon-Carter O, Partilla JS, Burchardt N v., Mihovilovic MD, et al. Phase I metabolites of mephedrone display biological activity as substrates at monoamine transporters. Br J Pharmacol. 2016;173(17):2657-68. Search in Google Scholar

Simmler LD, Buser TA, Donzelli M, Schramm Y, Dieu LH, Huwyler J, et al. Pharmacological characterization of designer cathinones in vitro. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;168(2):458-70. Search in Google Scholar

Rothman RB, Baumann MH, Dersch CM, Romero DV, Rice KC, Carroll FI, et al. Amphetamine‐type central nervous system stimulants release norepinephrine more potently than they release dopamine and serotonin. Synapse. 2001;39:32-41. Search in Google Scholar

Kehr J, Ichinose F, Yoshitake S, Goiny M, Sievertsson T, Nyberg F, et al. Mephedrone, compared with MDMA (ecstasy) and amphetamine, rapidly increases both dopamine and 5‐HT levels in nucleus accumbens of awake rats. Br J Pharmacol. 2011;164(8):1949. Search in Google Scholar

Gołembiowska K, Jurczak A, Kamińska K, Noworyta-Sokołowska K, Górska A. Effect of Some Psychoactive Drugs Used as ‘Legal Highs’ on Brain Neurotransmitters. Neurotox Res. 2016;29(3):394-407. Search in Google Scholar

Motbey CP, Karanges E, Li KM, Wilkinson S, Winstock AR, Ramsay J, et al. Mephedrone in Adolescent Rats: Residual Memory Impairment and Acute but Not Lasting 5-HT Depletion. PLoS One. 2012;7(9). Search in Google Scholar

Aarde SM, Angrish D, Barlow DJ, Wright MJ, Vandewater SA, Creehan KM, et al. Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) supports intravenous self-administration in Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats. Addict Biol. 2013;18(5):786-99. Search in Google Scholar

den Hollander B, Rozov S, Linden AM, Uusi-Oukari M, Ojanperä I, Korpi ER. Long-term cognitive and neurochemical effects of “bath salt” designer drugs methylone and mephedrone. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2013;103(3):501-9. Search in Google Scholar

Martínez-Clemente J, López-Arnau R, Abad S, Pubill D, Escubedo E, Camarasa J. Dose and Time-Dependent Selective Neurotoxicity Induced by Mephedrone in Mice. PLoS One. 2014;9(6):e99002. Search in Google Scholar

Angoa-Pérez M, Kane MJ, Briggs DI, Francescutti DM, Sykes CE, Shah MM, et al. Mephedrone does not damage dopamine nerve endings of the striatum, but enhances the neurotoxicity of methamphetamine, amphetamine, and MDMA. J Neurochem. 2013;125(1):102-10. Search in Google Scholar

Naseri G, Fazel A, Golalipour MJ, Haghir H, Sadeghian H, Mojarrad M, et al. Exposure to mephedrone during gestation increases the risk of stillbirth and induces hippocampal neurotoxicity in mice offspring. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2018;67:10-7. Search in Google Scholar

Simmler LD, Buser TA, Donzelli M, Schramm Y, Dieu LH, Huwyler J, et al. Pharmacological characterization of designer cathinones in vitro. Br J Pharmacol. 2013;168(2):458-70. Search in Google Scholar

Rickli A, Hoener M, Liechti ME. Monoamine transporter and receptor interaction profiles of novel psychoactive substances: para-halogenated amphetamines and pyrovalerone cathinones. Eur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2015;25(3):365-76. Search in Google Scholar

Grochecki P, Smaga I, Marszalek‐Grabska M, Lopatynska-Mazurek M, Slowik T, Gibula-Tarlowska E, et al. Alteration of Ethanol Reward by Prior Mephedrone Exposure: The Role of Age and Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9). Int J Mol Sci. 2022;23(4):2122. Search in Google Scholar

Grochecki P, Smaga I, Wydra K, Marszalek-Grabska M, Slowik T, Kedzierska E, et al.. Impact of Mephedrone on Fear Memory in Adolescent Rats: Involvement of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) Receptor. Int J Mol Sci. 2023;24. Search in Google Scholar

Grochecki P, Smaga I, Lopatynska-Mazurek M, Gibula-Tarlowska E, Kedzierska E, Listos J, et al. Effects of mephedrone and amphetamine exposure during adolescence on spatial memory in adulthood: Behavioral and neurochemical analysis. Int J Mol Sci. 2021:589. Search in Google Scholar

Wronikowska O, Zykubek M, Michalak A, Pankowska A, Kozioł P, Boguszewska-Czubara A, et al. Insight into Glutamatergic Involvement in Rewarding Effects of Mephedrone in Rats: In Vivo and Ex Vivo Study. Mol Neurobiol. 2021;58(9):4413-24. Search in Google Scholar

Naserzadeh P, Taghizadeh G, Atabaki B, Seydi E, Pourahmad A. A comparison of mitochondrial toxicity of mephedrone on three separate parts of brain including hippocampus, cortex and cerebellum. J Neurotoxicology. 2019;73:40-9. Search in Google Scholar

Budzynska B, Boguszewska-Czubara A, Kruk-Slomka M, Kurzepa J, Biala G. Mephedrone and Nicotine: Oxidative Stress and Behavioral Interactions in Animal Models. Neurochem Res. 2015;40(5):1083-93 Search in Google Scholar

Czerwinska J, Parkin MC, George C, Kicman AT, Dargan PI, Abbate V. Pharmacokinetics of Mephedrone and Its Metabolites in Whole Blood and Plasma after Controlled Intranasal Administration to Healthy Human Volunteers. J Anal Toxicol. 2021;45(7):730-8. Search in Google Scholar

Olesti E, Farré M, Carbó M, Papaseit E, Perez-Mañá C, Torrens M, et al. Dose-Response Pharmacological Study of Mephedrone and Its Metabolites: Pharmacokinetics, Serotoninergic Effects, and Impact of CYP2D6 Genetic Variation. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2019;106(3):596-604. Search in Google Scholar

Pedersen AJ, Reitzel LA, Johansen SS, Linnet K. In vitro metabolism studies on mephedrone and analysis of forensic cases. Drug Test Anal. 2013;5(6):430-8. Search in Google Scholar

Abdulrahim D, Bowden-Jones O. Guidance on the clinical management of acute and chronic harms of club drugs and novel psychoactive substances. London: Neptune; 2015. Search in Google Scholar

Olesti E, Farré M, Papaseit E, Krotonoulas A, Pujadas M, de la Torre R, et al. Pharmacokinetics of Mephedrone and Its Metabolites in Human by LC-MS/MS. AAPS J. 2017;19(6):1767-78. Search in Google Scholar

Winstock AR, Mitcheson LR, Deluca P, Davey Z, Corazza O, Schifano F. Mephedrone, new kid for the chop? Addiction. 2011;106(1):154-61. Search in Google Scholar

Jones L, Reed P, Parrott A. Mephedrone and 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine: Comparative psychobiological effects as reported by recreational polydrug users. 2016;30(12):1313-20. Search in Google Scholar

Claire Van Hout M, Brennan R. “Bump and grind”: An exploratory study of Mephedrone users’ perceptions of sexuality and sexual risk. Drugs Alcohol Today. 2011;11(2):93-103. Search in Google Scholar

Peyriére H, Jacquet JM, Eiden C, Tuaillon E, Psomas C, Reynes J. Viral and bacterial risks associated with mephedrone abuse in HIV-infected men who have sex with men. AIDS. 2013;27(18):2971-2. Search in Google Scholar

Winstock A, Mitcheson L, Ramsey J, Davies S, Puchnarewicz M, Marsden J. Mephedrone: use, subjective effects and health risks. Addiction. 2011;106(11):1991-6. Search in Google Scholar

German CL, Fleckenstein AE, Hanson GR. Bath salts and synthetic cathinones: An emerging designer drug phenomenon. Life Sci. 2014 Feb 27;97(1):2-8. Search in Google Scholar

Wood DM, Davies S, Greene SL, Button J, Holt DW, Ramsey J, et al. Case series of individuals with analytically confirmed acute mephedrone toxicity. Clin Toxicol (Phila). 2010;48(9):924-7. Search in Google Scholar

de Sousa Fernandes Perna EB, Papaseit E, Pérez-Mañá C, Mateus J, Theunissen EL, Kuypers KPC, et al. Neurocognitive performance following acute mephedrone administration, with and without alcohol. J Psychopharmacol. 2016;30(12):1305-12. Search in Google Scholar

Papaseit E, Olesti E, Pérez-Mañá C, Torrens M, Fonseca F, Grifell M, et al. Acute pharmacological effects of oral and intranasal mephedrone: an observational study in humans. Pharmaceuticals. 2021;14(2):100. Search in Google Scholar

Wong ML, Holt RI. The potential dangers of mephedrone in people with diabetes: a case report. Drug Test Anal. 2011;3(7-8):464-5. Search in Google Scholar

Hope VD, Cullen KJ, Smith J, Jessop L, Parry J, Ncube F. Is the recent emergence of mephedrone injecting in the United Kingdom associated with elevated risk behaviours and blood borne virus infection? Eurosurveillance. 2016;21(19):30225. Search in Google Scholar

Garrett G, Sweeney M. The serotonin syndrome as a result of mephedrone toxicity. BMJ Case Rep. 2010;20:bcr0420102925. Search in Google Scholar

Busardò FP, Kyriakou C, Napoletano S, Marinelli E, Zaami S, Marinelli E. Mephedrone related fatalities: a review. Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci. 2015;19(19):3777-3790. Search in Google Scholar

Troya J, Martínez de Gándara A, Ryan P, Cuevas G, Pardo V. Mephedrone and chemsex: when it stops being a party and becomes a fatal problem. Int J STD AIDS. 2019;30(10):1028-30. Search in Google Scholar

Barwina M, Zajac M, Lango R, Betlejewski P, Waldman W, Anand JS. Acute aortic dissection due to intoxication with mephedrone – a case report. Pol J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2012;9(3):378-82. Search in Google Scholar

Lusthof KJ, Oosting R, Maes A, Verschraagen M, Dijkhuizen A, Sprong AGA. A case of extreme agitation and death after the use of mephedrone in The Netherlands. Forensic Sci Int. 2011;206(1-3):e93-5. Search in Google Scholar

Schifano F, Corkery J, Ghodse AH. Suspected and confirmed fatalities associated with mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone, “meow meow”) in the United Kingdom. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2012;32(5):710-4. Search in Google Scholar

Dickson AJ, Vorce SP, Levine B, Past MR. Multiple-drug toxicity caused by the coadministration of 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone) and heroin. J Anal Toxicol. 2010;34(3):162-8. Search in Google Scholar

Loi B, Corkery JM, Claridge H, Goodair C, Chiappini S, Gimeno Clemente C, et al. Deaths of individuals aged 16–24 years in the UK after using mephedrone. Hum Psychopharmacol Clin Exp. 2015;30(4):225-32. Search in Google Scholar

Ordak M, Nasierowski T, Muszynska E, Bujalska-Zadrozny M. The Psychiatric Characteristics of People on a Mephedrone (“bath salts”) Binge. Subst Use Misuse. 2020;55(10):1610-7. Search in Google Scholar

Dargan PI, Albert S, Wood DM. Mephedrone use and associated adverse effects in school and college/university students before the UK legislation change. QJM: Int J Med. 2010;103(11):875-9. Search in Google Scholar

Dolengevich-Segal H, Rodríguez-Salgado B, Gómez-Arnau J, Sánchez-Mateos D. Severe Psychosis, Drug Dependence, and Hepatitis C Related to Slamming Mephedrone. Case Rep Psychiatry. 2016;2016:1-5. Search in Google Scholar

Papaseit E, Pérez-Mañá C, de Sousa Fernandes Perna EB, Olesti E, Mateus J, Kuypers KPC, et al. Mephedrone and alcohol interactions in humans. Front Pharmacol. 2020;10:1588. Search in Google Scholar

Vardakou I, Pistos C, Spiliopoulou C. Drugs for youth via Internet and the example of mephedrone. Toxicol Lett. 2011;201(3):191-5. Search in Google Scholar

Farré M, Perez-Maña C, Souza E de, Mateus J, Theunisen E, Kuypers K, et al. Interactions between mephedrone and alcohol in humans: Cardiovascular and subjective effects. Eur Psychiatry. 2016;33(S1):S115-S115. Search in Google Scholar

O’Neill C, Elrath KM. Simultaneous use of Mephedrone and Alcohol: A Qualitative Study of Users’ Experiences. J Addict Res Ther. 2013;4(2):2-6. Search in Google Scholar

Budzynska B, Michalak A, Frankowska M, Kaszubska K, Biała G. Acute behavioral effects of co-administration of mephedrone and MDMA in mice. Pharmacol Rep. 2017;69(2):199-205. Search in Google Scholar

Berquist MD, Peet MM, Baker LE. Behavioral sensitization following concurrent exposure to mephedrone and D-amphetamine in female mice. Behav Pharmacol. 2015;26(1-2):180-3. Search in Google Scholar

Contrucci RR, Brunt TM, Inan F, Franssen EJF, Hondebrink L. Synthetic Cathinones and Their Potential Interactions with Prescription Drugs. Ther Drug Monit. 2020,42(1):75-82. Search in Google Scholar

Shalaby AR. Significance of biogenic amines to food safety and human health. Food Res Int. 1996;29(7):675-90. Search in Google Scholar

Finberg JPM. Update on the pharmacology of selective inhibitors of MAO-A and MAO-B: focus on modulation of CNS monoamine neurotransmitter release. Pharmacol Ther. 2014;143(2):133-52. Search in Google Scholar

Angoa-Pérez M, Kane MJ, Francescutti DM, Sykes KE, Shah MM, Mohammed AM, et al. Mephedrone, an abused psychoactive component of ‘bath salts’ and methamphetamine congener, does not cause neurotoxicity to dopamine nerve endings of the striatum. J Neurochem. 2012;120(6):1097-107. Search in Google Scholar

Motbey CP, Hunt GE, Bowen MT, Artiss S, McGregor IS. Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone, ‘meow’): acute behavioural effects and distribution of Fos expression in adolescent rats. Addict Biology. 2012;17(2):409-22. Search in Google Scholar

Lisek R, Xu W, Yuvasheva E, Chiu YT, Reitz AB, Liu-Chen LY, et al. Mephedrone ('bath salt’) elicits conditioned place preference and dopamine-sensitive motor activation. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2012;126(1-2):257-62. Search in Google Scholar

Wright MJ, Vandewater SA, Angrish D, Dickerson TJ, Taffe MA. Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) and d-methamphetamine improve visuospatial associative memory, but not spatial working memory, in rhesus macaques. Br J Pharmacol. 2012;167(6):1342-52. Search in Google Scholar

Marusich JA, Grant KR, Blough BE, Wiley JL. Effects of synthetic cathinones contained in “bath salts” on motor behavior and a functional observational battery in mice. Neurotoxicology. 2012;33(5):1305-13. Search in Google Scholar

Gregg RA, Tallarida CS, Reitz A, McCurdy C, Rawls SM. Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone), a principal constituent of psychoactive bath salts, produces behavioral sensitization in rats. Drug Alcohol Depend. 2013;133(2):746-50. Search in Google Scholar

Ramoz L, Lodi S, Bhatt P, Reitz AB, Tallarida C, Tallarida RJ, et al. Mephedrone (“bath salt”) pharmacology: insights from invertebrates. Neurosci. 2012;208:79-84. Search in Google Scholar

Robinson JE, Agoglia AE, Fish EW, Krouse MC, Malanga CJ. Mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) and intracranial self-stimulation in C57BL/6J mice: Comparison to cocaine. Behav Brain Res. 2012;234(1):76-81. Search in Google Scholar

Motbey CP, Clemens KJ, Apetz N, Winstock AR, Ramsey J, Li KM, et al. High levels of intravenous mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) self-administration in rats: Neural consequences and comparison with methamphetamine. J Psychopharmacol. 2013;27(9):823-36. Search in Google Scholar

Gatch MB, Taylor CM, Forster MJ. Locomotor stimulant and discriminative stimulus effects of “bath salt” cathinones. Behav Pharmacol. 2013;24(5-6):437-47. Search in Google Scholar

Serefko A, Bielecka-Papierz G, Talarek S, Szopa A, Skałecki P, Szewczyk B, et al. Central Effects of the Designer Drug Mephedrone in Mice – Basic Studies. Brain Sci. 2022;12(2):189. Search in Google Scholar

Nguyen JD, Grant Y, Creehan KM, Vandewater SA, Taffe MA. Escalation of intravenous self-administration of methylone and mephedrone under extended access conditions. Addict Biol. 2017;22(5):1160-8. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD