1. bookVolume 48 (2020): Issue 48 (June 2020)
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access type Open Access

The impact of globalisation on regional identity: the example of Silesian identity

Published Online: 23 Jun 2020
Page range: 83 - 111
Received: 21 Jan 2020
Accepted: 29 May 2020
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
22 Dec 2008
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Regional identity is a significant element of contemporary scientific discourse. It is justified in the era of progressing globalisation, which, by unifying traditional cultural patterns, forces regional communities to redefine their traditional values. Today, the Silesian identity is subject to such transformations. The distinctiveness thereof was shaped by many political, social and economic factors. Contemporarily, globalisation is a factor in socio-cultural transformations. The essence of the study of Silesian identity in the face of globalisation is to indicate the most important changes thereof reflected in the perception of the inhabitants of Katowice. The research goal is to analyse changes in the perception of globalisation and modern attitudes towards Silesian values (work and family).

Keywords

Introduction

Regional identity is an important element of contemporary scientific discourse. It plays an increasingly important role in the study of numerous sciences, particularly social, geographical, economic and political ones. This is fully justified in the era of progressing globalisation which, by reorganising the economic, social and political space, causes broader transformations in all spheres of human activity, and at the same time affects global connections (Scholte, 2006; Hirst and Thompson, 1999; McLuhan, 1964; Harvey, 1989; Harris, 1995; Pietras, 2002).

Globalisation, by unifying traditional cultural patterns, forces regional communities to redefine the traditional values that determine their socio-cultural profile. The homogenised social space in which a regional community operates becomes a place of cultural exchange and migration. Multi-culturalism shaping an individual constantly affects his/her identity, which changes the transmission of cultural patterns and elements of the cultural heritage of a region (Beck, 2000; Albrow, 1996).

In the face of globalisation, regional identity is undergoing transformations that are aimed at cultural unification. However, traditional and regional values can be strengthened. In this way, a community emphasises its individuality. Intermediary phases are possible, namely the mixing of cultures – global and regional – as well as revitalisation (Wnuk-Lipiński, 2004; Robertson, 1992; Szajnowska-Wysocka and Sitek, 2015; Sitek, 2016).

The Silesian identity, presented as the most distinct of regional identities in Poland, is currently undergoing the aforementioned transformations. The socio-cultural separateness of Silesia was conditioned by geographical factors (the presence of natural resources, the fact of being a borderline region, territorial isolationism) and socio-national factors (social isolationism, religion, habitual bond), which can be treated as causative (Swadźba, 2001).

These factors led to the formation of values specific to this region: work and family (Bukowska-Floreńska, 2007; Swadźba, 2012; Świątkiewicz, 1997), through which Silesian identity is described and defined. However, these values were subject to strong transformations, each time associated with a change in the cultural system under the influence of political, economic and social factors.

The key to shaping Silesian identity was intensive industrialisation, which generated jobs in the mining and heavy industries. It was associated with a strong influx of people, which caused cultural diffusion and led to the autonomy of indigenous people being emphasised.

Contemporarily, globalisation is a factor in socio-cultural transformations. The manifestations of globalisation are evident in changing attitudes towards the basic values of Silesian identity (work, family).

The essence of the study of Silesian identity in the face of globalisation is to indicate the most important changes therein, as reflected in the perception of the inhabitants of Katowice. Therefore, the research goals in this study are the following:

analysis of changes in the perception of the Silesian identity studied in the light of:

perception of globalisation,

perception of Silesian values: work, family;

comparison of the perception of the Silesian identity and the transformations therein according to the origin of the inhabitants of Katowice.

The realisation of the descriptive goal reveals potential applications, which are formulated as individual references for regional policy.

The selection of the research area limited the cities and towns of the Silesian region to those where one could find modern attitudes forming among the inhabitants. In such an area, the traditional Silesian values are interacting with progressing globalisation. In the aftermath, the functional and spatial structure of a city/town changes, with a tendency to form a global (world) city/town (Szymańska, 2007).

It exhibits characteristic features (Jałowiecki and Szczepański, 2002; Maik, 2003; Parysek, 2003; Szymańska, 2007, 2009).

The selected research area must meet the following criteria:

signs of economic globalisation;

manifestations of socio-cultural globalisation;

the presence of migrants who may influence the transformation of the Silesian identity in terms of its values (work, family).

The research area (Katowice) was selected on the basis of studies dealing with the metropolisation of cities of the Upper Silesian conurbation: Kuźnik (2004); Szymańska-Wysocka and Zuzańska-Żyśko (2013); Zuzańska-Żyśko (2016). In addition, Report on the state of the city of Katowice 2013 (2014) emphasises the dominant role of Katowice, both in economic and social aspects, as well as the performed urban functions.

Source materials used in the study can be divided into two groups:

descriptive materials obtained through:

library query,

statistical data of the Statistics Poland (formerly the Central Statistical Office) and the City Council of Katowice;

empirical materials collected during field studies (questionnaire) conducted on a group of 1,150 residents of Katowice divided by districts.

The descriptive source materials were the basis for developing the questionnaire. It was used to collect and systematise information constituting the basis of analyses and research findings. The questionnaire, which was used to collect empirical material on the attitudes of the inhabitants of the city towards globalisation, consisted of 25 questions. The answers are arranged in the following order: from total acceptance to complete rejection, based on the Likert scale. Each of the responses is assigned to ranks (numbers), which makes it easy for respondents’ answers to be encoded and evaluated on a scale of 0–1.

Questions regarding the attitude to work considered the features of the modern economy and society, which jointly transform the traditional Silesian work ethos. The questions focused on the desired features of work, the perception of work for women and men, as well as the relationship between work and family.

In relation to family, attitudes towards issues of the division of domestic duties, the role of marriage, childcare and phenomena that could be considered as conservatism were identified. The globalisation aspect includes questions in which respondents were asked to specify: the sources of information on globalisation, as well as the scope and their assessment of the globalisation process.

The values for individual aspects constituted the basis of mathematical and statistical analysis. For their components, the average value of the perception of the respondents was calculated, broken down into: gender, age, education and district. The origin of the respondents was also taken into account, separately for people of Silesian and non-Silesian origin, with the following specification:

respondent born in Upper Silesia (mother and father born in Upper Silesia);

respondent born in Upper Silesia (mother born in Upper Silesia, father not born in Upper Silesia);

respondent not born in Upper Silesia (mother and father not born in Upper Silesia);

respondent not born in Upper Silesia (mother born in Upper Silesia, father not born in Upper Silesia).

The research methods used were grouped into the following:

data collection methods (library and Internet query);

field studies to collect information on residents’ attitudes towards:

perception of Silesian values (work, family),

perception of globalisation;

methods of data processing, development and presentation.

The assessment of changes in the Silesian identity, based on the perception of the inhabitants of Katowice, was carried out in two aspects: 1) “globalisation”, 2) “modernity”. In the aspect of “globalisation”, the analysis presents inhabitants’ perception of the globalisation process.

Globalisation is treated as a diverse multitude of social, economic and political processes that transform societies and states. Therefore, both the knowledge and the sources of this knowledge shaping its perception seem to be important in the study of global manifestations. They form the basis for its evaluation, which in turn may affect the attitudes of residents.

As a result, in the aspect of “globalisation”, attempts were made to determine how this process is understood and assessed by the city’s residents. In addition, the sources of information about the process used by the inhabitants of Katowice were also considered. As a result, the “globalisation” aspect is divided into three components:

“knowledge of the process”, where inhabitants’ knowledge of the globalisation process and its signs was examined. High perception is defined as extensive knowledge, while low perception indicates little knowledge.

“assessment of the process”, where globalisation was evaluated by the inhabitants of Katowice. They were asked to specify whether they regarded it as a positive or negative phenomenon. High perception indicates a positive attitudeation, while low perception indicates a negative attitude,

“source of information”, in which the number of sources of information on globalisation drawn upon by the inhabitants of Katowice was examined. High perception indicates many different sources of information, while low perception denotes a small number of sources.

In the aspect of “modernity”, the socio-cultural consequences of globalisation for the regional community were studied. These socio-cultural changes are the result of shaping a transnational social space (a network of connections between communities in the world). The regional socio-cultural heritage is transformed then, and especially the regional identity. Overlapping global and regional cultures change fundamental regional values (work, family).

In order to examine the “modernity” aspect, the components “work” and “family” were first separated, reflecting the degree of their transformation. In turn, the following components were separated in terms of sub-components:

For “work”:

“features of modern work”, in which the features of modern economy and society are changing the traditional Silesian work ethos have been perceived. High perception confirms a positive attitude to these features, while rejecting the Silesian work ethos; low perception is the opposite.

“work and family; work of women and men”, where respondents’ attitude towards issues related to work–family relations and women’s professional work were examined. Low scores testify to attachment to a traditional family model with a working father and a stay-at-home mother, while high scores are the opposite.

For “family”:

“division of responsibilities in the family”, where the roles of father and mother and division of responsibilities in the family were analysed. High levels of perception mean accepting the features of modern society and moving away from the traditional division of roles in the family. Low scores testify to attachment to the traditional roles of women in the family.

“features of a modern family”, where the respondents’ attitudes towards issues related to manifestations of modernity changing the conservative Silesian family was examined. High perception confirms a departure from Silesian values, while low perception indicates continued attachment to a conservative, traditional view of family.

“child in the family”, in which the perception of the inhabitants of Katowice was analysed in relation to issues related to upbringing and childcare. High perception indicates acceptance of modern values in terms of the equal division of responsibilities and raising a child, while low perceptions confirm attachment to traditional family roles.

Results and discussion

Mathematical, statistical and cartographic analyses of the perception of the inhabitants of Katowice in the aspect of “globalisation” were carried out for the separated components: I. “knowledge of the process”, II “assessment of the process”, III “source of information” and according to demographic and social features: gender, age, education and origin.

In perception of the “globalisation” aspect, i.e. all its components together, by gender shows that among the people of Silesian origin, perception among men is higher. This proportion is marked for the following components: “assessment of the process” and “source of information”. On the other hand, for the “knowledge of the process” components, a stronger perception among women is evident. Similar results were obtained in a group of people of Silesian origin of whom only the mother was born in Upper Silesia.

Migrant people are characterised by a more diverse perception of the components of the “globalisation” aspect, which proves that their knowledge is greater and the sources they use to obtain it are more numerous. Women have a greater perception of “knowledge of the process”. Men, in turn, have higher component values of “assessment of the process” and “source of information”.

The analysis of the spatial differentiation of the components of “globalisation” shows that among women for the component “knowledge of the process” is less spatially differentiated (I), (Fig. 1). Districts located on a south-west–north-east axis show slightly higher values.

Fig. 1

Spatial diversity of the components of “globalisation” among women of Silesian origin, Legend: I – “knowledge of the process” component, II – “assessment of the process” component, III – “sources of information” componen

Source: own elaboration

The spatial differentiation of the “assessment of the process” component (II) is similar. For most districts, fixed values are in the range of 0.6–0.7. This applies especially to the southern and western districts. Districts in the northern part of Katowice exhibit a mosaic structure.

The spatial diversity of the “source of information” component (III) reveals a division into two groups of districts. The first group (0.6–0.7) includes the outermost northern, eastern and western districts. In the second group of districts, concentrated in the central part of the city, higher component values were recorded (III).

Also among men of Silesian origin, none of the analysed components reveal a large spatial diversity of perception (Fig. 2).

Fig. 2

Spatial diversity of the components of “globalisation” among men of Silesian origin, Legend: I – “knowledge of the process” component, II – “assessment of the process” component, III – “sources of information” component

Source: own elaboration

In addition to gender, age also determines the spatial diversity of the perception of the “globalisation” aspect and its components. Among people born in Upper Silesia with parents of Silesian origin, the perceptions of “knowledge of the process” and “assessment of the process”, increase up to the age of 44. It should be noted that residents aged 45–54 perceive the component (I) less strongly, while perception grows in the next age range – 55–64. In turn, the component “assessment of the process” is perceived more strongly by people aged 18–24. Among older city residents, the perception of this component varies. The next component of “sources of information” shows lower levels of perception, with the exception of the age range 45–54.

City inhabitants born in Upper Silesia have a similar perception, but only those for whom only their mother is of Silesian origin. Also in this group, diversity in the size of components of the “globalisation” aspect according to origin is evident. Among residents, the strongest perception of the “source of information” component is shown by people aged 25–34, while “knowledge of the process” shows the highest values for people aged 45–54. With age, the perception of the “globalisation” component decreases. The exception is “knowledge of the process”, which is higher in the case of people aged 65 and more.

Migrants whose parents are not of Silesian origin have similar component values by age. In this case, also younger people get higher component values. This concerns “sources of information” and “assessment of the process”. The perception of “assessment of the process” decreases with increasing age. The perception of the component “knowledge of the process” is similar, but at the age of 55–64 there is a higher perception of the analysed components of “globalisation”, which in turn are less perceived by the elderly.

Also, inhabitants not born in Upper Silesia and with only their mother of Silesian origin are characterised by a diversity of perceptions of “globalisation”. It alternates from one age group to the next. Among older people (55–64 years), there is a decrease in the perception of both “assessment of the process” and “sources of information”. The recorded figures indicate both less knowledge and less diverse sources of information used by the respondents. In the oldest inhabitants, the perception of these components increases, but decreases in the case of “knowledge of the process”.

The perception of the components of the interpreted aspect was also mapped by districts. Due to restrictions on the length of the article, spatial diversity for the youngest and oldest was presented (Fig. 3 and Fig. 4), as well as the summary indicator of the aspect of “globalisation” (Fig. 5). The analysis of spatial diversity in Fig. 3 allows conclusions to be drawn on the high perception of young people (18–24 years) living in the districts located on the north-east–south-west line. Also, “assessment of the process” showed spatial diversity of perception: in northern and southern districts it was high, and weaker in the remaining districts.

Fig. 3

Spatial diversity of the components of “globalisation” among people of Silesian origin aged 18–24, Legend: I – “knowledge of the process” component, II – “assessment of the process” component, III – “sources of information” component

Source: own elaboration

Fig. 4

Spatial diversity of the components of “globalisation” among people of Silesian origin aged 65 and above, Legend: I – “knowledge of the process” component, II – “assessment of the process” component, III – “sources of information” component,

Source: own elaboration

Fig. 5

Spatial diversity of the globalisation aspect ratio by age, Legend: A – people aged 18–24, B – people aged 25–34, C – people aged 35–44, D – people aged 45–54, E – people aged 55–64, F – people aged 65 and above

Source: own elaboration

Among people aged 65 and above, the component “knowledge of the process” is strongly perceived in almost the entire city (Fig. 4). The perception of “assessment of the process” covers two areas: the first (southern) is relatively homogeneous, the second (northern) has a diverse spatial structure. Inhabitants of the districts in the northern, central and south-eastern part of the city show a high perception of “sources of information”.

The spatial diversity of the total indicator of “globalisation” by age is presented in Fig. 5. The spatial diversity of inhabitants in the first age group has an ordered structure: eastern and western districts have higher values, and central districts – lower values.

If we reference the perception of “globalisation” to the education of the inhabitants of Katowice, it is noted that among people born in Upper Silesia with both parents of Silesian origin, those participating most are those with primary and junior high school education (Fig. 6). Similarly, the perception of the components of the analysed aspect is revealed by residents with basic vocational, secondary and higher education. The most perceived component is “knowledge of the process” in the group of city residents with “lower” education, while people with higher education have a worse perception.

Fig. 6

Spatial diversity of the components of “globalisation” among people of Silesian descent with incomplete primary, primary and lower secondary education, Legend: I – “knowledge of the process” component, II – “assessment of the process” component, III – “sources of information” component

Source: own elaboration

Similar research findings are also found for residents born in Upper Silesia with only their mother born in Upper Silesia. It can be seen that the highest perception in the component “sources of information” occurs in people with basic vocational education. However, perception increases among residents with secondary and higher education, which indicates that they use more globalisation information sources.

Migrants without parents of Silesian origin show a similar perception of the components of “globalisation” by education. An increase in perception for the components “knowledge of the process” and “source of information” is observed among Katowice residents with upper secondary education.

Other proportions of the components of “globalisation” are observed among inhabitants not born in Silesia with their mother of Silesian origin. In this group, there is an increase in perception with the progression of education. The biggest difference in the level of perception was recorded for “knowledge of the process” between people with basic vocational and higher education. The overall index of “globalisation” also shows similar trends. On the basis of this summary indicator, a synthetic picture of spatial differentiation for “globalisation” according to education has been presented (Fig. 7). A slight spatial variation is noted for those with lower education (Fig. 7A). The eastern and south-western part of the city with high perceptions of globalisation can be separated, while the lowest are in the western and north-eastern districts. The highest figures are revealed by the inhabitants with basic vocational education in the central and south-eastern part of the city (Fig. 7B). People with secondary and post-secondary education have a similar participation (Fig. 7C). In turn, residents with higher education predominate in the northern, eastern and south-western districts (Fig. 7D).

Fig. 7

Spatial diversity of the globalisation aspect ratio by education, Legend:A – persons with incomplete primary, primary and lower secondary education, B – persons with basic vocational education, C – persons with secondary and post-secondary education, D – persons with higher vocational and higher education

Source: own elaboration

Among the values of Silesian identity, work and family are distinguished as being most affected by external factors. Contemporary globalisation and its socio-cultural manifestations are a source of change in Upper Silesians’ perceptions of work and family. The research findings of the perception of the inhabitants of Katowice in the aspect of “modernity” are presented, according to its components: 1) “work” (with sub-components: features of modern work, work and family, work of women and men), 2) “family” (with sub-components: division of responsibilities in the family, features of a modern family, child in the family).

In the analysis of the component perception of “work” broken down by gender, the following regularity is evident: women born in Upper Silesia with parents of Silesian origin perceive “work” more strongly than men. This is also confirmed by the component: “features of modern work”. However, in terms of the component “work and family; work of women and men”, slight differences are noted – higher values for women.

Among people born in Upper Silesia with a mother of Silesian origin and a migrant father, there are greater differences in the perceptions of the components of the “modernity” aspect. Higher values of the component “work” for women are noted, including “features of modern work”. In turn, men show a stronger perception of the next component of “work” (work and family; work of women and men).

Similar values of “work” were recorded for migrant women and men without Silesian parents. Slight differences can be indicated for the component “features of modern work”, where men reach higher values than women. For women, there is a higher perception of “work and family; work of women and men”. In the group of persons not born in Upper Silesia with a mother of Silesian origin, men have a higher perception of the components.

In terms of the “family” component and its components, perception also varies by gender. The “family” component is more perceived by women of Silesian origin than men of Silesian origin. Women achieved higher values in the perception of the “division of responsibilities” and “features of a modern family”, while men perceived “child in the family” the strongest. Among the inhabitants of Silesian origin with their mother born in Upper Silesia, men show a stronger perception of the “family” in the scope of all its components. However, women are characterised by a stronger perception of the component “child in the family”.

In the case of migrants, a greater perception of “family” is seen by men, but women value the “division of responsibilities in the family” more. Inhabitants of Katowice of non-Silesian origin with their mother born in Upper Silesia differ by gender; men participate more strongly than women, which is marked by the perception of “division of responsibilities in the family”.

The analysis of the size of the perceptions of “modernity” is complemented by a cartographic projection. In the case of the component “work” for women of Silesian origin, there is no greater diversity in urban space (Fig. 8). The components of “work” show spatial diversity of perception: for “features of modern work”; it is higher in the western, north-eastern and northern districts. Perception of the component “work and family, work of women and men” is higher in the southern districts. Among men, the highest perception was recorded in the districts located centrally and in the north of the city. As for the components of “work”, they reveal a mosaic spatial structure (Fig. 9).

Fig. 8

Spatial diversity of the “work” component among women of Silesian origin, Legend: I – “work” component, II – “features of modern work” component, III – “work and family; work of women and men” component

Source: own elaboration

Fig. 9

Spatial diversity of the “work” component among men of Silesian origin, Legend: I – “work” component, II – “features of modern work” component, III – “work and family; work of women and men” component

Source: own elaboration

The spatial reflection of the “family” component perception for women of Silesian origin does not show much diversity; higher values are noted in the following districts: Giszowiec, Ligota-Panewniki and Śródmieście. Spatial analysis of individual components reveals a differentiated perception of “division of responsibilities”. In the northern and south-western districts it is higher. However, the perception of “features of a modern family” divides the urban space into two areas: northern and southern. Spatial analysis of the “child in the family” component shows the eastern districts to have higher perception.

The analysis of the component “work” by age for people of native origin with parents of Silesian origin shows similar, decreasing values for ages up to 54 years. On the other hand, people aged 55–64 connote the highest values. The perception of the oldest (aged 65 and over) is weaker. The component “features of modern work” for the same category of residents also reveals a similar perception. Perception of the component: “work and family; the work of women and men” is weaker, but the highest figures occur among the youngest.

An increase in perception of the component “features of modern work” is observed among native residents whose father does not originate from Upper Silesia, up to the age of 35–44. High values were also found among people aged 55–64. Other age groups were characterised by a weaker perception of the component “features of modern work”. Lower component sizes were also noted in “work and family; work of women and men”. The strongest perception occurs in the youngest inhabitants (18–24 years); meanwhile, in the age groups 25–34 and 35–44 it is lower. Perception increases only in the 55–64 age group, but the oldest are characterised by lower perception.

Migrants with parents not born in Upper Silesia have a similar perception of age. People aged 45–54 have the lowest perception, and the oldest – the highest. A detailed analysis of perception according to its components reveals a wide variation. The perception of the “features of modern work” is strongest in residents aged 18–24 years and 35–44 years. For the elderly (55–64; 65 and more) perception values were higher. The second component, “work and family, work of women and men”, has a higher level of perception among the elderly. The level of perception is lowest among young people (18–24 years).

For persons not born in Upper Silesia but with a mother originating from Silesia, the perception of the “features of modern work” increases with age. Lower perception occurs only for people aged 45–54. Perception of the component “work and family; work of women and men” is strongest among the youngest. In other age groups perception is low.

An analysis of the “family” component of the “modernity” aspect under consideration shows that for those born in Upper Silesia perception falls with age. It is lower until the age of 35–44, except for the component “division of responsibilities in the family”, where perception is lowest among people aged 45–54. The weakest level of perception of the components of this component is found in the oldest inhabitants.

The “family” component for people born in Upper Silesia and having a mother of Silesian origin is highest in the youngest. The lowest values were recorded in people aged 55–64. In the detailed analysis of the components, the level of perception is differentiated as follows: the components “division of responsibilities in the family” and “features of a modern family” are highest in younger age groups, but weaker in older ones. Similar changes in perception are observed for the component “child in the family” except, of course, for the oldest inhabitants of the city.

Among migrants, changes in the perception of the “family” component depending on age higher in the youngest and oldest age groups. Similarly, the perception of the component “division of family responsibilities” indicates a downward trend with ages up to 45–54. Perception was stronger for older residents. Also, the components of the “features of a modern family” and “child in the family” show changes depending on age; the first is highest in the youngest, and the second in the 35–44 age group. Perception decreases among the elderly.

The level of perception of all components increases in proportion to age among immigrant residents with a mother of Silesian origin (migrant father). The highest perception for the “division of responsibilities in the family” and “features of a modern family” was recorded at the age of 35–44. The “child in the family” component reveals the strongest perception at the age of 45–54. In the successive groups there is a decrease in the perception of the components of the “family” to a minimum among the elderly.

The spatial reflection of the “modernity” aspect is presented for the “work” component on the example of two age groups: the youngest and the oldest. A detailed analysis of the reflection of the “work” component by components shows that the “features of modern work” component is most strongly perceived in the central and northern districts. Perception of “work and family; the work of women and men” among the residents of Katowice is lower in the northern part of the city, and higher in central districts (Fig. 10).

Fig. 10

Spatial differentiation of the components of “work” among people of Silesian origin aged 18–24, Legend: I – “work” component, II – “features of modern work” component, III – “work and family; work of women and men” component

Source: own elaboration

Also the perception of the component “work” shows spatial diversity in the oldest age group (Fig. 11). Values are higher in the eastern part of the city, and lower in the west and north-west. The component “features of modern work” is highly spatially diverse; perception is higher in the north-east and lower in the south. The component “work and family, work of women and men” is less spatially diverse; perception was higher in the east of the city.

Fig. 11

Spatial diversity of the components of “work” among people of Silesian origin aged 65 and above, Legend: I – “work” component, II – “features of modern work” component, III – “work and family; work of women and men” component

Source: own elaboration

The spatial distribution of the “family” component is presented for selected age groups: the youngest and the oldest. The highest perception in the 18–24 age group was recorded in the eastern, central and northern parts of the city (Fig. 12). Also, the individual components show high perception, and therefore, for the component “division of family responsibilities”, the highest is seen in the west, north and east of the city. The next component of “family”, i.e. “features of a modern family”, is less spatially diverse.

Fig. 12

Spatial diversity of “family” components among people of Silesian origin aged 18–24, Legend: I – “family” component, II – “division of family responsibilities” component, III – “features of a modern family” component, IV – “child in the family” component

Source: own elaboration

The oldest inhabitants of the city (65 years and above) are characterised by low spatial diversity (Fig. 13). Perception is lower in the north-eastern part of Katowice and higher in Podlesie. A detailed analysis of the ingredients show greater variation of “division of responsibilities in the family” in Dąbrówka Mała and Brynów–Zgrzebnioka, while the lowest values occur in the north-western part of the city. For the component “features of a modern family”, perceptions are lowest in the north. The perception of the “child in the family” component is less spatially diverse, but with higher values in the north of the city.

Fig. 13

Spatial diversity of the components of “family” among people of Silesian origin aged 65 and above, Legend: I – “family” component, II – “division of family responsibilities” component, III – “features of a modern family” component, IV – “child in the family” component

Source: own elaboration

The perception of the components of “modernity” (work and family) according to educational level reveals many regularities. Among people of Silesian origin with native parents, perception of the component “work” and its components increases in proportion to educational level.

Persons born in Upper Silesia with a mother of Silesian origin and a migrant father also perceive depending on their education. There is a clear difference between inhabitants with secondary and higher education. The component “features of modern work” is perceived similarly by people with primary and lower secondary education, as well as basic vocational education. Perception increases in people with higher education. For the component “work and family; work of women and men”, perception is weaker and less diverse.

The perception of the “work” component among migrant inhabitants increases with education. The weakest perception of the components “features of modern work” and “work and family, work of women and men” was recorded in people with basic vocational education; perception decreases among people with secondary, post-secondary and higher education. The patterns are similar for perceptions of the “work” component among inhabitants not born in Upper Silesia with a mother of Silesian origin.

Analysis of the perception of the “family” component reveals the following regularities: native people with Silesian parents perception of the component increases with education. For these people, perception of the component “division of responsibilities in the family” decreases. The lowest values for the component “features of a modern family” were recorded for people with basic education, while values were high among people with higher education. Perception of the “child in family” component is not differentiated according to education.

In the case of people of Silesian origin with a father from outside Upper Silesia, the perception of the “family” component (and its component “child in the family”) by education shows a low level of diversity. However, there is an increase in perception among people with higher education. In addition, it was noted that the component “division of family responsibilities” differentiates residents into two groups:

people with lower education – lower perception,

people with secondary and higher education – higher perception.

A different regularity is observed for the component “features of a modern family”, where the level of perception is low at primary, junior high and secondary education, while it increases at higher education.

In the group of migrants, an increase in the perception of “family” in relation to education is observed. Values are lowest among persons with basic vocational education, but higher among those with secondary and higher education. Persons with a mother of Silesian origin show a different perception of the component “division of responsibilities in the family”; it is higher for people with primary and secondary education, and lower for people with higher education. Perception of the component “features of a modern family” is differentiated by education. It is higher among people with lower and higher education, and lower among people with secondary education.

Spatial analysis of perception of the components “work” and “family” includes selected groups of people of Silesian origin with primary, middle and high school education. In the first case, perception was strongest in the north of the city. The component “features of modern work” reveals high volumes in central districts. In turn, the component “work and family; work of women and men” is most perceived by the inhabitants of Murcki (Fig. 14).

Fig. 14

Spatial diversity of the components of “work” among people of Silesian origin with incomplete primary, primary and lower secondary education, Legend: I – “work” component, II – “features of modern work” component, III – “work and family; work of women and men” component

Source: own elaboration

The spatial analysis of the perception of the residents of Katowice with higher education shows a high identification of the “work” component in the south-west, west and east of the city (Fig. 15). High perception of the “features of modern work” is found across almost the entire city. Perception of the second component of “work” (“work and family, work of women and men”) is weaker in most districts.

Fig. 15

Spatial diversity of the components of “work” among people of Silesian origin with higher vocational and higher education, Legend: I – “work” component, II – “features of modern work” component, III – “work and family; work of women and men” component

Source: own elaboration

The “family” component and its components also exhibit certain spatial regularities of perception by education. The level of perception among people with elementary and junior high school education is poorly spatially diverse (Fig. 16). The northern districts appear as an area of high perception of the component “division of responsibilities in the family”, as does the east of the city. In turn, for the component “features of a modern family” the size of perception in the northern districts forms a mosaic image. The perception of the “child in the family” component is high in the south-western and northern districts.

Fig. 16

Spatial diversity of the components of “family” among people of Silesian origin with incomplete primary, primary and lower secondary education, Legend: I – “family” component, II – “division of family responsibilities” component, III – “features of a modern family” component, IV – “child in the family” component

Source: own elaboration

Perception of the “family” component of residents with higher education is highest in south-western and north-western districts (Fig. 17). For the component “division of responsibilities in the family”, perception was high among residents of northern districts. Also, a high perception of “features of a modern family” is concentrated in the north and south-west. The perception of the “child in family” component reveals two areas; i.e. it is high in the south and lower in the north.

Fig. 17

Spatial diversity of the components of “family” among people of Silesian origin with higher vocational and higher education, Legend: I – “family” component, II – “division of family responsibilities” component, III – “features of a modern family” component, IV – “child in the family” component

Source: own elaboration

Conclusions

The perception of globalisation and the attitudes of modern inhabitants of Katowice were examined. The obtained research results of: (A) the “globalisation” aspect and its components; as well as (B) the “modernity” aspect and its components revealed certain regularities in the perception of residents and its spatial diversity.

Re. A. “Globalising”

Similar perceptions of “globalisation” components between people of Silesian and migrant origin, regardless of demographic and social features (gender, age, education).

High perception of “knowledge of the process” with weak perception of “assessment of the process”.

Stronger perception of the “globalising” aspect among men with a Silesian mother.

Perception of components increases with age and education for people of Silesian origin.

Spatial diversity of the “process evaluation” component in women: higher values in northern and south-western districts.

Similar perceptions of the “sources of information” component by gender; a lower level in the north of the city.

High perception of the component “knowledge of the process” by age in southern districts.

Spatial diversity of perceptions of the components of “globalisation” among persons with primary and junior high school education: high in the south-western districts, while in people with secondary and higher education a strong perception of “assessment of the process” and “sources of the information” is marked in the north and in the city centre.

Re. B. “Modernity”

Higher perception of the “work” component and its components by migrant men.

Perception of the ingredients of “work” increases with age among people with at least one parent of Silesian origin.

Stronger perception of the “family” component among migrant women and men resulting from stronger perception of the “features of modern work” component.

Similarity of perception of the components of “family” among people of Silesian origin with native parents.

A decrease in the perception of the components of the “family” with increasing age for people with at least one parent of migrant origin.

The perception of the components of the “modernity” aspect increases in proportion to the level of education, regardless of the origin of the inhabitants.

Similarity in the perception of the components of “modernity” between older age groups (55 and over) and people with primary and lower secondary education.

Higher perception of the component “features of modern work” by gender in western and northern districts.

Similarity in perceiving the component “work and family; work of women and men” by gender, at a lower level in the northern districts.

Different perception of the component “work” by age; it is higher in the north and lower in the south of the city.

Spatial diversity of the component of work perception by education, and high perception in people with basic vocational education in northern and western districts, with higher education in the east.

Similarity of the perception of the “family” component by sex; higher values are found in Śródmieście.

High perception of the “family” component by age in western and northern districts (except for the oldest residents).

The perception of the “family” component in the districts of Katowice by education, among people with higher education has northern and southern districts.

Recommendations

The results obtained are the basis for formulating application recommendations for local and regional policy:

The identified attitudes form the basis for regional education related to shaping social identity as an internal force strengthening the bond with the city and the region.

Identity, shared values and perception of global processes create social and human capital in the region.

Knowledge of the attitudes and identity of residents can be used in cultural education. On this basis, cultural institutions can organise exhibitions, events or concerts on regional issues. This refers to the flagship product of regional tourism of the Silesian Province – industriada.

The strong perception of globalisation among the inhabitants strengthens the awareness of parallel metropolisation processes in which Katowice plays a key role as the largest city of the Upper Silesian–Zagłębie Metropolis.

The identity of residents may have been the basis of urban marketing, which is the city’s trademark that is recognisable on the outside.

Fig. 1

Spatial diversity of the components of “globalisation” among women of Silesian origin, Legend: I – “knowledge of the process” component, II – “assessment of the process” component, III – “sources of information” componenSource: own elaboration
Spatial diversity of the components of “globalisation” among women of Silesian origin, Legend: I – “knowledge of the process” component, II – “assessment of the process” component, III – “sources of information” componenSource: own elaboration

Fig. 2

Spatial diversity of the components of “globalisation” among men of Silesian origin, Legend: I – “knowledge of the process” component, II – “assessment of the process” component, III – “sources of information” componentSource: own elaboration
Spatial diversity of the components of “globalisation” among men of Silesian origin, Legend: I – “knowledge of the process” component, II – “assessment of the process” component, III – “sources of information” componentSource: own elaboration

Fig. 3

Spatial diversity of the components of “globalisation” among people of Silesian origin aged 18–24, Legend: I – “knowledge of the process” component, II – “assessment of the process” component, III – “sources of information” componentSource: own elaboration
Spatial diversity of the components of “globalisation” among people of Silesian origin aged 18–24, Legend: I – “knowledge of the process” component, II – “assessment of the process” component, III – “sources of information” componentSource: own elaboration

Fig. 4

Spatial diversity of the components of “globalisation” among people of Silesian origin aged 65 and above, Legend: I – “knowledge of the process” component, II – “assessment of the process” component, III – “sources of information” component,Source: own elaboration
Spatial diversity of the components of “globalisation” among people of Silesian origin aged 65 and above, Legend: I – “knowledge of the process” component, II – “assessment of the process” component, III – “sources of information” component,Source: own elaboration

Fig. 5

Spatial diversity of the globalisation aspect ratio by age, Legend: A – people aged 18–24, B – people aged 25–34, C – people aged 35–44, D – people aged 45–54, E – people aged 55–64, F – people aged 65 and aboveSource: own elaboration
Spatial diversity of the globalisation aspect ratio by age, Legend: A – people aged 18–24, B – people aged 25–34, C – people aged 35–44, D – people aged 45–54, E – people aged 55–64, F – people aged 65 and aboveSource: own elaboration

Fig. 6

Spatial diversity of the components of “globalisation” among people of Silesian descent with incomplete primary, primary and lower secondary education, Legend: I – “knowledge of the process” component, II – “assessment of the process” component, III – “sources of information” componentSource: own elaboration
Spatial diversity of the components of “globalisation” among people of Silesian descent with incomplete primary, primary and lower secondary education, Legend: I – “knowledge of the process” component, II – “assessment of the process” component, III – “sources of information” componentSource: own elaboration

Fig. 7

Spatial diversity of the globalisation aspect ratio by education, Legend:A – persons with incomplete primary, primary and lower secondary education, B – persons with basic vocational education, C – persons with secondary and post-secondary education, D – persons with higher vocational and higher educationSource: own elaboration
Spatial diversity of the globalisation aspect ratio by education, Legend:A – persons with incomplete primary, primary and lower secondary education, B – persons with basic vocational education, C – persons with secondary and post-secondary education, D – persons with higher vocational and higher educationSource: own elaboration

Fig. 8

Spatial diversity of the “work” component among women of Silesian origin, Legend: I – “work” component, II – “features of modern work” component, III – “work and family; work of women and men” componentSource: own elaboration
Spatial diversity of the “work” component among women of Silesian origin, Legend: I – “work” component, II – “features of modern work” component, III – “work and family; work of women and men” componentSource: own elaboration

Fig. 9

Spatial diversity of the “work” component among men of Silesian origin, Legend: I – “work” component, II – “features of modern work” component, III – “work and family; work of women and men” componentSource: own elaboration
Spatial diversity of the “work” component among men of Silesian origin, Legend: I – “work” component, II – “features of modern work” component, III – “work and family; work of women and men” componentSource: own elaboration

Fig. 10

Spatial differentiation of the components of “work” among people of Silesian origin aged 18–24, Legend: I – “work” component, II – “features of modern work” component, III – “work and family; work of women and men” componentSource: own elaboration
Spatial differentiation of the components of “work” among people of Silesian origin aged 18–24, Legend: I – “work” component, II – “features of modern work” component, III – “work and family; work of women and men” componentSource: own elaboration

Fig. 11

Spatial diversity of the components of “work” among people of Silesian origin aged 65 and above, Legend: I – “work” component, II – “features of modern work” component, III – “work and family; work of women and men” componentSource: own elaboration
Spatial diversity of the components of “work” among people of Silesian origin aged 65 and above, Legend: I – “work” component, II – “features of modern work” component, III – “work and family; work of women and men” componentSource: own elaboration

Fig. 12

Spatial diversity of “family” components among people of Silesian origin aged 18–24, Legend: I – “family” component, II – “division of family responsibilities” component, III – “features of a modern family” component, IV – “child in the family” componentSource: own elaboration
Spatial diversity of “family” components among people of Silesian origin aged 18–24, Legend: I – “family” component, II – “division of family responsibilities” component, III – “features of a modern family” component, IV – “child in the family” componentSource: own elaboration

Fig. 13

Spatial diversity of the components of “family” among people of Silesian origin aged 65 and above, Legend: I – “family” component, II – “division of family responsibilities” component, III – “features of a modern family” component, IV – “child in the family” componentSource: own elaboration
Spatial diversity of the components of “family” among people of Silesian origin aged 65 and above, Legend: I – “family” component, II – “division of family responsibilities” component, III – “features of a modern family” component, IV – “child in the family” componentSource: own elaboration

Fig. 14

Spatial diversity of the components of “work” among people of Silesian origin with incomplete primary, primary and lower secondary education, Legend: I – “work” component, II – “features of modern work” component, III – “work and family; work of women and men” componentSource: own elaboration
Spatial diversity of the components of “work” among people of Silesian origin with incomplete primary, primary and lower secondary education, Legend: I – “work” component, II – “features of modern work” component, III – “work and family; work of women and men” componentSource: own elaboration

Fig. 15

Spatial diversity of the components of “work” among people of Silesian origin with higher vocational and higher education, Legend: I – “work” component, II – “features of modern work” component, III – “work and family; work of women and men” componentSource: own elaboration
Spatial diversity of the components of “work” among people of Silesian origin with higher vocational and higher education, Legend: I – “work” component, II – “features of modern work” component, III – “work and family; work of women and men” componentSource: own elaboration

Fig. 16

Spatial diversity of the components of “family” among people of Silesian origin with incomplete primary, primary and lower secondary education, Legend: I – “family” component, II – “division of family responsibilities” component, III – “features of a modern family” component, IV – “child in the family” componentSource: own elaboration
Spatial diversity of the components of “family” among people of Silesian origin with incomplete primary, primary and lower secondary education, Legend: I – “family” component, II – “division of family responsibilities” component, III – “features of a modern family” component, IV – “child in the family” componentSource: own elaboration

Fig. 17

Spatial diversity of the components of “family” among people of Silesian origin with higher vocational and higher education, Legend: I – “family” component, II – “division of family responsibilities” component, III – “features of a modern family” component, IV – “child in the family” componentSource: own elaboration
Spatial diversity of the components of “family” among people of Silesian origin with higher vocational and higher education, Legend: I – “family” component, II – “division of family responsibilities” component, III – “features of a modern family” component, IV – “child in the family” componentSource: own elaboration

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