1. bookVolume 16 (2022): Issue 1 (April 2022)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2183-3311
First Published
15 Dec 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Board Games in Ancient Fiction: Egypt, Iran, Greece

Published Online: 26 Apr 2022
Volume & Issue: Volume 16 (2022) - Issue 1 (April 2022)
Page range: 449 - 490
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2183-3311
First Published
15 Dec 2016
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Board games are often used as a plot motif in modern genre fiction, especially in detective and adventure stories. In these types of narrative, a well-known pattern of storytelling or literary structure (e.g., the treasure hunt, the detection of serial crimes, the iniatory course, or the medieval tale collection) is reworked and adapted to the rules and phases of a board game such as chess, jeu de l’oie, or the tarot card pack. This literary practice is very ancient and may be traced back to a number of novelistic compositions of the ancient Near East, dating from the 1st millennium BC to late antiquity. In the Demotic Egyptian Tale of Setne Khaemwaset, from the Saite period, the protagonist Setne plays a board game (probably senet) with the mummy of a long dead and buried magician, in order to gain a powerful book of spells. The widespread Near-Eastern story-pattern of the magical competition is here superimposed on the procedure of a celebrated Egyptian game. In a late Hellenistic Greek novella inspired by the Odyssey (Apion of Alexandria, FGrH 616 F36) Penelope’s suitors play an elaborate game of marbles (petteia) in order to determine which one of them will marry the queen. This is a playful rewriting of the famous bow contest of the Homeric epic. A Sasanian novelistic work, the Wizārišn ī čatrang, adapts the age-old legend of the riddle contest of kings; the riddles are replaced with board games (chess and backgammon), which the opponents invent and propose to each other as difficult puzzles for solution. In all these texts the board game becomes a central symbol of the transformative and innovative power of literary narrative.

Keywords

Agut-Labordère D. – Chauveau M. 2011. Héros, magiciens et sages oubliés de l’Égypte ancienne. Une anthologie de la littérature en égyptien démotique, Paris. Search in Google Scholar

Bakhtin M.M. 1984. Rabelais and His World, trans. H. Iswolsky, Bloomington. Search in Google Scholar

Baldo J. 1987. “Narrative foiled in Bergman’s The Seventh Seal”, Theatre Journal 39, 364-382. Search in Google Scholar

Baumert H. 1886. Apionis quae ad Homerum pertinent fragmenta, Königsberg. Search in Google Scholar

Becq de Fouquières L. 1869. Les jeux des anciens. Leur description, leur origine, leurs rapports avec la religion, l’histoire, les arts et les mœurs, Paris. Search in Google Scholar

Benfey T. 1892. Kleinere Schriften, A. Bezzenberger (ed.), vol. II, Berlin. Search in Google Scholar

Berlin A. 1979. Enmerkar and Ensuḫkešdanna. A Sumerian Narrative Poem, Philadelphia. Search in Google Scholar

Biardeau M. 1978. “Études de mythologie hindoue (V)”, Bulletin de l’École Française d’Extrême-Orient 65, 87-238. Search in Google Scholar

Bivona D. 1986. “Alice the child-imperialist and the games of wonderland”, Nineteenth-Century Literature 41, 143-171. Search in Google Scholar

Black J. – Cunningham G. – Robson E. – Zólyomi G. 2004. The Literature of Ancient Sumer, Oxford. Search in Google Scholar

Blake K. 1974. Play, Games, and Sport. The Literary Works of Lewis Carroll, Ithaca – London. Search in Google Scholar

Bloom G. 2018. Gaming the Stage. Playable Media and the Rise of English Commercial Theater, Ann Arbor.10.2307/j.ctv3mt93h Search in Google Scholar

Boyer A.-M. 1987. “ ‘Monsieur Poirot, qu’attendez-vous pour abattre vos cartes ?’ Les fondements ludiques de la paralittérature”, Littérature 68, 3-25. Search in Google Scholar

Bresciani E. 2007. Letteratura e poesia dell’antico Egitto. Cultura e società attraverso i testi, Torino. Search in Google Scholar

Brockington J. 1998. The Sanskrit Epics, Leiden.10.1163/9789004492677 Search in Google Scholar

Brodeur A.G. 1922. “Androcles and the lion”, Modern Philology 11, 195-214. Search in Google Scholar

Brodeur A.G. 1924. “The grateful lion. A study in the development of mediaeval narrative”, Publications of the Modern Language Association 39, 485-524. Search in Google Scholar

Brunner C.J. 1978. “The Middle Persian explanation of chess and invention of backgammon”, JANES 10, 43-51. Search in Google Scholar

Brunner-Traut E. 1965. Altägyptische Märchen, Düsseldorf – Köln. Search in Google Scholar

Busl G. 2012. “Rewriting the fiaba: Collective signification in Italo Calvino’s Il castello dei destini incrociati”, Modern Language Review 107, 796-814. Search in Google Scholar

Cannon J. 1979. “Literature as combinatory game: Italo Calvino’s The Castle of Crossed Destinies”, Critique 21, 83-92. Search in Google Scholar

Carbone G. 2005. Tabliope. Ricerche su gioco e letteratura nel mondo greco-romano, Napoli. Search in Google Scholar

Cavallaro D. 2010. The Mind of Italo Calvino. A Critical Exploration of His Thought and Writings, Jefferson – London. Search in Google Scholar

Cellier L. 1964. “Le roman initiatique en France au temps du romantisme”, Cahiers Internationaux de Symbolisme 4, 22-40. Search in Google Scholar

Chances E. 1987. “Čexov, Nabokov, and the box: Making a case for Belikov and Lužin”, Russian Language Journal 140, 135-142. Search in Google Scholar

Christensen A. 1930. “La légende du sage Buzurjmihr”, Acta Orientalia 8, 81-128. Search in Google Scholar

Clouston W.A. 2002. Popular Tales and Fictions. Their Migrations and Transformations, C. Goldberg (ed.), Santa Barbara. Search in Google Scholar

Cohn L. 1894. “Apion (3)”, RE I, 2803-2806. Search in Google Scholar

Conte J.M. 1994. “The uncertain predictor: Calvino’s Castle of tarot cards”, D. Bruce – A. Purdy (eds), Literature and Science, Amsterdam – Atlanta, 131-147. Search in Google Scholar

Cosquin E. 1922. Études folkloriques. Recherches sur les migrations des contes populaires et leur point de départ, Paris. Search in Google Scholar

Crist W. – Dunn-Vaturi A.E. – de Voogt A. 2016. Ancient Egyptians at Play. Board Games Across Borders, London. Search in Google Scholar

Damon C. 2008. “The mind of an ass and the impudence of a dog: A scholar gone bad”, I. Sluiter – R.M. Rosen (eds), Kakos. Badness and Anti-Value in Classical Antiquity, Leiden, 335-364. Search in Google Scholar

Damon C. 2011. “Pliny on Apion”, R.K. Gibson – R. Morello (eds), Pliny the Elder: Themes and Contexts, Leiden, 131-145. Search in Google Scholar

Daryaee T. 2002. “Mind, body, and the cosmos: Chess and backgammon in ancient Persia”, Iranian Studies 35, 281-312. Search in Google Scholar

Daryaee T. 2010. On the Explanation of Chess and Backgammon. Abar Wīzārišn ī Čatrang ud Nihišn Nēw-Ardaxšīr, Beverly Hills. Search in Google Scholar

Daviau D.G. – Dunkle H.I. 1973. “Stefan Zweig’s ‘Schachnovelle’ ”, Monatshefte 65, 370-384. Search in Google Scholar

Davis D. 2006. Abolqasem Ferdowsi: Shahnameh. The Persian Book of Kings, London. Search in Google Scholar

de Blois F. 1990. Burzōy’s Voyage to India and the Origin of the Book of Kalīlah wa Dimnah, London. Search in Google Scholar

Decker W. 1987. Sport und Spiel im Alten Ägypten, München. Search in Google Scholar

Decker W. – Herb M. 1994. Bildatlas zum Sport im Alten Ägypten. Corpus der bildlichen Quellen zu Leibesübungen, Spiel, Jagd, Tanz und verwandten Themen, Leiden.10.1163/9789004293939 Search in Google Scholar

Della Seta F. 1983. “Il tempo della festa. Su due scene della ‘Traviata’ e su altri luoghi verdiani”, Studi Verdiani 2, 108-146. Search in Google Scholar

Déom L. 2005. “Le roman initiatique : éléments d’analyse sémiologique et symbolique”, Cahiers électroniques de l’imaginaire 3, 73-86. Search in Google Scholar

Derrett J.D.M. 1963. “Rabelais’ legal learning and the trial of Bridoye”, Bibliothèque d’Humanisme et Renaissance 25, 111-171. Search in Google Scholar

De Toni M. 2007. “Cornice narrativa e dissoluzione del récit in Italo Calvino”, Studi Novecenteschi 34, 169-194. Search in Google Scholar

de Urioste C. 1997. “Totalización del gusto cultural: Dos novelas de Arturo Pérez-Reverte”, Revista Hispánica Moderna 50, 403-414. Search in Google Scholar

Deveny T. 2006. “The club Pérez-Reverte: Screen adaptations of best sellers”, Hispania 89, 268-277. Search in Google Scholar

Dickie M.W. 2001. Magic and Magicians in the Greco-Roman World, London – New York.10.4324/9780203278109 Search in Google Scholar

Dillery J. 2003. “Putting him back together again: Apion historian, Apion grammatikos”, CPh 98, 383-390.10.1086/422373 Search in Google Scholar

Douglas D.B. 1980. “The humanist gambit: A study of Stefan Zweig’s Schachnovelle”, Journal of the Australasian Universities Language and Literature Association 53, 17-24. Search in Google Scholar

Drong L. 2011. “The ill logic of analogy: Uses and abuses of chess in Through the Looking Glass by Lewis Carroll”, E. Borkowska – T. Burzyński (eds), The Surplus of Culture. Sense, Common-Sense, Non-Sense, Newcastle, 49-60. Search in Google Scholar

Duval E.M. 1997. The Design of Rabelais’s Tiers Livre de Pantagruel, Genève. Search in Google Scholar

Eagleton T. 1972. “Alice and anarchy”, New Blackfriars 53, 447-455. Search in Google Scholar

Efthymiadis S. 2012. “A game of dice and a game of chess: A Byzantine vs. a Scandinavian allegory”, D. Searby – E. Balicka Witakowska – J. Heldt (eds), Δῶρον ῥοδοποίκιλον. Studies in Honour of Jan Olof Rosenqvist, Uppsala, 166-174. Search in Google Scholar

Equestri A. 2014. “ ‘Sweet lord, you play me false’: A chess game in Shakespeare’s The Tempest”, M. Roberts (ed.), Proceedings of the “Shakespeare and His Contemporaries” Graduate Conference, Firenze, 1-8. Search in Google Scholar

Feldt L. 2012. The Fantastic in Religious Narrative from Exodus to Elisha, Sheffield. Search in Google Scholar

García-Caro P. 2000. “Behind the canvas: The role of paintings in Peter Ackroyd’s Chatterton and Arturo Pérez-Reverte’s The Flanders Panel”, A. Mullen – E. O’Beirne (eds), Crime Scenes. Detective Narratives in European Culture Since 1945, Amsterdam – Atlanta, 160-170. Search in Google Scholar

Garnier X. 2004. “À quoi reconnaît-on un récit initiatique ?”, Poétique 140, 443-454. Search in Google Scholar

Giovannini E. 2014. “Esilio, frontiere e confini in La novella degli scacchi di Stefan Zweig”, N. di Nunzio – F. Ragni (eds), “Già troppe volte esuli”. Letteratura di frontiera e di esilio, Perugia, 255-265. Search in Google Scholar

Goldberg C. 1993. Turandot’s Sisters. A Study of the Folktale AT 851, London – New York. Search in Google Scholar

Griffith F.L. 1900. Stories of the High Priests of Memphis. The Sethon of Herodotus and the Demotic Tales of Khamuas, Oxford. Search in Google Scholar

Grignaschi M. 1978. “Deux documents nouveaux à propos de la légende de Buzurğmihr”, AAntHung 26, 147-184. Search in Google Scholar

Grimal N. 1994. “Le roi et la sorcière”, C. Berger – G. Clerc – N. Grimal (eds), Hommages à Jean Leclant, vol. IV, Le Caire, 97-108. Search in Google Scholar

Guéniot P.G. 2000. “Un jeu clef : la petteia”, RPhA 18, 33-64. Search in Google Scholar

Gunkel H. 1987. The Folktale in the Old Testament, Sheffield. Search in Google Scholar

Hansen W. 2017. The Book of Greek & Roman Folktales, Legends, & Myths, Princeton.10.1515/9781400884674 Search in Google Scholar

Harpold T. 2005. “Verne’s Cartographies”, Science Fiction Studies 32, 18-42. Search in Google Scholar

Haslam M.W. 1994. “The Homer Lexicon of Apollonius Sophista. I. Composition and constituents”, CPh 89, 1-45. Search in Google Scholar

Henkle R.B. 1982. “Carroll’s narratives underground: ‘Modernism’ and form”, E. Guiliano (ed.), Lewis Carroll: A Celebration. Essays on the Occasion of the 150th Anniversary of the Birth of Charles Lutwidge Dodgson, New York, 89-100. Search in Google Scholar

Hoffmann F. 2000. Ägypten. Kultur und Lebenswelt in griechisch-römischer Zeit. Eine Darstellung nach den demotischen Quellen, Berlin. Search in Google Scholar

Hoffmann F. – Quack J.F. 2018. Anthologie der demotischen Literatur, Berlin. Search in Google Scholar

Holland N.N. 1959. “The Seventh Seal: The film as iconography”, The Hudson Review 12, 266-270. Search in Google Scholar

Holm T.L. 2013. Of Courtiers and Kings. The Biblical Daniel Narratives and Ancient Story-Collections, Winona Lake.10.1515/9781575068695 Search in Google Scholar

Huet M.-H. 2013. “Around the world in eighty spaces”, The Princeton University Library Chronicle 74, 397-414. Search in Google Scholar

Jacoby F. 1958. Die Fragmente der griechischen Historiker, vol. III. C, Leiden. Search in Google Scholar

Keyser P.T. 2015. “Apion of Alexandria (616)”, I. Worthington (ed.), Brill’s New Jacoby, online (http://referenceworks.brillonline.com/entries/brills-new-jacoby/apion-of-alexandria-616-a616). Search in Google Scholar

Konstantakos I.M. 2004. “Trial by riddle: The testing of the counsellor and the contest of kings in the legend of Amasis and Bias”, C&M 55, 85-137. Search in Google Scholar

Konstantakos I.M. 2008. Ἀκίχαρος. Ἡ Διήγηση τοῦ Ἀχικὰρ στὴν ἀρχαία Ἑλλάδα, vol. I, Athens. Search in Google Scholar

Konstantakos I.M. 2016. “The magical transformation contest in the ancient storytelling tradition”, CFC(G) 26, 207-234. Search in Google Scholar

Konstantakos I.M. 2019. “The most ancient ‘puzzle magazines’: Miscellanies of intellectual games from Ahiqar to Aristophanes”, Enthymema 23, 303-347. Search in Google Scholar

Koskinen M. 2005. “Chess in film: From Hollywood to Ingmar Bergman”, O. Ferm – V. Honemann (eds), Chess and Allegory in the Middle Ages. A Collection of Essays, Stockholm, 17-30. Search in Google Scholar

Krappe A.H. 1941. “Is the story of Aḥikar the Wise of Indian origin?”, JAOS 61, 280-284. Search in Google Scholar

Kurke L. 1999. “Ancient Greek board games and how to play them”, CPh 94, 247-267. Search in Google Scholar

Lalouette C. 1987. Textes sacrés et textes profanes de l’ancienne Égypte, vol. II, Paris. Search in Google Scholar

Lamer H. 1927. “Lusoria tabula”, RE XIII.2, 1900-2029. Search in Google Scholar

Landthaler B. – Liss H. 1996. “Der Konflikt des Bileam. Irreführungen in der ‘Schachnovelle’ von Stefan Zweig”, Zeitschrift für Germanistik n.F. 6, 384-398. Search in Google Scholar

Lange B.-P. 1993. “Der Meisterdiskurs: Symbolische Herrschaft in Lewis Carrolls Through the Looking-Glass”, Arbeiten aus Anglistik und Amerikanistik 18, 91-125. Search in Google Scholar

Laser S. 1987. Archaeologia Homerica: Sport und Spiel, Göttingen. Search in Google Scholar

Lichtheim M. 1980. Ancient Egyptian Literature: A Book of Readings, vol. III, Berkeley – Los Angeles – London. Search in Google Scholar

Liotsakis V. 2012. “Following the king to the underworld: The tale of Rampsinitus (Hdt. II 122) and Ancient Egyptian tradition”, Eikasmos 23, 139-158. Search in Google Scholar

Loughrey B. – Taylor N. 1982. “Ferdinand and Miranda at chess”, C.M.S. Alexander (ed.), The Cambridge Shakespeare Library, vol. II, Cambridge, 30-35. Search in Google Scholar

Lüders H. 1907. Das Würfelspiel im alten Indien, Berlin. Search in Google Scholar

Ludwich A. 1917. “Über die Homerischen Glossen Apions”, Philologus 74, 205-247. Search in Google Scholar

Ludwich A. 1918. “Über die Homerischen Glossen Apions (Schluß)”, Philologus 75, 95-127. Search in Google Scholar

Marcotte R.D. 1998. “Anūshīrvān and Buzurgmihr – The just ruler and the wise counsellor: Two figures of Persian traditional moral literature”, Rocznik Orientalistyczny 51, 69-90. Search in Google Scholar

Mark M. 2007. “The beginnings of chess”, I. Finkel (ed.), Ancient Board Games in Perspective. Papers from the 1990 British Museum Colloquium, with Additional Contributions, London, 138-157. Search in Google Scholar

Markey C. 1999. Italo Calvino. A Journey Toward Postmodernism, Gainesville. Search in Google Scholar

Marx A. 1889. Griechische Märchen von dankbaren Tieren und Verwandtes, Stuttgart. Search in Google Scholar

Maspero G. 2002. Popular Stories of Ancient Egypt, H. El-Shamy (ed.), Santa Barbara. Search in Google Scholar

Matthaios S. 2015. “Greek scholarship in the imperial era and late antiquity”, F. Montanari – S. Matthaios – A. Rengakos (eds), Brill’s Companion to Ancient Greek Scholarship, vol. I, Leiden, 184-296. Search in Google Scholar

Merkelbach R. 1962. Roman und Mysterium in der Antike, München. Search in Google Scholar

Minkowski C.Z. 2001. “The interrupted sacrifice and the Sanskrit epics”, Journal of Indian Philosophy 29, 169-186. Search in Google Scholar

Mohl J. 1877. Le livre des rois par Abou’lkasim Firdousi, vol. VI, Paris. Search in Google Scholar

Motlagh D.K. 1990. “Bozorgmehr-e Boḵtagān”, Encyclopedia Iranica 4, 427-429. Search in Google Scholar

Murray H.J.R. 1913. A History of Chess, Oxford. Search in Google Scholar

Needler W. 1953. “A thirty-square draught-board in the Royal Ontario Museum”, JEA 39, 60-75. Search in Google Scholar

Neitzel S. 1977. “Apions Γλῶσσαι Ὁμηρικαί”, K. Alpers – H. Erbse – A. Kleinlogel (eds), Sammlung griechischer und lateinischer Grammatiker, vol. III, Berlin – New York, 185-328. Search in Google Scholar

Netto J.A. 2004. “Intertextuality and the chess motif: Shakespeare, Middleton, Greenaway”, M. Marrapodi (ed.), Shakespeare, Italy, and Intertextuality, Manchester, 216-226. Search in Google Scholar

Noegel S.B. 1996. “Moses and magic: Notes on the Book of Exodus”, JANES 24, 45-59. Search in Google Scholar

Nöldeke T. 1892. Persische Studien. II, Wien. Search in Google Scholar

Nyberg H.S. 1964. A Manual of Pahlavi, vol. I, Wiesbaden. Search in Google Scholar

Oltermann P. 2008. “Endgames in a ‘hypermodern’ age. Stefan Zweig’s Schachnovelle reconsidered”, KulturPoetik 8, 170-186. Search in Google Scholar

O’Sullivan D.E. 2012. “Changing the rules in and of medieval chess allegories”, D.E. O’Sullivan (ed.), Chess in the Middle Ages and Early Modern Age. A Fundamental Thought Paradigm of the Premodern World, Berlin, 199-220. Search in Google Scholar

Pagliaro A. 1940. “Sulla più antica storia del giuoco degli scacchi”, RSO 18, 328-340. Search in Google Scholar

Pagliaro A. 1951. “Il testo pahlavico sul giuoco degli schacchi”, Miscellanea Giovanni Galbiati, vol. III, Milano, 97-110. Search in Google Scholar

Panaino A. 1998. Tessere il cielo. Considerazioni sulle Tavole astronomiche, gli Oroscopi e la Dottrina dei Legamenti tra Induismo, Zoroastrismo, Manicheismo e Mandeismo, Roma. Search in Google Scholar

Panaino A. 1999. La novella degli scacchi e della tavola reale. Un’antica fonte orientale sui due giochi da tavoliere più diffusi nel mondo eurasiatico tra Tardoantico e Medioevo e sulla loro simbologia militare e astrale. Testo pahlavi, traduzione e commento al Wizārīšn ī čatrang ud nīhišn ī nēw-ardaxšīr, Milano. Search in Google Scholar

Perrat C. 1954. “Autour du juge Bridoye: Rabelais et le De nobilitate de Tiraqueau”, Bibliothèque d’Humanisme et Renaissance 16, 41-57. Search in Google Scholar

Perry J.R. 1986. “Blackmailing Amazons and Dutch pigs: A consideration of epic and folktale motifs in Persian historiography”, Iranian Studies 19, 155-165. Search in Google Scholar

Piankoff A. 1974. The Wandering of the Soul. Texts Translated with Commentary, Princeton. Search in Google Scholar

Piccione P.A. 1980. “In search of the meaning of senet”, Archaeology 33, 55-58. Search in Google Scholar

Piccione P.A. 1994. “The gaming episode in the Tale of Setne Khamwas as religious metaphor”, D.P. Silverman (ed.), For His Ka. Essays Offered in Memory of Klaus Baer, Chicago, 197-204. Search in Google Scholar

Piccione P.A. 2007. “The Egyptian game of senet and the migration of the soul”, I. Finkel (ed.), Ancient Board Games in Perspective. Papers from the 1990 British Museum Colloquium, with Additional Contributions, London, 54-63. Search in Google Scholar

Pieper M. 1931. “Zum Setna-Roman”, ZÄS 67, 71-74. Search in Google Scholar

Pieper M. 1935. Das ägyptische Märchen. Ursprung und Nachwirkung ältester Märchendichtung bis zur Gegenwart, Leipzig. Search in Google Scholar

Pizzi I. 1888. Firdusi, Il libro dei re. Poema epico recato dal persiano in versi italiani, vol. VII, Torino. Search in Google Scholar

Poole W. 2004. “False play: Shakespeare and chess”, Shakespeare Quarterly 55, 50-70. Search in Google Scholar

Psichari M. 1908. “Les jeux de Gargantua”, Revue des Études Rabelaisiennes 6, 1-37, 124-181, 317-361. Search in Google Scholar

Psichari M. 1909. “Les jeux de Gargantua”, Revue des Études Rabelaisiennes 7, 48-64. Search in Google Scholar

Pugliese M.V. 2008. “Il fragile potere della scrittura: Il castello dei destini incrociati di Italo Calvino”, Italianistica: Rivista di letteratura italiana 37, 101-109. Search in Google Scholar

Purcell N. 1995. “Literate games: Roman urban society and the game of alea”, P&P 147, 3-37.10.1093/past/147.1.3 Search in Google Scholar

Pusch E.B. 1979. Das Senet-Brettspiel im Alten Ägypten, München. Search in Google Scholar

Pusch E.B. 1984. “Senet”, W. Helck – W. Westendorf (eds), Lexikon der Ägyptologie, vol. V, Wiesbaden, 851-855. Search in Google Scholar

Quack J.F. 2005. Einführung in die altägyptische Literaturgeschichte, vol. III, Münster. Search in Google Scholar

Quack J.F. – Ryholt K. 2000. “Notes on the Setne story. P. Carlsberg 207”, P.J. Frandsen – K. Ryholt (eds), A Miscellany of Demotic Texts and Studies, (The Carlsberg Papyri 3), Copenhagen, 141-163. Search in Google Scholar

Renello G.P. 2005. “Irretire Calvino: Il castello dei destini incrociati e i grafi di Petri”, Narrativa 27, 209-230. Search in Google Scholar

Ricci F. 2001. Painting with Words, Writing with Pictures. Word and Image in the Work of Italo Calvino, Toronto.10.3138/9781442678231 Search in Google Scholar

Ritner R.K. 1993. The Mechanics of Ancient Egyptian Magical Practice, Chicago. Search in Google Scholar

Rogers W.N. 1983. “Heroic defense: The lost positions of Nabokov’s Luzhin and Kawabata’s Shūsai”, Comparative Literature Studies 20, 217-230. Search in Google Scholar

Römer T.C. 2003. “Competing magicians in Exodus 7-9: Interpreting magic in the priestly theology”, T.E. Klutz (ed.), Magic in the Biblical World. From the Rod of Aaron to the Ring of Solomon, London, 12-22. Search in Google Scholar

Ryholt K. 2009. “The life of Imhotep (P. Carslberg 85)”, G. Widmer – D. Devauchelle (eds), Actes du IXe congrès international des études démotiques, Le Caire, 305-315. Search in Google Scholar

Schädler U. 2002. “The Talmud, Firdausî and the Greek game ‘city’ ”, J. Retschitzki – R. Haddad-Zubel (eds), Step by Step. Proceedings of the 4th Colloquium Board Games in Academia, Fribourg, 91-102. Search in Google Scholar

Scherf W. 1995. Das Märchenlexikon, München. Search in Google Scholar

Schneider M. 1980. “Calvino at a crossroads: Il castello dei destini incrociati”, Publications of the Modern Language Association 95, 73-90. Search in Google Scholar

Scobie A. 1977. “Some folktales in Graeco-Roman and Far Eastern sources”, Philologus 121, 1-23. Search in Google Scholar

Scott J.F. 1965. “The achievement of Ingmar Bergman”, The Journal of Aesthetics and Art Criticism 24, 263-272. Search in Google Scholar

Screech M.-A. 1964. “The legal comedy of Rabelais in the trial of Bridoye in the ‘Tiers Livre’ de Pantagruel”, Études Rabelaisiennes 5, 175-195. Search in Google Scholar

Serrano Delgado J.M. 2011. “Rhampsinitus, Setne Khamwas and the descent to the netherworld: Some remarks on Herodotus II, 122, 1”, JANER 11, 94-108. Search in Google Scholar

Simpson W.K. (ed.) 2003. The Literature of Ancient Egypt. An Anthology of Stories, Instructions, Stelae, Autobiographies, and Poetry, New Haven. Search in Google Scholar

Solem D.E. 1954. “Some Elizabethan game scenes”, Educational Theatre Journal 6, 15-21. Search in Google Scholar

Struve G. 1967. “Notes on Nabokov as a Russian writer”, Wisconsin Studies in Contemporary Literature 8, 153-164. Search in Google Scholar

Stubbs J.C. 1975. “The Seventh Seal”, The Journal of Aesthetic Education 9, 62-76. Search in Google Scholar

Susina J. 2010. “Playing around in Lewis Carroll’s Alice books”, American Journal of Play 2, 419-428. Search in Google Scholar

Tait W.J. 1991. “P. Carlsberg 207: Two columns of a Setna-text”, P.J. Frandsen (ed.), The Carlsberg Papyri, vol. I, Copenhagen, 19-46. Search in Google Scholar

Tait W.J. 2007. “Were there gamesters in pharaonic Egypt?”, I. Finkel (ed.), Ancient Board Games in Perspective. Papers from the 1990 British Museum Colloquium, with Additional Contributions, London, 46-53. Search in Google Scholar

Taylor A.L. 1952. The White Knight. A Study of C.L. Dodgson, Edinburgh. Search in Google Scholar

Thiercy P. 1986. Aristophane: fiction et dramaturgie, Paris. Search in Google Scholar

Tieken H. 2004. “The Mahābhārata after the Great Battle”, Wiener Zeitschrift für die Kunde Südasiens 48, 5-46. Search in Google Scholar

Toker L. 1989. Nabokov. The Mystery of Literary Structures, Ithaca – London. Search in Google Scholar

Törnqvist E. 1995. Between Stage and Screen. Ingmar Bergman Directs, Amsterdam.10.5117/9789053561379 Search in Google Scholar

Turcan R. 1963. “Le roman ‘initiatique’ : À propos d’un livre récent”, RHR 163, 149-199. Search in Google Scholar

van Buitenen J.A.B. 1975. The Mahābhārata. 2 The Book of the Assembly Hall. 3 The Book of the Forest, Chicago. Search in Google Scholar

van der Horst P. 2002. Japheth in the Tents of Shem. Studies on Jewish Hellenism in Antiquity, Leuven. Search in Google Scholar

Vanstiphout H. 2003. Epics of Sumerian Kings. The Matter of Aratta, Atlanta. Search in Google Scholar

Vierne S. 1972. “Le voyage initiatique”, Romantisme 4, 37-44. Search in Google Scholar

Vierne S. 1973. Jules Verne et le roman initiatique, Paris.10.3406/roman.1972.5402 Search in Google Scholar

Vinson S. 2009. “The names ‘Naneferkaptah’, ‘Ihweret’, and ‘Tabubue’ in the ‘First Tale of Setne Khaemwas’ ”, JNES 68, 283-304. Search in Google Scholar

Vinson S. 2018. The Craft of a Good Scribe. History, Narrative and Meaning in the First Tale of Setne Khaemwas, Leiden.10.1163/9789004353107 Search in Google Scholar

Walsh A.L. 2007. Arturo Pérez-Reverte. Narrative Tricks and Narrative Strategies, Woodbridge. Search in Google Scholar

Warner A.G. – Warner E. 1915. The Sháhnáma of Firdausí, vol. VII, London. Search in Google Scholar

Wilcke C. 2012. The Sumerian Poem Enmerkar and En-suḫkeš-ana: Epic, Play, Or? Stage Craft at the Turn from the Third to the Second Millennium B.C., New Haven. Search in Google Scholar

Wilmot P. 2006. Mahābhārata, Book Two: The Great Hall, New York. Search in Google Scholar

Wood M. 1998. “Hidden in the distance: Reading Calvino reading”, The Kenyon Review 20, 155-170. Search in Google Scholar

Woods J.F. 2001. Destiny and Human Initiative in the Mahābhārata, New York. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo