1. bookAHEAD OF PRINT
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
19 Oct 2012
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

A Review on the Performance and Comfort of Stab Protection Armor

Published Online: 06 Apr 2021
Page range: -
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
19 Oct 2012
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Stab-protective clothing is the most important component of safety equipment and it helps to save the lives of its wearers; therefore, it is designed to resist knife, nail, or needle attacks, especially to the upper body. In this paper, the essential requirements for stab-resistant armor are investigated based on an in-depth review of previous research and prototype test results. The combination of protection and comfort in armor vests is a particularly challenging task. Review of the state of the art technology responsible for the manufacture of stab-resistant clothes has revealed that their design and development should encompass the elements of comfort, freedom of movement, permeability, absorption, evaporation, and weight reductions to ensure excellent ergonomics and high wear comfort. The design as well as the production, weight, thickness, material types and properties, and the arrangement of scales determine the level of protection and comfort offered by stab-resistant vests. Currently, the production of stab-proof gear-based 3D printing technology is evaluated, using lightweight materials (aramid) in the form of segmented scales inspired by nature. As the protection performance and wear comfort of stab-proof gear is enhanced, the willingness of security, control, transport, custom, and correction officers to wear them can be significantly increased in an endeavor to ensure that fatal injuries will decrease significantly.

Keywords

Introduction

Stab-protective clothing is a vital component of safety equipment that helps to save the lives of its wearers. A stab vest is a reinforced piece of body armor designed to resist attacks to the upper parts of the body (chest, back, and sides). It can be worn underneath or over clothing and offers protection against stabbing with sharp-tipped knives, needles, nails, and other sharp objects.

Early humans used comparatively primitive armors, which were manufactured out of metal, horn, wood, or leather lamellae [1, 2], but as civilizations developed and techniques advanced, body armor evolved. Then, in the last century, with its two world wars, various attempts were made to advance the technology of body armor [1]. It was reported that the first soft body armor was developed by the Japanese and, in that instance, was made of silk and was most effective against low-velocity bullets [3]. The first so-called bullet-proof vests were designed in America in the two decades following World War I [4, 5]. Modern police body armor was introduced into practice in the 1970s as a result of the US National Institute of Justice (NIJ)-funded research [6].

https://www.w3.org/2001/sw/wiki/R2RML_Parser

Research indicates that an officer who is not wearing body armor is 3 to 4 times more likely to suffer a fatal injury if stabbed in the torso than an officer who is wearing body armor. Thus, police officers, military, transport, and correction administrators should encourage their staff to wear stab vests during the whole duty shift [7].

The level of protection required in soft and sensitive body regions is determined by the type of attacks that are likely to be encountered [8]. Though corresponding guidelines exist, the design of appropriate stab vests with the desired level of protection can be challenging for a wide range of weapons that are used for puncture, and the stabbing techniques are different depending on assailants [9].

In addition to stab protection, body armors should be selected for comfort, flexibility, and other ergonomic issues for acceptance in accompaniment with coverage and service life [10, 11, 12]. The stab-protective vest should maintain body temperature through the thermal balance of heat generated by the body and transferring it to the environment [13, 14]. Thermal resistance, water-vapor resistance, moisture transfer, air permeability, surface friction, size, fit, locomotion, and flexibility are the most important comfort-determining factors [15, 16] to enhance the function of vests, when these factors are considered during designing.

Protection and comfort are always conflicting. It is a well-known fact that a high level of protection from attacks is typically achieved at the expense of physiological comfort [17], which reduces the working period and efficiency of the wearer [12].

The selection of advanced materials (both for performance and for comfort) and appropriate armor design should ideally allow the flow of excessive metabolic heat away from the body (thermo-physiological property), which can be reflected by a combination of air permeability, thermal resistance, and moisture evaporation [18, 19, 20]. The increase in the stab resistance was attributed to the coating that bound the reduced micro-porous nature of the cloth and its raw material, increased thickness, and bending resistance that resulted in reduced comfort properties [20].

To be thermally comfortable when the body is heating up and sweating, the stab-protective vest should be able to eliminate the excess heat generated within the body to the atmosphere [13, 15, 20, 21]. Tactile comfort, i.e., the feel or sensation on the skin when worn, is affected by the type of fiber and should be considered [22], as well as the chemical finish [23], type of fabric, and fabric structure [22].

The use of body armor has always been an issue in terms of ease of body movement and cognitive functions [24, 25], which should not be drastically compromised by the design of the protective armor [12].

Determinants of protection and comfort of armors
Concealment for protection and comfort

The compatibility of protective armors and other equipment should be evaluated in addition to freedom of movement and appropriateness of the design (overlap between jacket and trousers, arm length). Manufacturers should produce customized vests for wearers with different body types, to ensure that maximum benefit is achieved [26].

The majority of stab attacks are directed at the chest and abdomen area, which can cause serious injuries, often leading to death [28, 29, 30, 31, 32, 33], for which reason body armors are designed to protect these areas in particular, as shown in Figure 1 [34]. Besides the torso, head (including face), and arms are most likely to be attacked, followed by neck, shoulder, and legs that are also very vulnerable to stab attacks [35]. As shown in Figure 2, the neck and shoulder areas are not covered by armor vest because the currently available stab-resistant materials would lead to physiological and operational constraints [36, 37]. Therefore, advancements in materials and design are required, for example, based on 3D body scanning and 3D printing technologies.

Figure 1

Concealable body armor: stab-proof vest [27].

Figure 2

Shoulder and neck are not covered by standard stab vests [27].

Characteristics of weapons for stabbing

The majority of stabbing incidents are performed using domestic knives, such as kitchen knives, lock knives, sheath knives, pen knives, and other variations [19, 38]. Different types of stabbing and spiking domestic knives are presented in Figure 3.

Figure 3

Various stabbing weapons: (a) lock knife (b) sheath knife (c) combat blade (d, f, h) kitchen knives, (e) pointed weapon, (g) dagger, (i) awl, and (j) screw driver.

Generally, each stabbing weapon has a blade and a handle designed to suit its intended purpose for medical procedures, domestic use, manufacturing, training, and attacking, whereby the overall performance essentially depends on the blade [39]. The physical condition and skill of the attacker in addition to the characteristic features of a blade, such as the material it is made of, thickness, profile of the tip (i.e., angle of the point), attacking angle, and sharpness of the edge, affect the severity of any attack and determine the type of armor to be designed [39, 40, 41, 42]. Body armors that pass standard testing may still fail in case of a real attack due to changing parameters, for example, if knives are thrown manually or propelled mechanically at the target from different distances [43]. Moreover, the point and edge of a knife play significant roles during the basic mechanism of cutting (compressive pressure) [38, 44, 45]. Advanced stab-resistant armors protect their wearers against different types of knives.

Design of stab-resistant armor types

Many biological systems possess hierarchical and fractal-like interfaces and joint structures that bear and transmit loads, absorb energy, and accommodate growth, respiration, and/or locomotion [46].

A diversity of geometrically structured interfaces and joints is found in biology, for example, in the form of bone and armored exoskeletons [47, 48], the cranium [49, 50], the turtle carapace [51] and algae [52]. Mechanical and biological activities such as growth, motion, protection, load transmission, and energy absorption are determined by their geometry [49, 50, 53].

Learning by imitation and further by linking of data has probably been one of the most productive ways of development to be deployed. In the case of bio-inspired flexible protection, segmented armors from fish (Figures 4a and 4b), alligators (Figures 4c and 4d), snakes, Tonicella marmorea (Figures 8 and 9), pangolin, scaly-foot gastropods (Figure 5), species of Arapaima (Figure 6), and armadillos (Figures 4e and 4f) are attracting an increasing amount of attention owing to their unique and highly efficient protective systems that resist mechanical threats from predation, while combining hardness, flexibility, breathability, thinness, puncture-resistance, and lightweight [53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58]. The extreme contrast between extremely stiff, hard scales and surrounding soft tissues gives rise to unusual and attractive mechanisms, which now serve as models for the design of bio-inspired armors. Despite this growing interest, currently limited guidelines are available for the choice of materials, thickness, size, shape, and arrangement for protective scales [59].

Figure 4

Examples of segmented armors found in nature: (a), (b) Striped bass with detailed arrangement of scales and geometry (c), (d) Alligator gar with details of scales; (e), (f) Armadillo with details of bony plates [59].

Figure 5

“Scaly-foot” gastropods top (a), and underside (b) [60].

Figure 6

Hierarchical structure of Arapaima scales [57].

Figure 7

Demonstrating the flexibility of pangolin armor [61].

Figure 8

Images of Chiton Tonicella marmorea: (a) side view optical microscopy image of a dried shell; (b) side view photograph of a recently thawed chiton in a defensive, curved posture [58].

Figure 9

Thickness distribution of the armor plate assembly of Tonicella marmorea presented in dorsal view of the spatial distribution of thickness for each plate (1–8) [58].

Researchers studied the structure of individual scales and their arrangement (scalation pattern), using the example of a striped bass (Mimetes Saxatilis), a common teleost fish originating from the Northern Atlantic Ocean, which provides basic knowledge for future biomimetic “artificial scales” such that the resistance to puncture of individual scales is equally as important as their overlap and arrangement in providing efficient protection [56]. Similarly, protective gear for the human torso should be designed for ultimate protection, while providing the required flexibility, locomotion, and permeability to air and moisture.

Interactions between scales and segmentation

Segmented armors allow for much greater flexibility of movement, and they are therefore found in animal species with relatively fast locomotion; however, such armors still provide high surface hardness to prevent the teeth of potential predators from penetrating the soft underlying tissues and vital organs [59, 62], in which individual segments display highly efficient structures and mechanisms. Shape optimization may be coupled with material choice, size and thickness of the scales, and attachments of the scales to design, thus producing high-performance bio-inspired flexible armors [59].

The scale–scale interactions can significantly increase the resistance to puncture due to the improved stability, and these interactions can be maximized by tuning the geometry and arrangement of the scales [63]. Interestingly, the designs that offer the best combinations of puncture resistance and flexural compliance are similar to the geometry and arrangement of natural teleost and ganoid scales (see Figure 10), which suggests that natural evolution has shaped these systems to maximize flexible protection [64, 65].

Figure 10

Examples of ganoid and elasmoid scales [65].

Structured interfaces are prevalent throughout nature and give rise to many remarkable mechanical properties in a number of biological materials [46, 53, 63, 66, 67, 68]. The materials, shape, size, and arrangement of the scales also influence the flexural response of the whole scales of skin, in which the scales surrounding the puncture redistribute the puncture force over large surfaces and volumes in the soft tissue [54, 66, 69]. This mechanism of scale interaction and force dispersal prevents unstable localized deformation of the skin and damage to underlying tissues [56, 70]. Due to additive manufacturing technologies that enable printing on individually assembled soft base materials, the geometric design of interlocking structures combined with material elongation allows for overlapping effects [37].

Therefore, protective gear involving segmented scales (see Figure 11) will provide better protection and comfort to a human torso than a vest made of a single piece of stab-resistant material, e.g., ceramics, polycarbonate sheet, or other metals. However, the performance of segmented scales for stab protection depends on the thickness of scales and the type of materials used for 3D printing. A research study presented the scales of 3D printed from aramid fiber with different thicknesses, and the result revealed that a scale with 2 mm thickness failed to resist the stabbing blade, whereas the scales with 4 mm and 6 mm thickness resist the puncture of a knife at impact energy of 25 joules [37]. Segmented scales increase thermal comfort by allowing the transport of moisture away from the body [14, 71]. The human body requires elimination of excess heat from the body through the dry heat losses and perspiration from the body to the environment, which depend on the air gap between the skin and garment layers. These air gaps should be determined during designing and attachment of segmented scales to improve the comfort of body armors [14, 21, 72, 73].

Figure 11

Scale-like elements with water-soluble support (left) and overlapping effects (right) [37].

Materials for the production of stab-protection armor

Stab- and puncture-resistant soft body armor commonly employs multiple layers of densely woven fabrics or closely spaced laminated layers to dissipate the energy of an impact [74]. A stab-resistant body armor panel should afford protection against injury from penetration, while ensuring that the movement of the wearer is not excessively restricted. The impact force should be effectively spread from the point of impact over a greater area of the armor [75, 76, 77]. Materials designed for stab protection should absorb all the stab energy prior to penetration [69, 76, 77]. A typical stab-resistant system used for industrial protection is several millimeters thick and composed of knitted aramid fabric impregnated with thermoplastic polymers [78].

Some research studies encourage the use of much harder materials, such as high-density ceramics, to prevent bodily injury arising from impacts caused by sharp objects made of steel or other hard materials penetrating the protective armor [59]. Modern soft body armor consists of multiple layers of fabrics made from expensive high-performance fibers, for example, aramid, glass, polybenzoxazole, light para-aramid, and high-performance polyethylene, as an outer cover, while cotton, polyester, or wool are used to ensure good breathability and durability [78, 79, 80, 81]. Most of the flexible protective systems used today are based on advanced textiles involving aramid and polyethylene fibers [82].

Shape optimization may be coupled with material choice, thus producing high-performance bio-inspired flexible armors [59]. Suitable yarns and fibers for making body armor fabric for multi-threat vests are available [4, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87]. Moreover, natural fibers such as wool and cotton are combined with aramid material for enhanced wear comfort in terms of thermal conductivity, vapor transportation, air permeability, high moisture content, and insulation [88, 89]. Another research study concluded that inserting wool into a twill woven protection panel can lead to achieving acceptable stab depth values with fewer layers because wool is prevents yarn from sliding on the aramid layer below. This leads to weight reduction and improved wear comfort of the soft panels [90]. A suitable material selection is essential to design and develop armors with high protection performance for a specific energy level and wear comfort.

Weight of stab-resistant armor

Various factors affect the freedom of movement of individual body parts, including the number of layers, thickness of each fabric layer, clothing system design, and the relative ease of fitting between body dimensions and clothing [42, 91]. As the number of layers, physical bulk, and overall weight of the clothing system tend to increase, mobility is reduced, which can cause pain in several body parts, e.g., neck, back, and shoulder. The design might include front pockets for extra equipment, an adjustable abdominal belt, zippers, or adjustable straps for convenient wearability, which additionally increase weight. A stab-proof body armor panel that is made of a multilayered fabric assembly might exceed 40 layers and have a total weight varying from 1 kg to 10 kg depending on the armor type and protection level required [35, 92]. For low-energy threats, the number of layers can be reduced, which makes it easier to assemble a complete multilayer garment.

It was reported that users were reluctant to wear an uncomfortable protective vest [93]. Therefore, the interaction between the protective vest and the body is an important factor that needs to be considered when designing body armor. Advanced body armor technologies aim to reduce body armor vest weight to enhance the wearer’s comfort level [73, 75, 94]. Evaporation of sweat over a large percentage of the body area could be improved by reduced weight and thickness of body armor vest [95].

The addition of advanced materials to the material mix improved stab resistance due to the improved mechanical properties of the end product and a high aspect ratio. For example, a stab-proof material made of laser-sintered polyamide/carbon fiber with a plate thickness of 6.5 mm and a pyramid angle of 30° appeared to be the optimum composition for the desired application. Its area density was 6.58 kg/m2, leading to a 43% weight reduction compared to conventional stab-resistant body armor [96]. Lightweight, free motion, flexibility, improved breathability as well as a high protection performance of armor materials can be achieved in future research projects.

Evaluation of stab-resistant armors

The performance of stab-protective armors is assessed for its protection and comfort using testing standards. This helps to determine the protection level of armors for a specified impact energy applied by attackers. The widely used test standards are US Department of Justice, NIJ-Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor NIJ Standard–0115.00 [6], Home Office Scientific Development Branch (HOSDB) Body Armor Standards for UK Police (2007) Part 3: Knife and Spike Resistance [97], and Association of Test Laboratories for Bullet Resistant Materials and Constructions-VPAM KDIW 2004 [98]. These standards present the scope and evaluation procedures of the protection level, striking energy (see Table 1), number and size of specimens, backing material, maximum allowable penetration depth of knife through each specimen, and test conditions.

Description of some testing standards of stab-protective body armor

NoStandard and OwnerDescriptionProtection LevelEnergy Level (Joules) and Penetration Depth (mm)
E1Maximum Penetration DepthE2Maximum Penetration Depth
1ISO 13998, EU [103]This applies to protective aprons, trousers, and vests for use with hand knives, and related garments for protection in accidents. It specifies requirements for the design, penetration resistance, cut resistance, sizing, ergonomic characteristics, innocuousness, water permeability, cleaning, and disinfection, marking and information to be supplied by the manufacturer.Level 12.4510 mm and no single penetration exceeds 17 mm--
Level 24.912 mm and no single penetration exceeds 15 mm
2US Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs National Institute of Justice-Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor NIJ Standard–0115.00[6]The scope of the standard is limited to stab resistance only. The standard does not directly address slash threats; however, testing has shown that stab threats are by far the more difficult to defeat, and that body armor capable of defeating stab threats will perform satisfactorily against slash threats.124±0.50736 ± 0.6020
233±0.6050 ± 0.70
343±0.6065 ± 0.80
3Home Office Scientific Development Branch (HOSDB) Body Armor Standards for UK Police (2007) Part 3: Knife and Spike Resistance [97]The standard contains requirements for body armor intended to provide torso protection to officers exposed to assaults by knives (K) and spikes (SP). Body armor capable of defeating stab and ballistic threats will perform satisfactorily against slash attacks.KR1+SP124KR1 = 7, SP1 = 0*KR1 = 36, SP1 = N/AKR1 = 20*, SP1 = N/A
KR2 + SP233KR2 = 7, SP2 = 0*KR2 = 50, SP2 = N/AKR2 = 20*, SP2 = N/A
KR3 + SP343KR3 = 7, SP3 = 0*KR3= 65, SP3 = N/AKR3 = 20*, SP3 = N/A
4Association of test laboratories for bullet resistant materials and constructions-VPAM KDIW 2004 Edition: 18.05.2011 [98]The standard describes the requirements, classifications, and test procedures for stab (K), spike (D), and needle impact-resistant equipment.The standard ensures reproducible results and provides customers and users with a better market transparency to objectively compare the products of various providers.K1 + D125<20--
K2 + D240
K3 + D365
K4 + D480

The main comfort parameters of body armor such as air permeability, thermal transmission, water resistance, and flexibility of armor are evaluated according to ASTM-D737:2004 [99], ASTM-D5470:2017 [100], ISO-811:2018(en) [101], and ASTM-D1388:2018 [102], respectively.

Conclusion

Stab-resistant body armors are crucially important for saving the lives of police officers, correction officers, transport officers, and customs officials. Although the vast majority agrees on the importance of protective gear, there are considerable issues pertaining to their weight, bulkiness, thickness, limited flexibility for free body movement, restricted permeability, and metabolic respiration, thus decreasing the willingness of potential users to wear protective clothing. Therefore, protection as well as comfort should be considered during the design and development of body armor. Hence, important factors, such as the types and characteristics of materials, design, thickness, concealment, integration between plates, protection class, and body armor weight must be taken into consideration throughout the whole process – from the concept of design to the product development itself. A high-performance material such as aramid is highly suitable to fulfill these requirements for bio-inspired vests, which help saving the lives of officers and ensure the desired comfort. The described body armor is under prototype development and will be subjected to testing to determine the optimal combination of comfort and protection. Thicker, bulkier, rigid, and larger/single plated armors can provide higher protection levels at the expense of comfort, in turn reducing acceptance by potential users. Although comfort is a legitimate concern, protection is always the prime requirement for stab-resistant gear.

Currently, our team of researchers is studying the design and development of 3D printed stab-resistant armor based on the example of naturally occurring scales using aramid fibers due to their lightweight, durability, and high strength. Optimization of protection performance with the lowest possible thickness of scales and weight of the overall armor will be the main focus of the current research. All future research efforts in this field should simultaneously address comfort and protection performance, thereby increasing the willingness of armor users to wear armor frequently and regularly. 3D body scanning and 3D printing technologies can be employed to improve comfort by providing the necessary concealment, full flexibility, and great freedom of movement. The protection level and comfort of armors can be further improved by means of hybrid materials. For example, by the 3D printing of wool fiber and aramid or carbon fiber, two essential properties of the resulting stab-proof material can be guaranteed; this is because wool provides permeability and absorbency, whereas aramid or carbon ensures high impact resistance to puncture force.

The optimization of protection and comfort of body armor requires further research in terms of materials, design, technological flexibility including 3D printing technology, and the integration of electronic devices for communication, sensing situations, recording, and viewing of attackers from all directions. As a result, the wearers of protective gear could detect potential attacks earlier, thus giving them the chance to escape or prepare mentally for their defense.

Figure 1

Concealable body armor: stab-proof vest [27].
Concealable body armor: stab-proof vest [27].

Figure 2

Shoulder and neck are not covered by standard stab vests [27].
Shoulder and neck are not covered by standard stab vests [27].

Figure 3

Various stabbing weapons: (a) lock knife (b) sheath knife (c) combat blade (d, f, h) kitchen knives, (e) pointed weapon, (g) dagger, (i) awl, and (j) screw driver.
Various stabbing weapons: (a) lock knife (b) sheath knife (c) combat blade (d, f, h) kitchen knives, (e) pointed weapon, (g) dagger, (i) awl, and (j) screw driver.

Figure 4

Examples of segmented armors found in nature: (a), (b) Striped bass with detailed arrangement of scales and geometry (c), (d) Alligator gar with details of scales; (e), (f) Armadillo with details of bony plates [59].
Examples of segmented armors found in nature: (a), (b) Striped bass with detailed arrangement of scales and geometry (c), (d) Alligator gar with details of scales; (e), (f) Armadillo with details of bony plates [59].

Figure 5

“Scaly-foot” gastropods top (a), and underside (b) [60].
“Scaly-foot” gastropods top (a), and underside (b) [60].

Figure 6

Hierarchical structure of Arapaima scales [57].
Hierarchical structure of Arapaima scales [57].

Figure 7

Demonstrating the flexibility of pangolin armor [61].
Demonstrating the flexibility of pangolin armor [61].

Figure 8

Images of Chiton Tonicella marmorea: (a) side view optical microscopy image of a dried shell; (b) side view photograph of a recently thawed chiton in a defensive, curved posture [58].
Images of Chiton Tonicella marmorea: (a) side view optical microscopy image of a dried shell; (b) side view photograph of a recently thawed chiton in a defensive, curved posture [58].

Figure 9

Thickness distribution of the armor plate assembly of Tonicella marmorea presented in dorsal view of the spatial distribution of thickness for each plate (1–8) [58].
Thickness distribution of the armor plate assembly of Tonicella marmorea presented in dorsal view of the spatial distribution of thickness for each plate (1–8) [58].

Figure 10

Examples of ganoid and elasmoid scales [65].
Examples of ganoid and elasmoid scales [65].

Figure 11

Scale-like elements with water-soluble support (left) and overlapping effects (right) [37].
Scale-like elements with water-soluble support (left) and overlapping effects (right) [37].

Description of some testing standards of stab-protective body armor

NoStandard and OwnerDescriptionProtection LevelEnergy Level (Joules) and Penetration Depth (mm)
E1Maximum Penetration DepthE2Maximum Penetration Depth
1ISO 13998, EU [103]This applies to protective aprons, trousers, and vests for use with hand knives, and related garments for protection in accidents. It specifies requirements for the design, penetration resistance, cut resistance, sizing, ergonomic characteristics, innocuousness, water permeability, cleaning, and disinfection, marking and information to be supplied by the manufacturer.Level 12.4510 mm and no single penetration exceeds 17 mm--
Level 24.912 mm and no single penetration exceeds 15 mm
2US Department of Justice Office of Justice Programs National Institute of Justice-Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor NIJ Standard–0115.00[6]The scope of the standard is limited to stab resistance only. The standard does not directly address slash threats; however, testing has shown that stab threats are by far the more difficult to defeat, and that body armor capable of defeating stab threats will perform satisfactorily against slash threats.124±0.50736 ± 0.6020
233±0.6050 ± 0.70
343±0.6065 ± 0.80
3Home Office Scientific Development Branch (HOSDB) Body Armor Standards for UK Police (2007) Part 3: Knife and Spike Resistance [97]The standard contains requirements for body armor intended to provide torso protection to officers exposed to assaults by knives (K) and spikes (SP). Body armor capable of defeating stab and ballistic threats will perform satisfactorily against slash attacks.KR1+SP124KR1 = 7, SP1 = 0*KR1 = 36, SP1 = N/AKR1 = 20*, SP1 = N/A
KR2 + SP233KR2 = 7, SP2 = 0*KR2 = 50, SP2 = N/AKR2 = 20*, SP2 = N/A
KR3 + SP343KR3 = 7, SP3 = 0*KR3= 65, SP3 = N/AKR3 = 20*, SP3 = N/A
4Association of test laboratories for bullet resistant materials and constructions-VPAM KDIW 2004 Edition: 18.05.2011 [98]The standard describes the requirements, classifications, and test procedures for stab (K), spike (D), and needle impact-resistant equipment.The standard ensures reproducible results and provides customers and users with a better market transparency to objectively compare the products of various providers.K1 + D125<20--
K2 + D240
K3 + D365
K4 + D480

Reiners P. Investigation about the stab resistance of textile structures, methods for their testing and improvements. HAL: Université de Haute Alsace; 2016.ReinersPInvestigation about the stab resistance of textile structures, methods for their testing and improvementsHALUniversité de Haute Alsace2016Search in Google Scholar

Fenne P. Protection against knives and other weapons. . Scott RA, editor. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing, CRC; 2005.FennePProtection against knives and other weaponsScottRAeditor.CambridgeWoodhead Publishing, CRC2005Search in Google Scholar

Alil L-C, Barbu C, Badea S, Ilie F. Aspects regarding the use of polyethylene fibers for personal armor. Eastern Michigan University. 2004.AlilL-CBarbuCBadeaSIlieFAspects regarding the use of polyethylene fibers for personal armorEastern Michigan University2004Search in Google Scholar

Cavallaro PV. Soft Body Armor: An Overview of Materials, Manufacturing, Testing, and Ballistic Impact Dynamics. In: Division NUWC, editor.: NUWCD-NPT-TR.; 2011.CavallaroPVSoft Body Armor: An Overview of Materials, Manufacturing, Testing, and Ballistic Impact DynamicsIn:Division NUWCeditor.:NUWCD-NPT-TR2011Search in Google Scholar

Laible R. Ballistic Materials and Penetration Mechanics (Methods and phenomena, their applications in science and technology): Elsevier; 2012.LaibleR.Ballistic Materials and Penetration Mechanics (Methods and phenomena, their applications in science and technology)Elsevier2012Search in Google Scholar

Justice NIo. Office of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor NIJ Standard-011500. Washington: US National Institute of Justice; 2000.Justice NIoOffice of Justice Programs, U.S. Department of Justice. Stab Resistance of Personal Body Armor NIJ Standard-011500WashingtonUS National Institute of Justice2000Search in Google Scholar

LaTourrette T. The life-saving effectiveness of body armor for police officers. Journal of occupational and environmental hygiene. 2010;7(10):557–62. Epub 2010/07/17.LaTourretteTThe life-saving effectiveness of body armor for police officersJournal of occupational and environmental hygiene201071055762Epub 2010/07/17.Search in Google Scholar

Peleg K, Rivkind A, Aharonson-Daniel L. Does body armor protect from firearm injuries? Journal of the American College of Surgeons. 2006;202(4):643–8. Epub 2006/03/31.PelegKRivkindAAharonson-DanielLDoes body armor protect from firearm injuries?Journal of the American College of Surgeons200620246438Epub 2006/03/31.Search in Google Scholar

Jaslow CR. Mechanical properties pf cranal sutures. Journal of Biomechanical. 1990;23(4):313–21.JaslowCRMechanical properties pf cranal suturesJournal of Biomechanical199023431321Search in Google Scholar

Greaves I. Military Medicine in Iraq and Afghanistan: A Comprehensive Review: Taylor & Francis Group, CRC Press; 2018.GreavesIMilitary Medicine in Iraq and Afghanistan: A Comprehensive ReviewTaylor & Francis Group, CRC Press2018Search in Google Scholar

Ricciardi R, Deuster PA, Talbot LA. Metabolic Demands of Body Armor on Physical Performance in Simulated Conditions. MILITARY MEDICINE. 2008;173(9):817.RicciardiRDeusterPATalbotLAMetabolic Demands of Body Armor on Physical Performance in Simulated ConditionsMILITARY MEDICINE20081739817Search in Google Scholar

Park H, Branson D, Petrova A, Peksoz S, Jacobson B, Warren A, et al. Impact of ballistic body armour and load carriage on walking patterns and perceived comfort. Ergonomics. 2013;56(7):1167–79. Epub 2013/05/10.ParkHBransonDPetrovaAPeksozSJacobsonBWarrenAImpact of ballistic body armour and load carriage on walking patterns and perceived comfortErgonomics2013567116779Epub 2013/05/10.Search in Google Scholar

Matusiak M. Thermal Comfort Index as a Method of Assessing the Thermal Comfort of Textile Materials FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe. 2010;18(2):45–50.MatusiakMThermal Comfort Index as a Method of Assessing the Thermal Comfort of Textile Materials FIBRES & TEXTILES in Eastern Europe20101824550Search in Google Scholar

Voelker C, Hoffmann S, Kornadt O, Arens E, Zhang H, Huizenga C. Heat and moisture transfer through clothing. Eleventh International IBPSA Conference; Glasgow, Scotland: University of Strathclyde; 2009. p. 1360–6.VoelkerCHoffmannSKornadtOArensEZhangHHuizengaCHeat and moisture transfer through clothingEleventh International IBPSA ConferenceGlasgow, ScotlandUniversity of Strathclyde200913606Search in Google Scholar

Djongyang N, Tchinda R, Njomo D. Thermal comfort: A review paper. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2010;14(9):2626–40.DjongyangNTchindaRNjomoDThermal comfort: A review paperRenewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews2010149262640Search in Google Scholar

Zehner GF, Ervin C, Robinette KM, Daziens P. Fit evaluation of female body armor. USA: 1987 Contract No.: AAMRL-TR-87-046.ZehnerGFErvinCRobinetteKMDaziensPFit evaluation of female body armorUSA1987Contract No.: AAMRL-TR-87-046.Search in Google Scholar

Larsen B, Netto K, Skovli D, Vincs K, Vu S, Aisbett B. Body armor, performance, and physiology during repeated high-intensity work tasks. Military medicine. 2012;177(11):1308–15. Epub 2012/12/04.LarsenBNettoKSkovliDVincsKVuSAisbettBBody armor, performance, and physiology during repeated high-intensity work tasksMilitary medicine201217711130815Epub 2012/12/04.Search in Google Scholar

Chinevere TD, Cadarette BS, Goodman DA, Ely BR, Cheuvront SN, Sawka MN. Efficacy of body ventilation system for reducing strain in warm and hot climates. European journal of applied physiology. 2008;103(3):307–14. Epub 2008/03/11.ChinevereTDCadaretteBSGoodmanDAElyBRCheuvrontSNSawkaMNEfficacy of body ventilation system for reducing strain in warm and hot climatesEuropean journal of applied physiology2008103330714Epub 2008/03/11.Search in Google Scholar

Nayak R, Crouch I, Kanesalingam S, Ding J, Tan P, Lee B, et al. Body armor for stab and spike protection, Part 1: Scientific literature review. Textile Research Journal. 2017;88(7):812–32.NayakRCrouchIKanesalingamSDingJTanPLeeBBody armor for stab and spike protection, Part 1: Scientific literature reviewTextile Research Journal201788781232Search in Google Scholar

Nayak R, Kanesalingam S, Wang L, Padhye R. Stab resistance and thermophysiological comfort properties of boron carbide coated aramid and ballistic nylon fabrics. The Journal of The Textile Institute. 2018;110(8):1159–68.NayakRKanesalingamSWangLPadhyeRStab resistance and thermophysiological comfort properties of boron carbide coated aramid and ballistic nylon fabricsThe Journal of The Textile Institute20181108115968Search in Google Scholar

Holmes DA. Perfoirnance Characteristics of Waterproof Breathable Fabrics. JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL TEXTILES. 2000;29(4):306–16.HolmesDAPerfoirnance Characteristics of Waterproof Breathable FabricsJOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL TEXTILES200029430616Search in Google Scholar

Nayak R, Punj S, Chatterjee K, Behera BK. Comfort properties of suiting fabrics. Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile. 2009;34:122–8.NayakRPunjSChatterjeeKBeheraBKComfort properties of suiting fabricsIndian Journal of Fibre and Textile2009341228Search in Google Scholar

philippe F, Schacher L, Adolphe DC, Dacremont C. Tactile Feeling: Sensory Analysis Applied to Textile Goods. Textile Research Journal. 2004;74(12):1066–72.philippeFSchacherLAdolpheDCDacremontCTactile Feeling: Sensory Analysis Applied to Textile GoodsTextile Research Journal20047412106672Search in Google Scholar

Dempsey PC, Handcock PJ, Rehrer NJ. Impact of police body armour and equipment on mobility. Appl Ergon. 2013;44(6):957–61. Epub 2013/05/15.DempseyPCHandcockPJRehrerNJImpact of police body armour and equipment on mobilityAppl Ergon201344695761Epub 2013/05/15.Search in Google Scholar

Legg SJ. Influence of body armour on pulmonary function. Ergonomics. 1988;31(3):349–53. Epub 1988/03/01.LeggSJInfluence of body armour on pulmonary functionErgonomics198831334953Epub 1988/03/01.Search in Google Scholar

Ricciardi R, Deuster PA, Talbot LA. Effects of Gender and Body Adiposity on Physiological Responses to Physical Work While Wearing Body Armor. MILITARY MEDICINE. 2007;172(7):743.RicciardiRDeusterPATalbotLAEffects of Gender and Body Adiposity on Physiological Responses to Physical Work While Wearing Body ArmorMILITARY MEDICINE20071727743Search in Google Scholar

Armasure. Stab Knife Proof Concealable Covert Vest Jackets 36 Joules Body Armour-NIJ I Standard (24J/36J Overtest). UK: eBay Inc.; 2019.ArmasureStab Knife Proof Concealable Covert Vest Jackets 36 Joules Body Armour-NIJ I Standard (24J/36J Overtest)UKeBay Inc.2019Search in Google Scholar

Courtney AC, Courtney MW. A thoracic mechanism of mild traumatic brain injury due to blast pressure waves. Medical hypotheses. 2009;72(1):76–83. Epub 2008/10/03.CourtneyACCourtneyMWA thoracic mechanism of mild traumatic brain injury due to blast pressure wavesMedical hypotheses20097217683Epub 2008/10/03.Search in Google Scholar

Xydakis MS, Fravell MD, Nasser KE, Casler JD. Analysis of battlefield head and neck injuries in Iraq and Afghanistan. Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery. 2005;133(4):497–504. Epub 2005/10/11.XydakisMSFravellMDNasserKECaslerJDAnalysis of battlefield head and neck injuries in Iraq and AfghanistanOtolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery20051334497504Epub 2005/10/11.Search in Google Scholar

Ritenour AE, Baskin TW. Primary blast injury: update on diagnosis and treatment. Critical care medicine. 2008;36(7 Suppl):S311–7. Epub 2008/07/18.RitenourAEBaskinTWPrimary blast injury: update on diagnosis and treatmentCritical care medicine2008367 SupplS3117Epub 2008/07/18.Search in Google Scholar

Afshari M, Sikkema DJ, Lee K, Bogle M. High Performance Fibers Based on Rigid and Flexible Polymers. Polymer Reviews. 2008;48(2):230–74.AfshariMSikkemaDJLeeKBogleMHigh Performance Fibers Based on Rigid and Flexible PolymersPolymer Reviews200848223074Search in Google Scholar

Ambade VN, Godbole HV. Comparison of wound patterns in homicide by sharp and blunt force. Forensic Sci Int. 2006;156(2–3):166–70. Epub 2005/08/27.AmbadeVNGodboleHVComparison of wound patterns in homicide by sharp and blunt forceForensic Sci Int20061562–316670Epub 2005/08/27.Search in Google Scholar

Hugar BS, Chandra G, Harish M, Jayanth S. Pattern of Homicidal Deaths. Journal of Indian Academy Forensic Medicine, 32(3). 2016;32(3).HugarBSChandraGHarishMJayanthSPattern of Homicidal DeathsJournal of Indian Academy Forensic Medicine323201632(3).Search in Google Scholar

Henderson JP, Morgan SE, Patel F, Tiplady ME. Patterns of non-firearm homicide. Journal of clinical forensic medicine. 2005;12(3):128–32. Epub 2005/05/26.HendersonJPMorganSEPatelFTipladyMEPatterns of non-firearm homicideJournal of clinical forensic medicine200512312832Epub 2005/05/26.Search in Google Scholar

Scott RA. Textiles for Protection. 1 ed: Woodhead Publishing; 2005.ScottRATextiles for Protection1 edWoodhead Publishing2005Search in Google Scholar

Bleetman A, Watson CH, Horsfall I, Champion SM. Wounding patterns and human performance in knife attacks: optimising the protection provided by knife-resistant body armour. Journal of clinical forensic medicine. 2003;10(4):243–8. Epub 2004/07/28.BleetmanAWatsonCHHorsfallIChampionSMWounding patterns and human performance in knife attacks: optimising the protection provided by knife-resistant body armourJournal of clinical forensic medicine20031042438Epub 2004/07/28.Search in Google Scholar

Ahrendt D, Krzywinski S, Massot EJi, Krzywinski J. Hybrid material designs by the example of additive manufacturing for novel customized stab protective clothing. Light Weight Armour Group for Defense and Security; Roubaix, France 2019. p. 286–94.AhrendtDKrzywinskiSMassotEJiKrzywinskiJHybrid material designs by the example of additive manufacturing for novel customized stab protective clothingLight Weight Armour Group for Defense and SecurityRoubaix, France201928694Search in Google Scholar

Hainsworth SV, Delaney RJ, Rutty GN. How sharp is sharp? Towards quantification of the sharpness and penetration ability of kitchen knives used in stabbings. International journal of legal medicine. 2008;122(4):281–91. Epub 2007/09/28.HainsworthSVDelaneyRJRuttyGNHow sharp is sharp? Towards quantification of the sharpness and penetration ability of kitchen knives used in stabbingsInternational journal of legal medicine2008122428191Epub 2007/09/28.Search in Google Scholar

Horsfall I, Watson C, Champion S, Prosser P, Ringrose T. The effect of knife handle shape on stabbing performance. Appl Ergon. 2005;36(4):505–11. Epub 2005/05/17.HorsfallIWatsonCChampionSProsserPRingroseTThe effect of knife handle shape on stabbing performanceAppl Ergon200536450511Epub 2005/05/17.Search in Google Scholar

Jones S, Nokesa L, Leadbeatterb S. The mechanics of stab wounding. Forensic Sci Int. 1994;67:59–63.JonesSNokesaLLeadbeatterbSThe mechanics of stab woundingForensic Sci Int1994675963Search in Google Scholar

Chadwick EKJ, Nicol AC, Lane JV, Gray TGF. Biomechanics of knife stab attacks. Forensic Sci Int. 1999;105:35–44.ChadwickEKJNicolACLaneJVGrayTGFBiomechanics of knife stab attacksForensic Sci Int19991053544Search in Google Scholar

Horsfall I. Stab resistant body armor: Cranfield University; 2000.HorsfallIStab resistant body armorCranfield University2000Search in Google Scholar

Clerici CA, Muccino E, Gentile G, Marchesi M, Veneroni L, Zoja R. An unusual case of homicide with a crossbow and a hunting knife. Medicine, science, and the law. 2015;55(2):86–9. Epub 2014/06/18.ClericiCAMuccinoEGentileGMarchesiMVeneroniLZojaRAn unusual case of homicide with a crossbow and a hunting knifeMedicine, science, and the law2015552869Epub 2014/06/18.Search in Google Scholar

Egres RG, Lee YS, Kirkwood JE, Kirkwood KM, Wetzel ED, Wagner NJ, editors. “Liquid armor”: Protective fabrics utilizing shear thickening fluids. IFAL 4th International Conference on Safety and Protectve Fabrics; 2004; Pittsburgh, USA.EgresRGLeeYSKirkwoodJEKirkwoodKMWetzelEDWagnerNJeditors.“Liquid armor”: Protective fabrics utilizing shear thickening fluidsIFAL 4th International Conference on Safety and Protectve Fabrics2004Pittsburgh, USASearch in Google Scholar

Pounder DJ, Cormack L, Broadbent E, Millar J. Class characteristics of serrated knife stabs to cartilage. The American journal of forensic medicine and pathology. 2011;32(2):157–60. Epub 2010/04/22.PounderDJCormackLBroadbentEMillarJClass characteristics of serrated knife stabs to cartilageThe American journal of forensic medicine and pathology201132215760Epub 2010/04/22.Search in Google Scholar

Li Y, Ortiz C, Boyce MC. Bioinspired, mechanical, deterministic fractal model for hierarchical suture joints. Physical review E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics. 2012;85(3):031901(14). Epub 2012/05/17.LiYOrtizCBoyceMCBioinspired, mechanical, deterministic fractal model for hierarchical suture jointsPhysical review E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics2012853031901(14). Epub 2012/05/17.Search in Google Scholar

Ji B, Gao H. Mechanical properties of nanostructure of biological materials. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids. 2004;52(9).JiBGaoHMechanical properties of nanostructure of biological materialsJournal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids2004529Search in Google Scholar

Barthelat F, Tang H, Zavattieri D, Li C, Espinosa D. On the mechanics of mother-of-pearl: A key feature in the material hierarchical structure. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids. 2007;55(2):306–37.BarthelatFTangHZavattieriDLiCEspinosaDOn the mechanics of mother-of-pearl: A key feature in the material hierarchical structureJournal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids200755230637Search in Google Scholar

Pritchard J, Scott J, Girgis G. The structure and development of cranial and facial sutures. Journal of Anatomy. 1956;90(1):73–86.PritchardJScottJGirgisGThe structure and development of cranial and facial suturesJournal of Anatomy19569017386Search in Google Scholar

Herring SW. Mechanical influences on suture development and patency. Frontiers of oral biology. 2008;12:41–56. Epub 2008/04/09.HerringSWMechanical influences on suture development and patencyFrontiers of oral biology2008124156Epub 2008/04/09.Search in Google Scholar

Krauss S, Monsonego-Ornan E, Zelzer E, Fratzl P, Shahar R. Mechanical Function of a Complex Three-Dimensional Suture Joining the Bony Elements in the Shell of the Red-Eared Slider Turtle. Advanced Materials. 2009;21(4):407–12.KraussSMonsonego-OrnanEZelzerEFratzlPShaharRMechanical Function of a Complex Three-Dimensional Suture Joining the Bony Elements in the Shell of the Red-Eared Slider TurtleAdvanced Materials200921440712Search in Google Scholar

Garcia AP, Pugno N, Buehler MJ. Superductile, Wavy Silica Nanostructures Inspired by Diatom Algae. Advanced Engineering Materials. 2011;13(10):B405–B14.GarciaAPPugnoNBuehlerMJSuperductile, Wavy Silica Nanostructures Inspired by Diatom AlgaeAdvanced Engineering Materials20111310B405B14Search in Google Scholar

Dunlop JWC, Weinkamer R, Fratzl P. Artful interfaces within biological materials. Materials Today. 2011;14(3):70–8.DunlopJWCWeinkamerRFratzlPArtful interfaces within biological materialsMaterials Today2011143708Search in Google Scholar

Vernerey FJ, Barthelat F. On the mechanics of fishscale structures. International Journal of Solids and Structures. 2010;47(17):2268–75.VernereyFJBarthelatFOn the mechanics of fishscale structuresInternational Journal of Solids and Structures20104717226875Search in Google Scholar

Dastjerdi AK, Barthelat F. Teleost fish scales amongst the toughest collagenous materials. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2015;52:95–107. Epub 2014/12/03.DastjerdiAKBarthelatFTeleost fish scales amongst the toughest collagenous materialsJ Mech Behav Biomed Mater20155295107Epub 2014/12/03.Search in Google Scholar

Zhu D, Szewciw L, Vernerey F, Barthelat F. Puncture resistance of the scaled skin from striped bass: collective mechanisms and inspiration for new flexible armor designs. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2013;24:30–40. Epub 2013/05/21.ZhuDSzewciwLVernereyFBarthelatFPuncture resistance of the scaled skin from striped bass: collective mechanisms and inspiration for new flexible armor designsJ Mech Behav Biomed Mater2013243040Epub 2013/05/21.Search in Google Scholar

Lin YS, Wei CT, Olevsky EA, Meyers MA. Mechanical properties and the laminate structure of Arapaima gigas scales. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2011;4(7):1145–56. Epub 2011/07/26.LinYSWeiCTOlevskyEAMeyersMAMechanical properties and the laminate structure of Arapaima gigas scalesJ Mech Behav Biomed Mater201147114556Epub 2011/07/26.Search in Google Scholar

Connors MJ, Ehrlich H, Hog M, Godeffroy C, Araya S, Kallai I, et al. Three-dimensional structure of the shell plate assembly of the chiton Tonicella marmorea and its biomechanical consequences. Journal of structural biology. 2012;177(2):314–28. Epub 2012/01/18.ConnorsMJEhrlichHHogMGodeffroyCArayaSKallaiIThree-dimensional structure of the shell plate assembly of the chiton Tonicella marmorea and its biomechanical consequencesJournal of structural biology2012177231428Epub 2012/01/18.Search in Google Scholar

Martini R, Balit Y, Barthelat F. A comparative study of bio-inspired protective scales using 3D printing and mechanical testing. Acta biomaterialia. 2017;55:360–72. Epub 2017/03/23.MartiniRBalitYBarthelatFA comparative study of bio-inspired protective scales using 3D printing and mechanical testingActa biomaterialia20175536072Epub 2017/03/23.Search in Google Scholar

Suzuki Y, Kopp R, Kogure T, Suga A, Takai K, Tsuchida S, et al. Sclerite formation in the hydrothermal-vent “scaly-foot” gastropod—possible control of iron sulfide biomineralization by the animal. Earth and Planetary Science Letters. 2006;242(1–2):39–50.SuzukiYKoppRKogureTSugaATakaiKTsuchidaSSclerite formation in the hydrothermal-vent “scaly-foot” gastropod—possible control of iron sulfide biomineralization by the animalEarth and Planetary Science Letters20062421–23950Search in Google Scholar

Pangolin-Conservation-Support-Initiative. Save Pangolins. 2019.Pangolin-Conservation-Support-InitiativeSave Pangolins2019Search in Google Scholar

Chintapalli RK, Mirkhalaf M, Dastjerdi AK, Barthelat F. Fabrication, testing and modeling of a new flexible armor inspired from natural fish scales and osteoderms. Bioinspiration & biomimetics. 2014;9(3):036005. Epub 2014/03/13.ChintapalliRKMirkhalafMDastjerdiAKBarthelatFFabrication, testing and modeling of a new flexible armor inspired from natural fish scales and osteodermsBioinspiration & biomimetics201493036005Epub 2014/03/13.Search in Google Scholar

Browning A, Ortiz C, Boyce MC. Mechanics of composite elasmoid fish scale assemblies and their bioinspired analogues. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2013;19:75–86. Epub 2013/03/23.BrowningAOrtizCBoyceMCMechanics of composite elasmoid fish scale assemblies and their bioinspired analoguesJ Mech Behav Biomed Mater2013197586Epub 2013/03/23.Search in Google Scholar

Porter M, Ravikumar N, Barthelat F, Martini R. 3D-printing and mechanics of bio-inspired articulated and multi-material structures. Journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials. 2017;73:114–26.PorterMRavikumarNBarthelatFMartiniR3D-printing and mechanics of bio-inspired articulated and multi-material structuresJournal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials20177311426Search in Google Scholar

Yang W, Chen I, Gludovatz B, Zimmermann E, Ritchie R, Meyers M. Natural flexible dermal armor. Advanced Materials. 2013;25(1):31–48.YangWChenIGludovatzBZimmermannERitchieRMeyersMNatural flexible dermal armorAdvanced Materials20132513148Search in Google Scholar

Bruet BJ, Song J, Boyce MC, Ortiz C. Materials design principles of ancient fish armour. Nature materials. 2008;7(9):748–56. Epub 2008/07/29.BruetBJSongJBoyceMCOrtizCMaterials design principles of ancient fish armourNature materials20087974856Epub 2008/07/29.Search in Google Scholar

Li Y, Ortiz C, Boyce MC. Stiffness and strength of suture joints in nature. Physical review E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics. 2011;84(6 Pt 1):062904. Epub 2012/02/07.LiYOrtizCBoyceMCStiffness and strength of suture joints in naturePhysical review E, Statistical, nonlinear, and soft matter physics2011846 Pt 1062904Epub 2012/02/07.Search in Google Scholar

Zhang Y, Yao H, Ortiz C, Xu J, Dao M. Bio-inspired interfacial strengthening strategy through geometrically interlocking designs. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater. 2012;15:70–7. Epub 2012/10/04.ZhangYYaoHOrtizCXuJDaoMBio-inspired interfacial strengthening strategy through geometrically interlocking designsJ Mech Behav Biomed Mater201215707Epub 2012/10/04.Search in Google Scholar

Li Y, Ortiz C, Boyce MC. A generalized mechanical model for suture interfaces of arbitrary geometry. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids. 2013;61(4):1144–67.LiYOrtizCBoyceMCA generalized mechanical model for suture interfaces of arbitrary geometryJournal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids2013614114467Search in Google Scholar

Vernerey FJ, Barthelat F. Skin and scales of teleost fish: Simple structure but high performance and multiple functions. Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids. 2014;68:66–76.VernereyFJBarthelatFSkin and scales of teleost fish: Simple structure but high performance and multiple functionsJournal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids2014686676Search in Google Scholar

Lee YS, Wetzel ED, Wagner NJ. The ballistic impact characteristics of Kevlar® woven fabrics impregnated with a colloidal shear thickening fluid. Journal of Materials Science. 2003;38(13):2825–33.LeeYSWetzelEDWagnerNJThe ballistic impact characteristics of Kevlar® woven fabrics impregnated with a colloidal shear thickening fluidJournal of Materials Science20033813282533Search in Google Scholar

Guzman AG, Geddis AM, Henrich MJ, Lohrstorfer CF, Neuman SP. Summary of air permeability data from single-hole injection tests in unsaturated fractured tuffs at the Apache Leap Research Site: Results of steady-state test interpretation. ; Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Hydrology and Water Resources, 1996 NUREG/CR-6360; Other: ON: TI96009930; TRN: 96:011321 United States 10.2172/219309 Other: ON: TI96009930; TRN: 96:011321 INIS; OSTI as TI96009930 OSTI English.GuzmanAGGeddisAMHenrichMJLohrstorferCFNeumanSPSummary of air permeability data from single-hole injection tests in unsaturated fractured tuffs at the Apache Leap Research Site: Results of steady-state test interpretationNuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Regulatory Applications; Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Hydrology and Water Resources, 1996 NUREG/CR-6360; Other: ON: TI96009930; TRN: 96:011321 United States 10.2172/219309 Other: ON: TI96009930; TRN: 96:011321 INIS; OSTI as TI96009930 OSTI English.Search in Google Scholar

Barker J, Black C, Cloud R. Comfort comparison of ballistic vest panels for police officers. Journal of Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management. 2010;6(3):1–12.BarkerJBlackCCloudRComfort comparison of ballistic vest panels for police officersJournal of Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management201063112Search in Google Scholar

El Messiry M, Eltahan E. Stab resistance of triaxial woven fabrics for soft body armor. Journal of Industrial Textiles. 2014;45(5):1062–82.El MessiryMEltahanEStab resistance of triaxial woven fabrics for soft body armorJournal of Industrial Textiles2014455106282Search in Google Scholar

Flambard X, Ferreira M, Vermeulen B, Bourbigot S. Mechanical and thermal behaviors of first choice, second choice and recycled p-aramid fibers. Journal of Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management. 2004;4(1):1–12.FlambardXFerreiraMVermeulenBBourbigotSMechanical and thermal behaviors of first choice, second choice and recycled p-aramid fibersJournal of Textile and Apparel, Technology and Management200441112Search in Google Scholar

Decker MJ, Halbach CJ, Nam CH, Wagner NJ, Wetzel ED. Stab resistance of shear thickening fluid (STF)-treated fabrics. Composites Science and Technology. 2007;67(3–4):565–78.DeckerMJHalbachCJNamCHWagnerNJWetzelEDStab resistance of shear thickening fluid (STF)-treated fabricsComposites Science and Technology2007673–456578Search in Google Scholar

Shin H-S, Erlich DC, Simons JW, Shockey DA. Cut Resistance of High-strength Yarns. Textile Research Journal. 2016;76(8):607–13.ShinH-SErlichDCSimonsJWShockeyDACut Resistance of High-strength YarnsTextile Research Journal201676860713Search in Google Scholar

Hosur MV, Mayo Jr JB, Wetzel E, Jeelani S. Studies on the Fabrication and Stab Resistance Characterization of Novel Thermoplastic-Kevlar Composites. Solid State Phenomena. 2008;136:83–92.HosurMVMayoJBJrWetzelEJeelaniSStudies on the Fabrication and Stab Resistance Characterization of Novel Thermoplastic-Kevlar CompositesSolid State Phenomena20081368392Search in Google Scholar

Crouch IG. Body armour – New materials, new systems. Defence Technology. 2019;15(3):241–53.CrouchIGBody armour – New materials, new systemsDefence Technology201915324153Search in Google Scholar

Tavanai H, Wang L, Golozar M, Ebrahimzade M. An investigation on the piercing resistance of abrasive particle coated fabrics. The 1st International and the 7th National Iranian Textile Engineering Conference; Iran: ACECRAmirkabir University of Technology Branch; 2009.TavanaiHWangLGolozarMEbrahimzadeMAn investigation on the piercing resistance of abrasive particle coated fabricsThe 1st International and the 7th National Iranian Textile Engineering ConferenceIranACECRAmirkabir University of Technology Branch2009Search in Google Scholar

Govarthanam KK, Anand SC, Rajendran S. Handbook of technical textiles. 2 ed. UK: Matthew Deans; 2016.GovarthanamKKAnandSCRajendranSHandbook of technical textiles2 ed.UKMatthew Deans2016Search in Google Scholar

Lee BL, Walsh TF, Won ST, Patts HM, Song JW, Mayer AH. Penetration Failure Mechanisms of Armor-Grade Fiber Composites under Impact. Journal of Composite Materials. 2016;35(18):1605–33.LeeBLWalshTFWonSTPattsHMSongJWMayerAHPenetration Failure Mechanisms of Armor-Grade Fiber Composites under ImpactJournal of Composite Materials20163518160533Search in Google Scholar

Shim VPW, Lim CT, Foo KJ. Dynamic mechanical properties of fabric armour. International Journal of Impact Engineering. 2001;25(1):1–15.ShimVPWLimCTFooKJDynamic mechanical properties of fabric armourInternational Journal of Impact Engineering2001251115Search in Google Scholar

McConnell VP. Ballistic protection materials a moving target. Reinforced Plastics. 2006;50(11):20–5.McConnellVPBallistic protection materials a moving targetReinforced Plastics20065011205Search in Google Scholar

Rebouillata S, Pengb J, Donnetb J. Surface structure of Kevlarw fiber studied by atomic force microscopy and inverse gas chromatography. Polymer. 1999;40:7341–50.RebouillataSPengbJDonnetbJSurface structure of Kevlarw fiber studied by atomic force microscopy and inverse gas chromatographyPolymer199940734150Search in Google Scholar

Hani ARA, Roslan A, Mariatti J, Maziah M. Body Armor Technology: A Review of Materials, Construction Techniques and Enhancement of Ballistic Energy Absorption. Advanced Materials Research. 2012;488–489:806–12.HaniARARoslanAMariattiJMaziahMBody Armor Technology: A Review of Materials, Construction Techniques and Enhancement of Ballistic Energy AbsorptionAdvanced Materials Research2012488–48980612Search in Google Scholar

Teijin A. Twaron-a versatile high-performance fibre. company product. 2012 40-00-01.TeijinATwaron-a versatile high-performance fibre. company product201240-00-01.Search in Google Scholar

Tien DT, Kim JS, Huh Y. Stab-resistant property of the fabrics woven with the aramid/cotton core-spun yarns. Fibers and Polymers. 2010;11(3):500–6.TienDTKimJSHuhYStab-resistant property of the fabrics woven with the aramid/cotton core-spun yarnsFibers and Polymers20101135006Search in Google Scholar

Sinnappoo K, Arnold L, Padhye R. Application of wool in high-velocity ballistic protective fabrics. Textile Research Journal. 2010;80(11):1084–92.SinnappooKArnoldLPadhyeRApplication of wool in high-velocity ballistic protective fabricsTextile Research Journal20108011108492Search in Google Scholar

Reiners P, Kyosev Y, Schacher L, Adolphe D, Küster K. Experimental investigation of the influence of wool structures on the stab resistance of woven body armor panels. Textile Research Journal. 2015;86(7):685–95.ReinersPKyosevYSchacherLAdolpheDKüsterKExperimental investigation of the influence of wool structures on the stab resistance of woven body armor panelsTextile Research Journal201586768595Search in Google Scholar

Phillips M, Bazrgari B, Shapiro R. The effects of military body armour on the lower back and knee mechanics during toe-touch and two-legged squat tasks. Ergonomics. 2015;58(3):492–503. Epub 2014/10/25.PhillipsMBazrgariBShapiroRThe effects of military body armour on the lower back and knee mechanics during toe-touch and two-legged squat tasksErgonomics2015583492503Epub 2014/10/25.Search in Google Scholar

Konitzer LN, Fargo MV, Brininger TL, Reed LM. Association between back, neck, and upper extremity musculoskeletal pain and the individual body armor. Journal of Hand Therapy. 2008;21(2):143–9.KonitzerLNFargoMVBriningerTLReedLMAssociation between back, neck, and upper extremity musculoskeletal pain and the individual body armorJournal of Hand Therapy20082121439Search in Google Scholar

Barker JF. Comfort Perceptions of Police Officers Toward Ballistic Vests. Tallahassee, Florida: Florida State University; 2007.BarkerJFComfort Perceptions of Police Officers Toward Ballistic VestsTallahassee, FloridaFlorida State University2007Search in Google Scholar

Rupp J, Böhringer A, Yonenaga A, Hilden J. Textiles for protection against harmful ultraviolet radiation. International Textile Bulletin. 2001;47(6):8–20.RuppJBöhringerAYonenagaAHildenJTextiles for protection against harmful ultraviolet radiationInternational Textile Bulletin2001476820Search in Google Scholar

Sparks E, editor. Advances in Military Textiles and Personal Equipment: Woodhead publishing; 2012.SparksEeditor.Advances in Military Textiles and Personal EquipmentWoodhead publishing2012Search in Google Scholar

Yuan MQ, Liu Y, Gong Z, Qian XM. The application of PA/CF in stab resistance body armor. IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. 2017;213:012027.YuanMQLiuYGongZQianXMThe application of PA/CF in stab resistance body armorIOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering2017213012027Search in Google Scholar

Croft J, Longhurst D, Branch GBHOSD. HOSDB Body Armour Standards for UK Police (2007): Criminal Justice System Race Unit, The Home Office; 2007.CroftJLonghurstDBranch GBHOSDHOSDB Body Armour Standards for UK Police (2007)Criminal Justice System Race Unit, The Home Office2007Search in Google Scholar

Institut OotDHdPP. Test Standard Stab and Impact Resistance. Requirements, classifications and test procedures. Deutchland: Vereinigung der Prüfstellen für angriffshemmende Materialien und Konstruktionen (VPAM); 2011.Institut OotDHdPPTest Standard Stab and Impact Resistance. Requirements, classifications and test proceduresDeutchlandVereinigung der Prüfstellen für angriffshemmende Materialien und Konstruktionen (VPAM)2011Search in Google Scholar

ASTM-D737. Test Method for Air Permeability of Textile Fabrics. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International; 2004.ASTM-D737Test Method for Air Permeability of Textile FabricsWest Conshohocken, PAASTM International2004Search in Google Scholar

ASTM-D5470. Standard Test Method for Thermal Transmission Properties of Thermally Conductive Electrical Insulation Materials. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International; 2017.ASTM-D5470Standard Test Method for Thermal Transmission Properties of Thermally Conductive Electrical Insulation MaterialsWest Conshohocken, PAASTM International2017Search in Google Scholar

ISO-811:2018(en). Textiles - Determination of resistance to water penetration - Hydrostatic pressure test. International Organization for Standardization; 2018.ISO-811:2018(en)Textiles - Determination of resistance to water penetration - Hydrostatic pressure testInternational Organization for Standardization2018Search in Google Scholar

ASTM-D1388. Standard Test Method for Stiffness of Fabrics. West Conshohocken, PA: ASTM International; 2018.ASTM-D1388Standard Test Method for Stiffness of FabricsWest Conshohocken, PAASTM International2018Search in Google Scholar

ISO-13998:2003(en). Protective clothing-Aprons, trousers and vests protecting against cuts and stabs by hand knives. International Organization for Standardization; 2003.ISO-13998:2003(en)Protective clothing-Aprons, trousers and vests protecting against cuts and stabs by hand knivesInternational Organization for Standardization2003Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo