1. bookVolume 22 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-0929
First Published
19 Oct 2012
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Improvement of Physical Properties of Viscose using Nano GEO2 as Doping Material

Published Online: 18 May 2022
Volume & Issue: Volume 22 (2022) - Issue 2 (June 2022)
Page range: 243 - 247
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-0929
First Published
19 Oct 2012
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The properties of viscose\TiO2 and viscose\TiO2\germanium dioxide (GeO2) are investigated and compared. The elemental mapping analysis using a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) shows the excellent distribution of nanomaterials, while the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) confirms its existence. The 500 s cycle of rubbing test indicates that the abrasion resistance of treated samples improves significantly. In addition, the doping of nano GeO2 enhances the strength of the treated samples. Furthermore, the thermal behavior of the treated samples, characterized by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), results in a higher crystallization temperature and doping GeO2 increases the thermal properties of viscose in comparison with nano TiO2. The study of ultraviolet blocking indicates that doping GeO2 can improve the transmission of ultraviolet even from TiO2.

Keywords

Introduction

In the past decade, researches have been conducted on immobilizing nanomaterials and nanostructures on fiber or fabric to obtain new properties in the final product. Recently, the ultraviolet (UV) protection activity of fibers or fabrics has gained much attention because of its ability to prevent diseases [1,2,3,4,5,6]. Many studies have reported the UV protection activity of nano titania and its virtuous properties on fabrics [7,8,9]. This paper has made an attempt to enhance this property.

The main application of titania is as an adsorbent, catalytic support, and in pigments. This nanomaterial has many applications such as in photo degradation, as a bactericidal, and for its UV blocking property and low toxicity [10,11,12,13,14].

Germanium dioxide (Germania; GeO2) is an inorganic compound which forms a passive layer on pure germanium in contact with oxygen with low toxicity, as well as consists of a hexagonal and tetragonal crystalline morphology. There is a lack of scientific research on the effect of Germania on textile property; this study has made an attempt to study and investigate the physical properties of viscose crosslinked with Germania [15,16,17,18]. In the crosslink method, free carboxylic groups (two groups) must be available to interlink the nanoparticle and cellulose. In this method, a covalent ester bond is set up and a hydroxyl group of cellulose will perform esterification by one carboxylic group of the crosslink factor while the other carboxylic group of the crosslink factor connects to the nanoparticles [19].

Viscose is regenerated natural fiber, whose physical properties [20,21,22] are used as a renewable resource for the development of environment friendly, biocompatible, and functional materials. Viscose is made of cellulose and the cellulosic textiles present a polar surface which is associated with the hydroxylated nature constituting of hydroglucose units. This property is responsible for the high hydrophilicity of cellulose, which enables the establishment of strong hydrogen bonding between fibers and the setting up of three-dimensional fiber-based structures. It is worth mentioning that the existence of these hydrophilic groups can develop nucleation and the formation of inorganic phases like titania and metal oxides, helping in generating the multifunctional properties of viscose [23,24,25,26]. The thermal behavior of viscose is of importance in the textile industry. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) is a thermos analytical method which measures the difference in the amount of heat needed to enhance the temperature of a specimen as a function of temperature [27,28,29,30].

Materials, methods, and characterization

GeO2 (CAS Number 1310538) nanopowder at a density of 4.23 g/cm3 was purchased from Sigma Aldrich. In addition, P-25 nano titanium dioxide was prepared from Degussa. The 100% plain weave bleached viscose fabric with a warp density of 24 yarn/cm and 20 yarn/cm weft and fabric weight of 119.5 g/m2 was prepared by the Yazdbaf Company. Sodium hypo-phosphate and succinic acid were purchased from Merck.

Initially, the viscose fabric was washed with distilled water to remove any impurities. The crosslink method was used to conjugate the nanomaterials and fabric; 3%w/w succinic acid and 2%w/w sodium hypo-phosphate were prepared and the washed viscose fabric was immersed in this solution for 60 min. Then the sample was dried in an oven at a temperature of 170 °C for 2 min. Meanwhile, the GeO2 and TiO2 nanopowders were sonicated in an ultrasonic bath (Euronda ultrasonic bath model Eurosonic 4D, 350 W, 50/60 Hz, Italy) at 40 °C for 50 min at 1% and 2% respectively. The treated fabric immersed in nano solution was sonicated again at 50 °C for 30 min. Later, the finished fabric was heated at 100 °C in an oven for 5 min to fix the nanoparticles on the fabric. Then, the sample was washed with distilled water to remove the unbounded particles. This process was repeated with only nano TiO2. Therefore, two samples of viscose/TiO2 and viscose/TiO2/GeO2 were prepared.

The morphology of the treated samples was investigated by a field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM; MIRA3-TESCAN). UV transmission of the treated samples was examined by the Perkin Elmer Lambda ultraviolet-visible (UV–vis) spectrophotometer. DSC analyses were conducted by Shimadzu DSC-50 at a heating rate of 10 °C/min.

Abrasion test was done through AATCC TM93. The samples were driven by a rotor along a zigzag course in a circular orbit within a cylindrical chamber, so that it repeatedly impinged on the walls and the abrading liner of the chamber, while at the same time being continuously subjected to rapid, high-velocity impacts. Rubbing test of 500 cycles was done for each sample and the difference in mass of the samples was calculated.

Results and discussion
FESEM, map images, and EDX analysis

The FESEM method was implemented to study the morphology of nanomaterials coated on the surface of fabric. The voltage and magnification of the device was set to 15 kV and 500×, respectively. Figure 1(a) shows the excellent distribution of nanomaterials and with the absence of aggregation or agglomeration of nanoparticles. It also demonstrates 30 nm as the average particle size of nanomaterials. Therefore, the coating of nanomaterials on the fabric surface is acceptable. However, the energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectra of the treated sample show the presence of nano TiO2 and GeO2 (Figure 2). FESEM also demonstrates the distribution of nanoparticles by elemental mapping analysis. Figure 1(B–D), respectively, shows the FESEM of the treated sample; indicates its elemental mapping of Ge; and indicates the elemental mapping of Ti. As shown, the presence and distribution of these two nanoparticles on the surface of fabric is good and monotone.

Figure 1

FESEM images of (A) treated sample, (B) map of the treated sample, (C) elemental mapping of Ge, and (D) elemental mapping of Ti.

Figure 2

EDX image of the treated sample. EDX, energy dispersive X-ray.

Abrasion resistance and strength analysis

Abrasion assessment was done using the rub tester. For the treated and untreated samples, 500 cycles of rubbing test was performed and the weight difference before and after abrasion was calculated. Table 1 illustrates the mean data and abrasion resistance. The results show that the abrasion resistance of the treated sample is higher than that of the untreated sample. Additionally, the abrasion resistance of viscose\TiO2\GeO2 is higher than viscose\TiO2. This can be explained by the mechanical properties of GeO2, which is clearly visible from the FESEM figures, showing that all the surfaces of the treated sample are coated uniformly by nanoparticles. The tensile force of the treated or untreated samples was calculated by ISO 5079-breaking strength test. The results indicate that using nanomaterials increases the strength of viscose (Figure 3). It is worth mentioning that the strength of viscose\TiO2\GeO2 is greater than viscose\TiO2, which indicates that doping of GeO2 can improve the physical properties of fabric.

Figure 3

Strength of sample.

Abrasion resistance of samples

Sample Fabric weight before abrasion (g) Fabric weight after abrasion (g) Abrasion resistance (%)
Raw viscose 3.013 2.486 82.50
Viscose\TiO2 2.891 2.464 85.23
Viscose\TiO2 \GeO2 2.836 2.578 90.90
DSC analysis

The DSC method was used to analyze the treated and untreated samples. In this test, the treated and untreated fabrics were rapidly heated to 230 °C and maintained at this temperature for 3 min (to remove any thermal history and stresses). The samples were later cooled at room temperature of 10 °C/min. Figure 4 illustrates the DSC curve of samples. As shown, the exotherms maxima are at 182 °C for the untreated and 187 °C for the treated sample. The crystallization curves occurred while cooling. Comparison of the two spectra reveals that the crystallization peak is shifted toward the high temperature for the treated sample, which contains nanoparticles.

Figure 4

DSC spectra of samples. DSC, differential scanning calorimeter.

UV/Vis transmission property

UV/Vis transmission of the raw and treated samples was investigated based on the AATCC Test method 183–2004. Figure 5 illustrates the spectra. The irradiation wavelength of 200–800 nm shows that the raw sample has higher transmittance in comparison to the contained nanomaterials. It means that UV protection of the treated samples is better than that of the raw sample. Furthermore, doping GeO2 to the viscose\TiO2 improves the UV blocking remarkably. This is due to the synergetic UV absorption of nano GeO2.

Figure 5

UV/Vis transmission of samples.

Conclusion

Viscose fabric containing nano TiO2 and GeO2 was produced by the crosslink method. Raw sample, viscose\TiO2 and viscose\TiO2\GeO2 were characterized by FESEM. The nanomaterial particle size was about 30 nm and the EDX analysis proved their existence. Elemental mapping analysis of the samples by FESEM indicates the good distribution of nanoparticles on the surface of viscose fabric. Meanwhile, the thermal behavior of the treated samples was characterized by DSC, resulting in a higher crystallization temperature. The doping of nano GeO2 enhances the thermal properties of viscose in comparison to nano TiO2. Also, the result of the transmission spectrophotometer shows good UV blocking of the viscose\TiO2\GeO2 composite; however, the blank sample does not have suitable UV blocking, but by doping nano GeO2, its UV blocking property enhances greatly in comparison to viscose\TiO2. This is because of the UV-blocking property of nano GeO2 and its synergetic UV adsorption. Furthermore, the abrasion resistance and strength of the treated samples improved significantly.

Figure 1

FESEM images of (A) treated sample, (B) map of the treated sample, (C) elemental mapping of Ge, and (D) elemental mapping of Ti.
FESEM images of (A) treated sample, (B) map of the treated sample, (C) elemental mapping of Ge, and (D) elemental mapping of Ti.

Figure 2

EDX image of the treated sample. EDX, energy dispersive X-ray.
EDX image of the treated sample. EDX, energy dispersive X-ray.

Figure 3

Strength of sample.
Strength of sample.

Figure 4

DSC spectra of samples. DSC, differential scanning calorimeter.
DSC spectra of samples. DSC, differential scanning calorimeter.

Figure 5

UV/Vis transmission of samples.
UV/Vis transmission of samples.

Abrasion resistance of samples

Sample Fabric weight before abrasion (g) Fabric weight after abrasion (g) Abrasion resistance (%)
Raw viscose 3.013 2.486 82.50
Viscose\TiO2 2.891 2.464 85.23
Viscose\TiO2 \GeO2 2.836 2.578 90.90

Karimi, L., Yazdanshenas, M. E., Khajavi, R., Rashidi, A., Mirjalili, M. (2014). Using graphene/TiO2 nanocomposite as a new route for preparation of electroconductive, self-cleaning, antibacterial and antifungal cotton fabric without toxicity. Cellulose, 21(5), 3813–3827. KarimiL. YazdanshenasM. E. KhajaviR. RashidiA. MirjaliliM. 2014 Using graphene/TiO2 nanocomposite as a new route for preparation of electroconductive, self-cleaning, antibacterial and antifungal cotton fabric without toxicity Cellulose 21 5 3813 3827 10.1007/s10570-014-0385-1 Search in Google Scholar

Yadav, A., Prasad, V., Kathe, A. A., Raj, S., Yadav, D., et al. (2006). Functional finishing in cotton fabrics using zinc oxide nanoparticles. Bulletin of Materials Science, 29(6), 641–645. YadavA. PrasadV. KatheA. A. RajS. YadavD. 2006 Functional finishing in cotton fabrics using zinc oxide nanoparticles Bulletin of Materials Science 29 6 641 645 10.1007/s12034-006-0017-y Search in Google Scholar

Mohamadiyan, M., Zohoori, S., Davodiroknabadi A. (2020). Enhancing electro conductivity, antibacterial and UV blocking of cotton fabric by using graphene/zirconium dioxide nano composite. Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research, 45(2), 207–210. MohamadiyanM. ZohooriS. DavodiroknabadiA. 2020 Enhancing electro conductivity, antibacterial and UV blocking of cotton fabric by using graphene/zirconium dioxide nano composite Indian Journal of Fibre & Textile Research 45 2 207 210 Search in Google Scholar

Memon, H., Yasin, S., Khoso, N. A., Memon, S. (2015). Study of wrinkle resistant, breathable, anti-UV nanocoated woven polyester fabric. Surface Review and Letters, 23(03), 1650003. MemonH. YasinS. KhosoN. A. MemonS. 2015 Study of wrinkle resistant, breathable, anti-UV nanocoated woven polyester fabric Surface Review and Letters 23 03 1650003 10.1142/S0218625X16500037 Search in Google Scholar

Memon, H., Wang, H., Yasin, S., Halepoto, A. (2018). Influence of incorporating silver nanoparticles in protease treatment on fiber friction, antistatic, and antibacterial properties of wool fibers. Journal of Chemistry, 2018, 4845687. MemonH. WangH. YasinS. HalepotoA. 2018 Influence of incorporating silver nanoparticles in protease treatment on fiber friction, antistatic, and antibacterial properties of wool fibers Journal of Chemistry 2018 4845687 10.1155/2018/4845687 Search in Google Scholar

Yu, L., Memon, H., Bhavsar, P., Yasin, S. (2016). Fabrication of alginate fibers loaded with silver nanoparticles biosynthesized via Dolcetto grape leaves (Vitis vinifera cv.): Morphological, antimicrobial characterization and in vitro release studies. Materials Focus, 5(3), 216–221. YuL. MemonH. BhavsarP. YasinS. 2016 Fabrication of alginate fibers loaded with silver nanoparticles biosynthesized via Dolcetto grape leaves (Vitis vinifera cv.): Morphological, antimicrobial characterization and in vitro release studies Materials Focus 5 3 216 221 10.1166/mat.2016.1317 Search in Google Scholar

Zhao, J., Ge, K., Zhao, L., Zhang, S., Zeng, Y. (2017). Enhanced photocatalytic properties of CdS -decorated BiPO4 heterogeneous semiconductor catalyst under UV-light irradiation. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 729, 189–197. ZhaoJ. GeK. ZhaoL. ZhangS. ZengY. 2017 Enhanced photocatalytic properties of CdS -decorated BiPO4 heterogeneous semiconductor catalyst under UV-light irradiation Journal of Alloys and Compounds 729 189 197 10.1016/j.jallcom.2017.09.149 Search in Google Scholar

Bekrani, M., Zohoori, S., Davodiroknabadi, A. (2019). Producing multifunctional cotton fabrics using nano CeO2 doped with nano TiO2 and ZnO. Autex Research Journal. BekraniM. ZohooriS. DavodiroknabadiA. 2019 Producing multifunctional cotton fabrics using nano CeO2 doped with nano TiO2 and ZnO Autex Research Journal 10.2478/aut-2019-0057 Search in Google Scholar

Derakhshan, S. J., Karimi, L., Zohoori, S., Davodiroknabadi, A., Lessani, L. (2018). Antibacterial and self-cleaning properties of cotton fabric treated with TiO2/Pt. Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research, 43, 344–351. DerakhshanS. J. KarimiL. ZohooriS. DavodiroknabadiA. LessaniL. 2018 Antibacterial and self-cleaning properties of cotton fabric treated with TiO2/Pt Indian Journal of Fibre and Textile Research 43 344 351 Search in Google Scholar

Karimi, L., Zohoori, S. (2013). Superior photocatalytic degradation of azo dyes in aqueous solutions using TiO2/SrTiO3 nanocomposite. Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry, 3(1), 32. KarimiL. ZohooriS. 2013 Superior photocatalytic degradation of azo dyes in aqueous solutions using TiO2/SrTiO3 nanocomposite Journal of Nanostructure in Chemistry 3 1 32 10.1186/2193-8865-3-32 Search in Google Scholar

Ayaziyazdi, S., Zohoori, S., Davodiroknabadi, A., Karimnejad, M. (2013). Electrospinning of polyamide fiber containing nano TiO2 and the effect of heat, setting on self-cleaning. Oriental Journal of Chemistry, 29, 427–431. AyaziyazdiS. ZohooriS. DavodiroknabadiA. KarimnejadM. 2013 Electrospinning of polyamide fiber containing nano TiO2 and the effect of heat, setting on self-cleaning Oriental Journal of Chemistry 29 427 431 10.13005/ojc/290204 Search in Google Scholar

Goncalves, G., Marques, P. A., Pinto, R. J., Trindade, T., Neto, C. P. (2009). Surface modification of cellulosic fibres for multi-purpose TiO2 based nanocomposites. Composites Science and Technology, 69(7), 1051–1056. GoncalvesG. MarquesP. A. PintoR. J. TrindadeT. NetoC. P. 2009 Surface modification of cellulosic fibres for multi-purpose TiO2 based nanocomposites Composites Science and Technology 69 7 1051 1056 10.1016/j.compscitech.2009.01.020 Search in Google Scholar

Moafi, H. F., Shojaie, A. F., Zanjanchi, M. A., (2010). The comparison of photocatalytic activity of synthesized TiO2 and ZrO2 nanosize onto wool fibers. Applied Surface Science, 256(13), 4310–4316. MoafiH. F. ShojaieA. F. ZanjanchiM. A. 2010 The comparison of photocatalytic activity of synthesized TiO2 and ZrO2 nanosize onto wool fibers Applied Surface Science 256 13 4310 4316 10.1016/j.apsusc.2010.02.022 Search in Google Scholar

Zohoori, S., Karimi, L., Nazari, A. (2014). Photocatalytic self-cleaning synergism optimization of cotton fabric using nano SrTiO3 and nano TiO2. Fibres and Textiles in Eastern Europe, 22, 91–95. ZohooriS. KarimiL. NazariA. 2014 Photocatalytic self-cleaning synergism optimization of cotton fabric using nano SrTiO3 and nano TiO2 Fibres and Textiles in Eastern Europe 22 91 95 Search in Google Scholar

Wang, C., Wang, Y., Zhang, L., Chen, D. (2017). Effect of GeO2 on the lasing performance of Yb: Phosphate glass fiber. Optical Materials, 64, 208–211. WangC. WangY. ZhangL. ChenD. 2017 Effect of GeO2 on the lasing performance of Yb: Phosphate glass fiber Optical Materials 64 208 211 10.1016/j.optmat.2016.12.014 Search in Google Scholar

Wang, X., Wang, L., Fu, X., Jing, C, Yue, F., et al. (2017). Thermal behaviors of stainless steel tube based GeO2 ATR hollow fibers for transmitting CO2 laser radiations. Optics & Laser Technology, 95, 42–45. WangX. WangL. FuX. JingC YueF. 2017 Thermal behaviors of stainless steel tube based GeO2 ATR hollow fibers for transmitting CO2 laser radiations Optics & Laser Technology 95 42 45 10.1016/j.optlastec.2017.03.045 Search in Google Scholar

Zhong, N., Zhao, M., Zhong, L., Liao, Q., Zhu, X., et al. (2016). A high-sensitivity fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor with a three-layer structure composed of Canada balsam doped with GeO2. Biosensors and Bioelectronics, 85, 876–882. ZhongN. ZhaoM. ZhongL. LiaoQ. ZhuX. 2016 A high-sensitivity fiber-optic evanescent wave sensor with a three-layer structure composed of Canada balsam doped with GeO2 Biosensors and Bioelectronics 85 876 882 10.1016/j.bios.2016.06.00227311112 Search in Google Scholar

Yang, Q., Sun, T., Yu, J. Y., Ma, J. X. (2016). Electrospinning of GeO2–C fibers and electrochemical application in lithium-ion batteries. Chinese Chemical Letters, 27(3), 412–416. YangQ. SunT. YuJ. Y. MaJ. X. 2016 Electrospinning of GeO2–C fibers and electrochemical application in lithium-ion batteries Chinese Chemical Letters 27 3 412 416 10.1016/j.cclet.2015.12.025 Search in Google Scholar

Wang, C.-C., Chen, C. C. (2005). Physical properties of crosslinked cellulose catalyzed with nano titanium dioxide. Journal of Applied Polymer Science, 97(6), 2450–2456. WangC.-C. ChenC. C. 2005 Physical properties of crosslinked cellulose catalyzed with nano titanium dioxide Journal of Applied Polymer Science 97 6 2450 2456 10.1002/app.22018 Search in Google Scholar

Chokshi, S., Gohil, P., Patel, D. (2020). Experimental investigations of bamboo, cotton and viscose rayon fiber reinforced Unidirectional composites. Materials Today: Proceedings,28, 498–503. ChokshiS. GohilP. PatelD. 2020 Experimental investigations of bamboo, cotton and viscose rayon fiber reinforced Unidirectional composites Materials Today: Proceedings 28 498 503 10.1016/j.matpr.2019.12.208 Search in Google Scholar

Liu, F., Wang, S., Chen, S. (2020). Adsorption behavior of Au(III) and Pd(II) on persimmon tannin functionalized viscose fiber and the mechanism. International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 152, 1242–1251. LiuF. WangS. ChenS. 2020 Adsorption behavior of Au(III) and Pd(II) on persimmon tannin functionalized viscose fiber and the mechanism International Journal of Biological Macromolecules 152 1242 1251 10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2019.10.22131759026 Search in Google Scholar

Zhang, X., Xia, Y., Yan, X., Shi, M. (2018). Efficient suppression of flammability in flame retardant viscose fiber through incorporating with alginate fiber. Materials Letters, 215, 106–109. ZhangX. XiaY. YanX. ShiM. 2018 Efficient suppression of flammability in flame retardant viscose fiber through incorporating with alginate fiber Materials Letters 215 106 109 10.1016/j.matlet.2017.12.077 Search in Google Scholar

Liu, F., Zhou, L., Tao, L., Qian, L., Yu, G. (2020). Adsorption behavior and mechanism of Au(III) on caffeic acid functionalized viscose staple fibers. Chemosphere, 253, 126704. LiuF. ZhouL. TaoL. QianL. YuG. 2020 Adsorption behavior and mechanism of Au(III) on caffeic acid functionalized viscose staple fibers Chemosphere 253 126704 10.1016/j.chemosphere.2020.12670432464774 Search in Google Scholar

Rehan, M., Khattab, T. A., Barohum, A., Gätjen, L., Wilken, R. (2018). Development of Ag/AgX (X = Cl, I) nanoparticles toward antimicrobial, UV-protected and self-cleanable viscose fibers. Carbohydrate Polymers, 197, 227–236. RehanM. KhattabT. A. BarohumA. GätjenL. WilkenR. 2018 Development of Ag/AgX (X = Cl, I) nanoparticles toward antimicrobial, UV-protected and self-cleanable viscose fibers Carbohydrate Polymers 197 227 236 10.1016/j.carbpol.2018.06.01030007608 Search in Google Scholar

Xia, G., Zhou, X., Hu, J., Sun, Z., Yao, J., et al. (2019). Simultaneous removal of carbon disulfide and hydrogen sulfide from viscose fibre waste gas with a biotrickling filter in pilot scale. Journal of Cleaner Production, 230, 21–28. XiaG. ZhouX. HuJ. SunZ. YaoJ. 2019 Simultaneous removal of carbon disulfide and hydrogen sulfide from viscose fibre waste gas with a biotrickling filter in pilot scale Journal of Cleaner Production 230 21 28 10.1016/j.jclepro.2019.05.097 Search in Google Scholar

Saleemi, S., Naveed, T., Riaz, T., Memon, H., Awan, J. A., et al. (2020). Surface functionalization of cotton and PC fabrics using SiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles for durable flame retardant properties. Coatings, 10(2), 124. SaleemiS. NaveedT. RiazT. MemonH. AwanJ. A. 2020 Surface functionalization of cotton and PC fabrics using SiO2 and ZnO nanoparticles for durable flame retardant properties Coatings 10 2 124 10.3390/coatings10020124 Search in Google Scholar

Filho, F. d. C. G, da Luz, F. S., Oliveira, M. S., Pereira, A. C., Costa, U. O, et al. (2020). Thermal behavior of graphene oxide-coated piassava fiber and their epoxy composites. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 9(3), 5343–5351. FilhoF. d. C. G da LuzF. S. OliveiraM. S. PereiraA. C. CostaU. O 2020 Thermal behavior of graphene oxide-coated piassava fiber and their epoxy composites Journal of Materials Research and Technology 9 3 5343 5351 10.1016/j.jmrt.2020.03.060 Search in Google Scholar

Gradys, A. (2017). Geometrical effects during crystallization under confinement in electrospun core-shell fibers. DSC study of crystallization kinetics. Polymer, 108, 383–394. GradysA. 2017 Geometrical effects during crystallization under confinement in electrospun core-shell fibers. DSC study of crystallization kinetics Polymer 108 383 394 10.1016/j.polymer.2016.12.009 Search in Google Scholar

Nawrocka, A., Szymańska-Chargot, M., Miś, A., Wilczewska, A. Z., Markiewica, K. H. (2017). Effect of dietary fibre polysaccharides on structure and thermal properties of gluten proteins – A study on gluten dough with application of FT-Raman spectroscopy, TGA and DSC. Food Hydrocolloids, 69, 410–421. NawrockaA. Szymańska-ChargotM. MiśA. WilczewskaA. Z. MarkiewicaK. H. 2017 Effect of dietary fibre polysaccharides on structure and thermal properties of gluten proteins – A study on gluten dough with application of FT-Raman spectroscopy, TGA and DSC Food Hydrocolloids 69 410 421 10.1016/j.foodhyd.2017.03.012 Search in Google Scholar

Revanth, J. S., Madhav, V. S., Sai, Y. K., Krishna, D. V., Srividya, K., et al. (2020). TGA and DSC analysis of vinyl ester reinforced by Vetiveria zizanioides, jute and glass fiber. Materials Today: Proceedings,26, 460–465. RevanthJ. S. MadhavV. S. SaiY. K. KrishnaD. V. SrividyaK. 2020 TGA and DSC analysis of vinyl ester reinforced by Vetiveria zizanioides, jute and glass fiber Materials Today: Proceedings 26 460 465 10.1016/j.matpr.2019.12.082 Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo