1. bookVolume 11 (2021): Issue 2 (August 2021)
Journal Details
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
access type Open Access

Pre-Service Teachers’ Perceptions of ICT and TPACK Competencies

Published Online: 13 Aug 2021
Page range: 60 - 82
Received: 13 Jun 2020
Accepted: 02 Dec 2020
Journal Details
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
3 times per year

Introduction: The competencies needed for information and communication technologies (ICT) integration in the teaching-learning process are related to the use of technology, pedagogical attitudes, and content planning. These qualifications are all interrelated and should not be seen separately (Becuwe et al., 2017). In this context, ICT and TPACK competencies are important for ICT integration. The standards of ISTE for educators define the ICT skills that teachers should have as designers and facilitators (International Society for Technology Education [ISTE], 2020). These standards are gathered within the framework of ICT literacy, digital literacy, and ICT competence (Tondeur et al., 2017). The concept of ICT competence discussed in this study refers to the integrated and functional use of digital knowledge, skills and attitudes (Hatlevik et al., 2015). In this study, the ICT integration competencies of pre-service teachers (PSTs) were examined as ICT competencies and TPACK competencies in terms of a range of variables. For this purpose, the following question was asked: “Is there any significant difference in the ICT integration competencies of PSTs according to a range of variables?”

Methods: This study is based on causal-comparative research. The research was conducted in the autumn term of the 2019-2020 academic year. A convenience sampling method was used. In this regard, 413 PSTs, who are students of faculties of education at ten state universities located in different cities in Turkey, participated voluntarily in the study. The “Pre-service Teachers’ ICT Competencies Scale” developed by Tondeur et al. (2017) and the “TPACK-Deep Scale” developed by Kabakçı Yurdakul et al. (2012) were used to collect the data in the study. In addition to the scales, seven questions were asked about gender, grade, department, GPA, ICT course grade, owning a computer for educational purposes, and one’s perceived ability to use technology. Two methods have been adopted to collect data. The first was to collect the printed forms that were completed in pen by the PSTs, and the second was to prepare the electronic form and deliver it to the PSTs via e-mail and social media applications and then collect the data. To analyse the data, descriptive statistics, independent samples t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) were used.

Results: ICT and TPACK competencies of PSTs differ according to grade, having one’s own computer for educational purposes, and one’s perceived ability to use technology, but do not differ by gender. There is no significant difference in ICT and TPACK competencies according to the gender of PSTs. There is a significant difference in ICT and TPACK competencies according to the grade of PSTs and this difference is in favour of fourth grades. There is a significant difference in terms of ICT competencies and TPACK competencies according to computer ownership for educational purposes. This difference is in favour of PSTs who have their own computers. According to the perceived ability to use the technology of PSTs, there is a significant difference in ICT competencies and TPACK competencies. This difference is in favour of PSTs who think they can use technology at the advanced or expert level.

Discussion: In the face of constantly developing and changing technology, an important consideration is the competencies teachers and PSTs should have for ICT integration. Factors contributing to the explanation of the ICT integration process such as skills and competencies, pedagogical beliefs and self-efficacy, professional development and teacher experiences, ICT infrastructure, and access and tools are seen to have a positive effect on ICT use (Kaya & Usluel, 2011). It has been suggested that competence and pedagogical knowledge regarding ICT integration as perceived by teachers are important when starting to integrate ICT into teaching practices (Aslan & Zu, 2015). In this study, it was found that there is a difference in ICT integration competencies of PSTs in favour of those who have their own computers and those who think they can use technology at the advanced or expert level. As the PSTs experience an increase in their perceived level of skill in their use of technology, their ICT integration competencies increase. This study also shows that PSTs’ computer ownership has an impact on their education and improves their technological skills, making a difference in terms of ICT integration competencies.

Limitations: This study was limited to PSTs who studied at the faculty of education at state universities in Turkey. In addition, two scales related to ICT integration and one demographic questionnaire were used. Also, the convenience sampling method was used and the sampling was confined to 413 PSTs.

Conclusions: There is a need for educational processes that emphasise technology’s educational value and enable teachers to improve themselves pedagogically and plan more effective teaching-learning processes using this pedagogical knowledge. To meet the needs of the learners of this century, teachers must first be equipped with the necessary knowledge and skills in their educational processes (Yıldırım, 2000; Zhou et al., 2010). PSTs should experience this process in their teaching-learning process, and should receive training in the integration of ICT in the teaching-learning process (Çubukçu et al., 2017). Research shows that the learning experiences of PSTs in this sense and the integration of ICT with their subject areas are closely related to understanding the educational value of ICT (Mumcu & Usluel, 2015). Academics, who take a role in teacher education, should use technology effectively in their lessons, and PSTs should experience the educational uses of technology through their education (Başal, 2015). In this sense, academics who take part in teacher education have important duties.


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