1. bookVolume 1 (2017): Issue 1 (January 2017)
Journal Details
First Published
30 Jan 2017
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Open Access

Anatomical characterization of ADHD using an atlas-based analysis: A diffusion tensor imaging study

Published Online: 27 Jan 2017
Volume & Issue: Volume 1 (2017) - Issue 1 (January 2017)
Page range: 46 - 56
Received: 27 Jan 2017
Journal Details
First Published
30 Jan 2017
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

Purpose: To examine brain diffusion characteristics in pediatric patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and an atlas-based anatomical analysis of the whole brain and to investigate whether these images have unique characteristics that can support functional diagnoses. Materials and Methods: Seventeen children with ADHD and ten control subjects (all age-matched) underwent MRI scans. The Institutional Ethics Board approved this study. Morphometric analysis was performed using MriStudio software. The diffusion images were normalized using a linear transformation, followed by large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping (LDDMM). For 189 parcellated brain regions, the volume, fractional anisotropy (FA), mean diffusivity (MD), axial diffusivity (AD), and radial diffusivity (RD) were measured. Results: Children with ADHD were found to have increase in the body of lateral ventricle volumes compared to the control. Increased MD was found in the deep gray matter, amygdala, thalamus, substantia nigra, and also the cerebellum left and right side. Increased RD was found in the deep gray matter, caudate, thalamus, substantia nigra and hippocampus left and right side compared to the control. Significant elevated FA was found in the bilateral splenium of the corpus callosum in ADHD patients. Conclusion: Children with ADHD display abnormal diffusion characteristics and anatomical features compared to healthy controls. DTI can provide sensitive information on integrity of white matter (WM) and intra-WM structures in ADHD.

1. Tajima-Pozo K, Ruiz-Manrique G, Yus M, Arrazola J, Montañes-Rada F. Correlation between amygdala volume and impulsivity in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Acta Neuropsychiatr 2015; 27(6): 362-7.10.1017/neu.2015.34Search in Google Scholar

2. Carrey N, Bernier D, Emms M, Gunde E, Sparkes S, Macmaster FP, Rusak B. Smaller volumes of caudate nuclei in prepubertal children with ADHD: impact of age. J Psychiatr Res 2012; 46(8): 1066-72. 10.1016/j.jpsychires.2012.04.025Search in Google Scholar

3. Nagel BJ, Bathula D, Herting M, Schmitt C, Kroenke CD, Fair D, Nigg JT. Altered white matter microstructure in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2011; 50(3): 283-92.10.1016/j.jaac.2010.12.003Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

4. Shaw P, Rabin C. New insights into attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder using structural neuroimaging. Curr Psychiatry Rep 2009; 11(5): 393-8.10.1007/s11920-009-0059-0Search in Google Scholar

5. Mostofsky SH, Cooper KL, Kates WR, Denckla MB, Kaufmann WE. Smaller prefrontal and premotor volumes in boys with attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 2002; 52(8): 785-94.10.1016/S0006-3223(02)01412-9Search in Google Scholar

6. Filipek PA, Semrud-Clikeman M, Steingard RJ, Renshaw PF, Kennedy DN, Biederman J. Volumetric MRI analysis comparing subjects having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with normal controls. Neurology 1997; 48(3): 589-601.10.1212/WNL.48.3.5899065532Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

7. Sasayama D, Hayashida A, Yamasue H, Harada Y, Kaneko T, Kasai K, Washizuka S, Amano N. Neuroanatomical correlates of attention- deficit-hyperactivity disorder accounting for comorbid oppositional defiant disorder and conduct disorder. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 2010; 64(4): 394-402.10.1111/j.1440-1819.2010.02102.x20546170Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

8. Ashtari M, Kumra S, Bhaskar SL, Clarke T, Thaden E, Cervellione KL, Rhinewine J, Kane JM, Adesman A, Milanaik R, Maytal J, Diamond A, Szeszko P, Ardekani BA. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary diffusion tensor imaging study. Biol Psychiatry 2005; 57(5): 448-55.10.1016/j.biopsych.2004.11.04715737658Search in Google Scholar

9. Beaulieu C. The basis of anisotropic water diffusion in the nervous system - a technical review. NMR Biomed 2002; 15(7-8): 435-55.10.1002/nbm.78212489094Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

10. Alexander AL, Lee JE., Lazar M., Aaron S. Field. Diffusion tensor imaging of the brain. Neurotherapeutics 2007; 4(3): 316-29.10.1016/j.nurt.2007.05.011204191017599699Search in Google Scholar

11. van Ewijk H, Heslenfeld DJ, Zwiers MP, Buitelaar JK, Oosterlaan J. Diffusion tensor imaging in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 2012; 36(4): 1093-106.10.1016/j.neubiorev.2012.01.00322305957Search in Google Scholar

12. Song SK, Sun SW, Ramsbottom MJ, Chang C, Russell J, Cross AH. Dysmyelination revealed through MRI as increased radial (but unchanged axial) diffusion of water. Neuroimage 2002; 17(3): 1429-36.10.1006/nimg.2002.126712414282Search in Google Scholar

13. Dramsdahl M, Westerhausen R, Haavik J, Hugdahl K, Plessen KJ. Adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder - a diffusion-tensor imaging study of the corpus callosum. Psychiatry Res 2012; 201(2): 168-73.10.1016/j.pscychresns.2011.08.00522386969Search in Google Scholar

14. Silk TJ, Vance A, Rinehart N, Bradshaw JL, Cunnington R. White-matter abnormalities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Hum Brain Mapp 2009; 30(9): 2757-65.10.1002/hbm.20703687065319107752Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

15. Faria AV, Zhang J, Oishi K, Li X, Jiang H, Akhter K, Hermoye L, Lee SK, Hoon A, Stashinko E, Miller MI, van Zijl PC, Mori S. Atlas-based analysis of neurodevelopment from infancy to adulthood using diffusion tensor imaging and applications for automated abnormality detection. Neuroimage 2010; 52(2): 415-28.10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.04.238288618620420929Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

16. Yoshida S, Faria AV, Oishi K, Kanda T, Yamori Y, Yoshida N, Hirota H, Iwami M, Okano S, Hsu J, Li X, Jiang H, Li Y, Hayakawa K, Mori S. Anatomical characterization of athetotic and spastic cerebral palsy using an atlas-based analysis. J Magn Reson Imagin 2013; 38(2): 288-98.10.1002/jmri.23931374924123737247Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

17. Faria AV, Hoon A, Stashinko E, Li X, Jiang H, Mashayekh A, Akhter K, Hsu J, Oishi K, Zhang J, Miller MI, van Zijl PC, Mori S. Quantitative analysis of brain pathology based on MRI and brain atlases--applications for cerebral palsy. Neuroimage 2011; 54(3): 1854-61.10.1016/j.neuroimage.2010.09.061300831120920589Search in Google Scholar

18. Jiang H, van Zijl PC, Kim J, Pearlson GD, Mori S. DtiStudio: resource program for diffusion tensor computation and fiber bundle tracking. Comput Methods Programs Biomed 2006; 81(2): 106-16.10.1016/j.cmpb.2005.08.00416413083Search in Google Scholar

19. Ceritoglu C, Tang X, Chow M, Hadjiabadi D, Shah D, Brown T, Burhanullah MH, Trinh H, Hsu JT, Ament KA, Crocetti D, Mori S, Mostofsky SH, Yantis S, Miller MI, Ratnanather JT. Computational analysis of LDDMM for brain mapping. Front Neurosci 2013; 7: 151.10.3389/fnins.2013.00151375359523986653Search in Google Scholar

20. Dogan MS, Gumus K, Koc G, Doganay S, Per H, Gorkem SB, Canpolat M, Bayram AK, Coskun A. Brain diffusion tensor imaging in children with tuberous sclerosis. Diagn Interv Imaging 2016; 97(2): 171-6.10.1016/j.diii.2015.04.00225936891Search in Google Scholar

21. Miller MI, Beg MF, Ceritoglu C, Stark C. Increasing the power of functional maps of the medial temporal lobe by using large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2005; 102(27): 9685-90.10.1073/pnas.0503892102Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

22. Oishi K, Faria A, Jiang H, Li X, Akhter K, Zhang J, Hsu JT, Miller MI, van Zijl PC, Albert M, Lyketsos CG, Woods R, Toga AW, Pike GB, Rosa-Neto P, Evans A, Mazziotta J, Mori S. Atlas-based whole brain white matter analysis using large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping: application to normal elderly and Alzheimer’s disease participants. Neuroimage 2009; 46(2): 486-99.10.1016/j.neuroimage.2009.01.002Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

23. Ennis DB, Kindlmann G. Orthogonal tensor invariants and the analysis of diffusion tensor magnetic resonance images. Magn Reson Med 2006; 55(1): 136-46.10.1002/mrm.20741Search in Google Scholar

24. Bilgen M. Imaging corticospinal tract connectivity in injured rat spinal cord using manganese-enhanced MRI. BMC Medical Imaging 2006; 6:15.10.1186/1471-2342-6-15Search in Google Scholar

25. Bilgen M, Narayana PA. Mohr diagram interpretation of anisotropic diffusion indices in MRI. Magn Reson Imaging 2003; 21(5): 567-72. 10.1016/S0730-725X(03)00071-7Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

26. Pierpaoli C, Basser PJ. Toward a quantitative assessment of diffusion anisotropy. Magn Reson Med 1996; 36(6): 893-906. 10.1002/mrm.19103606128946355Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

27. Winston GP. The physical and biological basis of quantitative parameters derived from diffusion MRI. Quant Imaging Med Surg 2012; 2(4): 254-65.Search in Google Scholar

28. Bilgen M, Elshafiey I, Narayana PA. Mohr diagram representation of anisotropic diffusion tensor in MRI. Magn Reson Med 2002; 47(4): 823-7.10.1002/mrm.1011911948747Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

29. Bilgen M, Heddings A, Al-Hafez B, Hasan W, McIff T, Toby B, Nudo R, Brooks WM. Microneurography of human median nerve. J Magn Reson Imaging 2005; 21(6): 826-30.10.1002/jmri.2034515906337Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

30. Radoeva PD, Coman IL, Antshel KM, Fremont W, McCarthy CS, Kotkar A, Wang D, Shprintzen RJ, Kates WR Atlas-based white matter analysis in individuals with velo-cardio-facial syndrome (22q11.2 deletion syndrome) and unaffected siblings. Behav Brain Funct 2012; 8: 38.10.1186/1744-9081-8-38353382222853778Search in Google Scholar

31. Hochberg Y, Benjamini Y. More powerful procedures for multiple significance testing. Stat Med 1990; 9(7): 811-8.10.1002/sim.47800907102218183Search in Google Scholar

32. Tibshirani R, Hastie T, Narasimhan B, Chu G. Diagnosis of multiple cancer types by shrunken centroids of gene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2002; 99(10): 6567-72.10.1073/pnas.08209929912444312011421Search in Google Scholar

33. Gregory R. Warnes, B.B., Lodewijk Bonebakker, Robert Gentleman, Wolfgang Huber Andy Liaw, Thomas Lumley, Martin Maechler, Arni Magnusson, Steffen Moeller, Marc Schwartz and Bill Venables (2015). gplots: Various R Programming Tools for Plotting Data. R package version 2.16.0. . 2015.Search in Google Scholar

34. Castellanos FX, Giedd JN, Marsh WL, Hamburger SD, Vaituzis AC, Dickstein DP, Sarfatti SE, Vauss YC, Snell JW, Lange N, Kaysen D, Krain AL, Ritchie GF, Rajapakse JC, Rapoport JL. Quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 1996; 53(7): 607-16.10.1001/archpsyc.1996.018300700530098660127Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

35. Giedd JN, Castellanos FX, Casey BJ, Kozuch P, King AC, Hamburger SD, Rapoport JL. Quantitative morphology of the corpus callosum in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 1994; 151(5): 665-9.10.1176/ajp.151.5.6658166306Search in Google Scholar

36. Mostofsky SH, Reiss AL, Lockhart P, Denckla MB. Evaluation of cerebellar size in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Child Neurol 1998; 13(9): 434-9.10.1177/0883073898013009049733289Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

37. Lopez-Larson MP, King JB, Terry J, McGlade EC, Yurgelun-Todd D,. Reduced insular volume in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Psychiatry Res 2012; 204(1): 32-9.10.1016/j.pscychresns.2012.09.009399875023142193Search in Google Scholar

38. Castellanos FX, Sharp WS, Gottesman RF, Greenstein DK, Giedd JN, Rapoport JL. Anatomic brain abnormalities in monozygotic twins discordant for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2003; 160(9): 1693-6.10.1176/appi.ajp.160.9.169312944348Search in Google Scholar

39. Garrett A, Penniman L, Epstein JN, Casey BJ, Hinshaw SP, Glover G, Tonev S, Vitolo A, Davidson M, Spicer J, Greenhill LL, Reiss AL. Neuroanatomical abnormalities in adolescents with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2008; 47(11): 1321-8.10.1097/CHI.0b013e318185d285264406518827721Search in Google Scholar

40. Mataró M, Garcia-Sánchez C, Junqué C, Estévez-González A, Pujol J. Magnetic resonance imaging measurement of the caudate nucleus in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and its relationship with neuropsychological and behavioral measures. Arch Neurol 1997; 54(8): 963-8.10.1001/archneur.1997.005502000270069267970Search in Google Scholar

41. Qiu A, Crocetti D, Adler M, Mahone EM, Denckla MB, Miller MI, Mostofsky SH. Basal ganglia volume and shape in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 2009; 166(1): 74-82.10.1176/appi.ajp.2008.08030426289026619015232Search in Google Scholar

42. Batty MJ, Liddle EB, Pitiot A, Toro R, Groom MJ, Scerif G, Liotti M, Liddle PF, Paus T, Hollis C. Cortical gray matter in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: a structural magnetic resonance imaging study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2010; 49(3): 229-38.10.1097/00004583-201003000-00006Search in Google Scholar

43. van Ewijk H, Heslenfeld DJ, Zwiers MP, Faraone SV, Luman M, Hartman CA, Hoekstra PJ, Franke B, Buitelaar JK, Oosterlaan J. Different mechanisms of white matter abnormalities in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 2014; 53(7): 790-9.10.1016/j.jaac.2014.05.00124954828Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

44. Silk TJ, Vance A, Rinehart N, Bradshaw JL, Cunnington R. Structural development of the basal ganglia in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Psychiatry Res 2009; 172(3): 220-5.10.1016/j.pscychresns.2008.07.00319398307Search in Google Scholar

45. Bechtel N, Kobel M, Penner IK, Klarhöfer M, Scheffler K, Opwis K, Weber P. Decreased fractional anisotropy in the middle cerebellar peduncle in children with epilepsy and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a preliminary study. Epilepsy Behav 2009; 15(3): 294-8.10.1016/j.yebeh.2009.04.00519362604Search in Google Scholar

46. Konrad A, Dielentheis TF, El Masri D, Bayerl M, Fehr C, Gesierich T, Vucurevic G, Stoeter P, Winterer G. Disturbed structural connectivity is related to inattention and impulsivity in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Eur J Neurosci 2010; 31(5): 912-9.10.1111/j.1460-9568.2010.07110.x20374289Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

47. Makris N, Buka SL, Biederman J, Papadimitriou GM, Hodge SM, Valera EM, Brown AB, Bush G, Monuteaux MC, Caviness VS, Kennedy DN, Seidman LJ. Attention and executive systems abnormalities in adults with childhood ADHD: A DT-MRI study of connections. Cereb Cortex 2008; 18(5): 1210-20.10.1093/cercor/bhm15617906338Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

48. Syková E.Diffusion properties of the brain in health and disease. Neurochem Int 2004; 45(4): 453-66.10.1016/j.neuint.2003.11.00915186911Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

49. Lochner C, Fouché JP, du Plessis S, Spottiswoode B, Seedat S, Fineberg N, Chamberlain SR, Stein DJ. Evidence for fractional anisotropy and mean diffusivity white matter abnormalities in the internal capsule and cingulum in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder. J Psychiatry Neurosci 2012; 37(3): 193-9.10.1503/jpn.110059334141122297066Search in Google Scholar

50. Davenport ND, Karatekin C, White T, Lim OK. Differential fractional anisotropy abnormalities in adolescents with ADHD or schizophrenia. Psychiatry Res 2010; 181(3): 193-8.10.1016/j.pscychresns.2009.10.012286708720153608Search in Google Scholar

51. Li Q, Sun J, Guo L, Zang Y, Feng Z, Huang X, Yang H, Lv Y, Huang M, Gong Q. Increased fractional anisotropy in white matter of the right frontal region in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a diffusion tensor imaging study. Neuro Endocrinol Lett 2010; 31(6): 747-53.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo