1. bookVolume 2017 (2017): Issue 2 (April 2017)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Cross-Cultural Privacy Prediction

Published Online: 04 Apr 2017
Page range: 113 - 132
Received: 31 Aug 2016
Accepted: 01 Dec 2016
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

The influence of cultural background on people’s privacy decisions is widely recognized. However, a cross-cultural approach to predicting privacy decisions is still lacking. Our paper presents a first integrated cross-cultural privacy prediction model that merges cultural, demographic, attitudinal and contextual prediction. The model applies supervised machine learning to users’ decisions on the collection of their personal data, collected from a large-scale quantitative study in eight different countries. We find that adding culture-related predictors (i.e. country of residence, language, Hofstede’s cultural dimensions) to demographic, attitudinal and contextual predictors in the model can improve the prediction accuracy. Hofstede’s variables - particularly individualism and indulgence - outperform country and language. We further apply generalized linear mixed-effect regression to explore possible interactions between culture and other predictors. We find indeed that the impact of contextual and attitudinal predictors varies between different cultures. The implications of such models in developing privacy-enabling technologies are discussed.

Keywords

[1] A. Acquisti and J. Grossklags. Privacy Attitudes and Privacy Behavior. In L. Camp and S. Lewis, editors, Economics of Information Security, volume 12 of Advances in Information Security, pages 165–178. Springer US, 2004.Search in Google Scholar

[2] I. Ajzen. The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, 50(2):179–211, 1991.Search in Google Scholar

[3] I. Altman. Privacy Regulation: Culturally Universal or Culturally Specific? Journal of Social Issues, 33(3):66–84, July 1977.Search in Google Scholar

[4] A. Anton, J. Earp, and J. Young. How internet users’ privacy concerns have evolved since 2002. IEEE Security Privacy, 8(1):21–27, Jan. 2010.Search in Google Scholar

[5] K. Bartel Sheehan. An investigation of gender differences in on-line privacy concerns and resultant behaviors. Journal of Interactive Marketing, 13(4):24–38, 1999.Search in Google Scholar

[6] R. F. Baskerville. Hofstede never studied culture. Accounting, Organizations and Society, 28(1):1–14, Jan. 2003.Search in Google Scholar

[7] S. Bellman, E. J. Johnson, S. J. Kobrin, and G. L. Lohse. International Differences in Information Privacy Concerns: A Global Survey of Consumers. The Information Society, 20(5):313–324, Nov. 2004.Search in Google Scholar

[8] M. Benisch, P. G. Kelley, N. Sadeh, and L. Cranor. Capturing Location-Privacy Preferences: Quantifying Accuracy and User-Burden Tradeoffs. Technical Report CMU-ISR-10-105, 2010.Search in Google Scholar

[9] I. Bilogrevic, K. Huguenin, B. Agir, M. Jadliwala, and J.-P. Hubaux. Adaptive Information-sharing for Privacy-aware Mobile Social Networks. In Proceedings of the 2013 ACM International Joint Conference on Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing, UbiComp ’13, pages 657–666, New York, NY, USA, 2013. ACM.Search in Google Scholar

[10] S. S. Brehm and J. W. Brehm. Psychological Reactance: A Theory of Freedom and Control. Academic Press, Oct. 2013.Search in Google Scholar

[11] H. Cho, M. Rivera-Sánchez, and S. S. Lim. A multinational study on online privacy: global concerns and local responses. New Media Society, 11(3):395–416, May 2009.Search in Google Scholar

[12] T. C. C. Connection. Chinese Values and the Search for Culture-Free Dimensions of Culture. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 18(2):143–164, June 1987.Search in Google Scholar

[13] T. Dinev, M. Bellotto, P. Hart, V. Russo, and I. Serra. Internet Users’ Privacy Concerns and Beliefs About Government Surveillance: An Exploratory Study of Differences Between Italy and the United States. Journal of Global Information Management, 14(4):57–93, 2006.Search in Google Scholar

[14] T. Dinev, M. Bellotto, P. Hart, V. Russo, I. Serra, and C. Colautti. Privacy calculus model in e-commerce – a study of Italy and the United States. Eur J Inf Syst, 15(4):389–402, 2006.Search in Google Scholar

[15] C. Dong, H. Jin, and B. P. Knijnenburg. Predicting Privacy Behavior on Online Social Networks. In Ninth International AAAI Conference on Web and Social Media, pages 91–100. AAAI Publications, Apr. 2015.Search in Google Scholar

[16] L. Fang and K. LeFevre. Privacy Wizards for Social Networking Sites. In Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on World Wide Web, WWW ’10, pages 351–360, Raleigh, NC, 2010. ACM.Search in Google Scholar

[17] R. L. Helmreich and A. R. Merritt. Culture at work in aviation and medicine: national, organizational and professional influences. Ashgate, 2001.Search in Google Scholar

[18] G. Hofstede. What did GLOBE really measure? Researchers’ minds versus respondents’ minds. J Int Bus Stud, 37(6):882–896, Sept. 2006.Search in Google Scholar

[19] G. Hofstede. Dimensionalizing Cultures: The Hofstede Model in Context. Online Readings in Psychology and Culture, 2(1), Dec. 2011.Search in Google Scholar

[20] G. Hofstede and M. H. Bond. Hofstede’s Culture Dimensions An Independent Validation Using Rokeach’s Value Survey. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 15(4):417–433, Dec. 1984.Search in Google Scholar

[21] G. H. Hofstede and G. Hofstede. Culture’s Consequences: Comparing Values, Behaviors, Institutions and Organizations Across Nations. SAGE, Apr. 2001.Search in Google Scholar

[22] G. Holmes, A. Donkin, and I. H. Witten. WEKA: a machine learning workbench. In Proceedings of the 1994 Second Australian and New Zealand Conference on Intelligent Information Systems, 1994, pages 357–361, Nov. 1994.Search in Google Scholar

[23] M. H. Hoppe. A comparative study of country elites: International differences in work-related values and learning and their implications for management training and development. PhD thesis, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, 1990.Search in Google Scholar

[24] R. J. House, P. J. Hanges, M. Javidan, P. W. Dorfman, and V. Gupta. Culture, Leadership, and Organizations: The GLOBE Study of 62 Societies. SAGE Publications, Apr. 2004.Search in Google Scholar

[25] L. K. John, A. Acquisti, and G. Loewenstein. Strangers on a Plane: Context-Dependent Willingness to Divulge Sensitive Information. Journal of Consumer Research, 37(5):858–873, Feb. 2011.Search in Google Scholar

[26] B. P. Knijnenburg. Information Disclosure Profiles for Segmentation and Recommendation. In SOUPS2014 Workshop on Privacy Personas and Segmentation, Menlo Park, CA, 2014.Search in Google Scholar

[27] B. P. Knijnenburg. A user-tailored approach to privacy decision support. Ph.D. Thesis, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, CA, 2015.Search in Google Scholar

[28] B. P. Knijnenburg, A. Kobsa, and H. Jin. Dimensionality of information disclosure behavior. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 71(12):1144–1162, 2013.Search in Google Scholar

[29] S. Lederer, J. Mankoff, and A. K. Dey. Who wants to know what when? privacy preference determinants in ubiquitous computing. In Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, pages 724–725, Ft. Lauderdale, FL, 2003. ACM Press.Search in Google Scholar

[30] P. G. Leon, A. Kobsa, and C. Nguyen. Contextual Determinants for Users’ Acceptance of Personal Data Processing: A Multinational Analysis. Technical Report UCI-ISR-16-15, Institute for Software Research, University of California, Irvine, December 2016.Search in Google Scholar

[31] S. J. Milberg, S. J. Burke, H. J. Smith, and E. A. Kallman. Values, Personal Information Privacy, and Regulatory Approaches. Commun. ACM, 38(12):65–74, Dec. 1995.Search in Google Scholar

[32] S. J. Milberg, H. J. Smith, and S. J. Burke. Information Privacy: Corporate Management and National Regulation. Organization Science, 11(1):35–57, Feb. 2000.Search in Google Scholar

[33] C. L. Miltgen and D. Peyrat-Guillard. Cultural and generational influences on privacy concerns: a qualitative study in seven European countries. Eur J Inf Syst, 23(2):103–125, Mar. 2014.Search in Google Scholar

[34] H. Nissenbaum. Privacy in Context: Technology, Policy, and the Integrity of Social Life. Stanford University Press, Nov. 2009.Search in Google Scholar

[35] P. A. Norberg and D. R. Horne. Privacy attitudes and privacy-related behavior. Psychology and Marketing, 24(10):829–847, 2007.Search in Google Scholar

[36] J. Phelps, G. Nowak, and E. Ferrell. Privacy Concerns and Consumer Willingness to Provide Personal Information. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 19(1):27–41, Mar. 2000.Search in Google Scholar

[37] S. Piramuthu. Input data for decision trees. Expert Systems with Applications, 34(2):1220–1226, Feb. 2008.Search in Google Scholar

[38] C. Posey, P. B. Lowry, T. L. Roberts, and T. S. Ellis. Proposing the online community self-disclosure model: the case of working professionals in France and the U.K. who use online communities. Eur J Inf Syst, 19(2):181–195, Apr. 2010.Search in Google Scholar

[39] J. R. Quinlan. C4.5: Programs for Machine Learning. Elsevier, June 2014.Search in Google Scholar

[40] S. Rodgers and M. A. Harris. Gender and E-Commerce: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Advertising Research, 43(03):322–329, Sept. 2003.Search in Google Scholar

[41] S. H. Schwartz. Are There Universal Aspects in the Structure and Contents of Human Values? Journal of Social Issues, 50(4):19–45, Jan. 1994.Search in Google Scholar

[42] K. B. Sheehan and M. G. Hoy. Dimensions of Privacy Concern Among Online Consumers. Journal of Public Policy & Marketing, 19(1):62–73, Mar. 2000.Search in Google Scholar

[43] H. J. Smith, S. J. Milberg, and S. J. Burke. Information Privacy: Measuring Individuals’ Concerns about Organizational Practices. MIS Quarterly, 20(2):167–196, June 1996.Search in Google Scholar

[44] P. B. Smith, S. Dugan, and F. Trompenaars. National Culture and the Values of Organizational Employees A Dimensional Analysis Across 43 Nations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 27(2):231–264, Mar. 1996.Search in Google Scholar

[45] J.-B. E. Steenkamp and I. Geyskens. How Country Characteristics Affect the Perceived Value of Web Sites. Journal of Marketing, 70(3):136–150, July 2006.Search in Google Scholar

[46] E. Toch, J. Cranshaw, P. H. Drielsma, J. Y. Tsai, P. G. Kelley, J. Springfield, L. Cranor, J. Hong, and N. Sadeh. Empirical models of privacy in location sharing. In Proceedings of the 12th ACM international conference on Ubiquitous computing, pages 129–138, Copenhagen, Denmark, 2010. ACM Press.Search in Google Scholar

[47] H. C. Triandis. Individualism & collectivism, volume xv of New directions in social psychology. Westview Press, Boulder, CO, US, 1995.Search in Google Scholar

[48] J. A. Vandello and D. Cohen. Patterns of individualism and collectivism across the United States. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(2):279–292, Aug. 1999.Search in Google Scholar

[49] P. Wang and L. A. Petrison. Direct marketing activities and personal privacy. A consumer survey. J. Direct Mark., 7(1):7–19, Dec. 1993.Search in Google Scholar

[50] J. Xie, B. P. Knijnenburg, and H. Jin. Location Sharing Privacy Preference: Analysis and Personalized Recommendation. In Proceedings of the 19th International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, IUI ’14, pages 189–198, New York, NY, USA, 2014. ACM.Search in Google Scholar

[51] Z. Yang, R. T. Peterson, and S. Cai. Services quality dimensions of Internet retailing: an exploratory analysis. Journal of Services Marketing, 17(7):685–700, Dec. 2003.Search in Google Scholar

[52] L. Zhang, J. Zhu, and Q. Liu. A meta-analysis of mobile commerce adoption and the moderating effect of culture. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(5):1902–1911, Sept. 2012.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo