1. bookVolume 11 (2015): Issue 2 (December 2015)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1801-3422
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Attitudes towards the Government’s Remembrance Policy in Poland: Results of an Experimental Study

Published Online: 17 Nov 2016
Volume & Issue: Volume 11 (2015) - Issue 2 (December 2015)
Page range: 73 - 94
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1801-3422
First Published
16 Apr 2015
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The paper presents the results of an experimental study of Polish students’ attitudes towards their government’s remembrance policy (or, in other words, the intentional narration and interpretation of the past by the government). It includes four parts: a justification of why remembrance is a significant political asset in post-Communist Poland; a classification of remembrance policy instruments; a presentation of general results of the study; and a discussion of participants’ attitudes to particular policy instruments. In our assessment of the general results, we discuss three types of collected data: the results of the initial measurement of attitudes; the results of measurement after the manipulation of emotions (neutral vs. positive vs. negative) and commitment (no commitment vs. low commitment); and the results in terms of attitude change. In the section on attitudes to particular instruments, we compare participants’ support for different commemorative actions with their support for the governments’ dominant role in the popularising of remembrance narratives. The study’s results lead us to formulate three conclusions about the relationships between attitudes to the policy and Polish political culture.

Keywords

Almond, Gabriel A., Verba, Sidney (1965): The Civic Culture. Boston: Little, Brown and Co.Search in Google Scholar

Assmann, Jan (1995): Collective Memory and Cultural Identity. “New German Critique” 68, 125–133.10.2307/488538Search in Google Scholar

Baer, Alejandro (2001): Consuming history and memory through mass media products. European Journal of Cultural Studies 4 (4): 491–501.10.1177/136754940100400401Search in Google Scholar

Beall, Jo (2006): Cultural Weapons: Traditions, Inventions and the Transition to Democratic Governance in Metropolitan Durban. Urban Studies 43 (2): 457–473.10.1080/00420980500416966Search in Google Scholar

Bègue, Laurent, Muller, Dominique (2006): Belief in a just world as a moderator of hostile attributional bias. British Journal of Social Psychology 45, 117–126.10.1348/014466605X37314Search in Google Scholar

Berman, Judith E. (2001): Holocaust Museums in Australia: The Impact of Holocaust Denial and the Role of the Survivors. Journal of Holocaust Education 10 (1): 67–88.10.1080/17504902.2001.11087123Search in Google Scholar

Bukh, Alexander (2007): Japan’s History Textbooks Debate: National Identity in Narratives of Victimhood and Victimization. Asian Survey 47 (5): 683–704.10.1525/as.2007.47.5.683Search in Google Scholar

Cadot, Christine (2010): Can Museums Help Build a European Memory? The Example of the Musée de l’Europe in Brussels in the Light of ‘New World’ Museums’ Experience. Journal of Politics, Culture and Society 23, 127–136.10.1007/s10767-010-9096-2Search in Google Scholar

Cappalletto, Francesca (2003): Long-Term Memory of Extreme Events: From Autobiography to History. The Journal of Royal Anthropological Institute 9 (2): 241–260.10.1111/1467-9655.00148Search in Google Scholar

Carlson, Marla (2006): Looking, Listening, and Remembering: Ways to Walk New York after 9/11. Theatre Journal 58: 3, 395–416.10.1353/tj.2006.0146Search in Google Scholar

Cesarani, David (2001): Does the Singularity of Holocaust make it Incomparable and Inoperative for Commemorating, Studying and Preventing Genocide? Britain’s Holocaust Memorial Day as a Case Study. Journal of Holocaust Education 10 (2): 40–56.10.1080/17504902.2001.11087130Search in Google Scholar

Cialdini, Robert B. (2003): Influence. Science and Practice. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.Search in Google Scholar

Dalbert, Claudia (2009): Belief in a just world, in M.R. Leary & R. H. Hoyle. Handbook of Individual Differences in Social Behaviour. New York: Guliford Publications, 288–297.Search in Google Scholar

Dror, Yuval (2001): Holocaust Curricula in Israeli Secondary Schools, 1960s-1990s: Historical Evaluation from Moral Education Perspective. Journal of Holocaust Education 10 (2): 29–39.10.1080/17504902.2001.11087129Search in Google Scholar

Dudek, Antoni (2011): Instytut. Osobista historia IPN. Warszawa: Czerwone i Czarne.Search in Google Scholar

Eckes, Thomas, SIX, Bernd (1994): Fakten und Fiktionen in der Einstellung-Verhaltens-Forschung: Eine Meta-Analyse. Zeitschrift für Sozialpsychologie 25, 253–271.Search in Google Scholar

Elster, Jon (2004): Closing the books: transitional justice in historical perspective. New York: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511607011Search in Google Scholar

Eschebach, Insa (2011): Soil, Ashes, Commemoration. Process of Sacralization at the Ravensbrück Former Concentration Camp. History & Memory 23 (1): 131–156.Search in Google Scholar

EyaL, Gil (2004): Identity and Trauma. Two Forms of the Will to Memory. History & Memory 16 (1): 5–36.Search in Google Scholar

FOGU, Claudio, Kansteiner, Wolf (2006): The Politics of Memory and the Poetics of History, in R. N. Lebow, W. Kansteiner & C. Fogu. The Politics of Memory in Postwar Europe. Durham – London: Duke Univeristy Press, 284–310.10.2307/j.ctv11cw204.12Search in Google Scholar

Freed, James Ingo (1989): The United States Holocaust Memorial Museum. Assemblage 9, 58–79.10.2307/3171152Search in Google Scholar

Friedländer, Saul (2000): History, Memory, and the Historian: Dilemmas and Responsibilities. New German Critique 80, 3–15.10.2307/488629Search in Google Scholar

Fukuoka, Kazuya (2011): School History Textbooks and Historical Memories in Japan: A Study of Reception. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society 24, 83–103.10.1007/s10767-011-9113-0Search in Google Scholar

Fullard, Katja (2010): Memory and Identity in Autobiographical Texts by Günter Grass and Dieter Wallershoff. Rocky Mountain Review 64 (1): 71–85.Search in Google Scholar

Gagiano, Annie (2004): Adapting the National Imaginary: Shifting Identities in Three Post–1994 South African Novels. Journal of Southern African Studies 30 (4): 811–824.10.1080/0305707042000313031Search in Google Scholar

Gotham, Kevin Fox, Greenberg, Miriam (2008): From 9/11 to 8/29: Post-Disaster Recovery and Rebuilding in New York and New Orleans. Social Forces 87 (2): 1039–1062.10.1353/sof.0.0131Search in Google Scholar

Gregor, Neil (2001): Four Days in April 2000: The 55th Anniversary of the Liberation of Ravensbrück. Journal of Holocaust Education 10 (2): 71–78.10.1080/17504902.2001.11087127Search in Google Scholar

GROSS, Jan Tomasz (2000): Sąsiedzi. Historia zagłady żydowskiego miasteczka. Sejny: Pogranicze.Search in Google Scholar

Grosswald Curran, Vivian (2003): The Politics of Memory / Errinerungspolitik and the use propriety of law in the process of memory construction. Law and Critique 14, 309–323.10.1023/B:LACQ.0000005238.48450.7bSearch in Google Scholar

Grundlingh, Albert (2004): Refraining Remembrance:The Politics of Centenary Commemoration of the South African War of 1899–1902. Journal of Southern African Politics 30 (2): 359–375.10.1080/0305707042000215400Search in Google Scholar

Gutwein, Daniel (2009): The Privatization of the Holocaust: Memory, Historiography, and Politics. Israel Studies 14 (1): 36–64.10.2979/ISR.2009.14.1.36Search in Google Scholar

Guyot, Sylvain, Seethal, Cecil (2007): Identity of Place, Places of Identity, Change of Place Names in Post-Apartheid South Africa. South African Geographical Journal 89 (1): 55–63.10.1080/03736245.2007.9713873Search in Google Scholar

Hjarvard, Stig (2008): The Mediatization of Society. A Theory of Media as Agents of Social and Cultural Change. Nordicom Review 29 (2): 105–134.10.1515/nor-2017-0181Search in Google Scholar

Hoerschelmann, Olaf (2001): „Memoria Dextra Est”: Film and Public Memory in Postwar Germany. Cinema Journal 40 (2): 78–97.10.1353/cj.2001.0002Search in Google Scholar

Jackman, Robert W., Miller, Ross A. (1996): A Renaissance of Political Culture? American Journal of Political Science 40 (3): 632–659.10.2307/2111787Search in Google Scholar

Kansteiner, Wulf (2004): Nazis, Viewers, and Statistics: Television History, Television Audience Research and Collective Memory in West Germany. Journal of Contemporary History 39 (4): 575–598.10.1177/0022009404046755Search in Google Scholar

Kattago, Siobhan (2001): Ambiguous Memory. The Nazi Past and German National Identity. Westport – London: Praeger.Search in Google Scholar

Khalili, Laleh (2007): Heroes and Martyrs of Palestine. The Politics of National Commemoration. Oxford – New York: Oxford University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511492235Search in Google Scholar

Koczanowicz, Leszek (1997): Memory of Politics and Politics of Memory. Reflections on the Construction of the Past in Post-Totalitarian Poland. Studies in East European Thought 49, 259–270.10.1023/A:1008617708743Search in Google Scholar

Korzeniewski, Bartosz (2007): Teoria kultury a badania nad pamięcią społeczną. Kultura Współczesna 2, 6–15.Search in Google Scholar

Korzeniewski, Bartosz (2010): Transformacja Pamięci. Przewartościowania w pamięci przeszłości a wybrane aspekty funkcjonowania dyskursu publicznego w Polsce po 1989 roku. Poznań: Wydawnictwo Poznańskiego Towarzystwa Przyjaciół Nauk.Search in Google Scholar

Krasnodębski, Zdzisław (2008): Rozmowy istotne i nieistotne, in I- Sariusz-Skąpska. Pamięć jako przedmiot władzy. Warszawa: Fundacja im. Stefana Batorego, 17–21.Search in Google Scholar

Król, Marcin (2008): Manipulacje władzy, in I. Sariusz-Skąpska. Pamięć jako przedmiot władzy. Warszawa: Fundacja im. Stefana Batorego, 23–25.Search in Google Scholar

Kuźniar, Roman (2012): Polityka zagraniczna III Rzeczypospolitej. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Scholar.Search in Google Scholar

Landsberg, Alison (1997): America, the Holocaust, and the Mass Culture of Memory: Towards a Radical Politics of Empathy. New German Critique 71, 63–86.10.2307/488559Search in Google Scholar

Lijphard, Arend (1999): Patterns of Democracy: Government Forms and Performance in Thirty-Six Countries. New Haven: Yale University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Lisus, Nicola A., Ericson, Richard V. (1995): Misplacing Memory: The Effect of Television Format on Holocaust Remembrance. The British Journal of Sociology 46 (1): 1–19.10.2307/591620Search in Google Scholar

Macginty, Roger (2001): The Political Use of Symbols of Accord and Discord: Northern Ireland and South Africa. Civil Wars 4 (1): 1–21.Search in Google Scholar

Machcewicz, Paweł (2012). Spory o historię 2000–2011. Krakow: Wydawnictwo Znak.Search in Google Scholar

Magierska, Anna (2008): Polityka historyczna – politycy – historia. Społeczeństwo i Polityka 4, 9–27.Search in Google Scholar

Mazzoleni, Gianpietro, Schultz, Winfried (1999): ‘Mediatization’ of Politics: A Challenge for Democracy? Political Communication 16 (3): 247–261.10.1080/105846099198613Search in Google Scholar

Meseth, Wolfgang, Proske, Matthias (2010): Mind the gap: Holocaust Education in Germany, between pedagogical intentions and classroom interactions. Prospects 40, 201–222.10.1007/s11125-010-9152-8Search in Google Scholar

Meyen, Michael, Pfaff-Rudigen, Senta (2014): Mass Media and Memory: the Communist GDR in Today’s Communicative Memory. Medijske Studije – Media Studies 5, 3–18.Search in Google Scholar

Mitter, Rana (2003): Old Ghosts, New Memories: China’s Changing War History in the Era of Post-Mao Politics. Journal of Contemporary History 38 (1): 117–131.10.1177/0022009403038001967Search in Google Scholar

Moyn, Samuel (1998): Two Regimes of Memory. The American Historical Review 103 (4): 1182–1186.10.2307/2651204Search in Google Scholar

Ponczek, Eugeniusz (2007): Kultura polityczna społeczeństwa polskiego. Doświadczenia dziejowe oraz znaki czasu współczesności i przyszłości. Prace Naukowe Akademii im. Jana Długosza w Częstochowie. Res Politicae 2, 117–133.Search in Google Scholar

Rydel, Jan (2011): Polityka historyczna w Republice Federalnej Niemiec. Zaszłości. Idee. Praktyka. Krakow: Wydawnictwo Naukowe Uniwersytetu Pedagogicznego.Search in Google Scholar

Schaller, Dominik J. (2007): From the Editors: genocide tourism – educational value or voyeurism? Journal of Genocide Studies 9 (4): 513–515.10.1080/14623520701643210Search in Google Scholar

Schramm, Katharina (2011): Introduction. Landscapes of Violence: Memory and Sacred Space. History & Memory 23: 1, 5–22.10.2979/histmemo.23.1.5Search in Google Scholar

Schwartz, Barry (1996): Memory as Cultural System: Abraham Lincoln in World War II. American Sociological Review 61 (5): 908–927.10.2307/2096461Search in Google Scholar

Schwartz, Barry, Schuman, Howard (2005): History, Commemoration, and Belief: Abraham Lincoln in American Memory, 1945–2001. American Sociological Review 70 (2): 183–203.10.1177/000312240507000201Search in Google Scholar

Seo, Jungmin (2008): Politics of Memory in Korea and China: Remembering the Comfort Women and Nanjing Massacre. New Political Science 30 (3): 369–392.10.1080/07393140802269021Search in Google Scholar

Shafir, Michael (2014): Unacademic academics: Holocaust deniers and trivializes in post-Communist Romania. Nationalities Papers 42 (6): 942–964.10.1080/00905992.2014.939619Search in Google Scholar

Smith, Rogers (2003): Stories of Peoplehood: The Politics and Mortality of Political Membership. New York: Cambridge University Press.10.1017/CBO9780511490347Search in Google Scholar

Smoczyńska, Anna, Górowska-Fells, Magdalena, Maluchnik, Beata, Płatos, Beata, Chojnacki, Michał, Smolik, Marcin (2012): The System of Education in Poland. Warszawa: Polish Eurydice Unit & Foundation for the Development of the Education System.Search in Google Scholar

Stan, Lavinia (2006): The Vanishing Truth? Politics and Memory in Post-Communist Europe. East European Quarterly 40 (4): 383–408.Search in Google Scholar

Tamm, Marek (2014): Truth, Objectivity and Evidence in History Writing. Journal of the Philosophy of History 8, 265–290.10.1163/18722636-12341273Search in Google Scholar

Uldricks, Teddy J. (2009): War, Politics and Memory. Russian Historians Reevaluate the Origins of World War II. History & Memory 21 (2): 60–82.Search in Google Scholar

Valiñas, Marta, Vanspauwen, Kris (2009): Truth-seeking after violent conflict: experiences from South Africa and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Contemporary Justice Review 12 (3): 269–288.10.1080/10282580903105780Search in Google Scholar

Wang, Zheng (2008): National Humiliation, History Education, and the Politics of Historical Memory: Patriotic Education Campaign in China. International Studies Quarterly 52, 783–806.10.1111/j.1468-2478.2008.00526.xSearch in Google Scholar

Wawrzyński, Patryk (2012): The Usage of Politics of Memory in Polish Foreign Policy: Present State and Perspectives. Copernicus Journal of Political Studies 1, 67–91.Search in Google Scholar

Wawrzyński, Patryk (2014): Sharing the Past: Specialized Institutions as an instrument of Politics of Memory in the 21st Century, in R. Schattkowsky, M. Řeznik. Society and Nation in Transnational Processes in Europe. Newcastle: Cambridge Scholar Publishing, in print.Search in Google Scholar

Wawrzyński, Patryk, Ratke-Majewska, Anna, Marszałek-Kawa, Joanna (2015): The Transformation of National Identity and the Remembrance during Post-Authoritarian Transitions: case studies of Spain and South Africa. Journal of Identity and Migration Studies 9 (1): 19–32.Search in Google Scholar

Westen, Drew (2008): The Political Brain. The role of emotion in deciding the fate of the Nation. New York: Public Affairs.Search in Google Scholar

Withuis, Jolande (2010): Introduction: the Politics of War Trauma, in J. Withuis & A. Mooij. The Politics of War Trauma. The aftermath of World War II in eleven European countries, Amsterdam: Aksant, 1–11.Search in Google Scholar

Wolff-Powęska, Anna (2007): Polskie spory o historię i pamięć. Polityka historyczna. Przegląd Zachodni 1, 3–44.Search in Google Scholar

Worthy, Scott (2004): Communities of Remembrance: Making Auckland’s War Memorial Museum. Journal of Contemporary History 39 (4): 599–618.10.1177/0022009404046756Search in Google Scholar

Yablonka, Hanna (2009): Izraelczycy i Szoah: pamięć, tożsamość i dyskurs, in E. Kossewska. Brzemię pamięci. Współczesne stosunki polsko-izraelskie. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo Neriton, 95–112.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo