1. bookVolume 6 (2016): Issue 1 (February 2016)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2674-4619
First Published
18 Jun 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Open Access

Towards Tourism Sustainability: General Aspects and Empirical Evidence of the Italian Experience at Decentralized Level, with Specific Reference to Sicily

Published Online: 16 Feb 2016
Volume & Issue: Volume 6 (2016) - Issue 1 (February 2016)
Page range: 95 - 138
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2674-4619
First Published
18 Jun 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

Even though the concepts and observations underlying sustainability are not a novelty, sustainable development was given impetus and made popular in 1987 by the Brundtland Report. This report introduced development policies and strategies that acknowledged the importance of resource and environmental constraints and the limitations imposed on growth patterns. Although sustainable development proved difficult to define and make operative, the concept was progressively applied to those economic sectors which had major detrimental effects on income, employment and wealth. Sustainable tourism was effectively one part of the effort to take full account of the current and future economic, social and environmental impacts of the sector, addressing the needs of visitors, industry, environment and host communities. After reviewing the main questions referring to the environmental, economic and social aspects of tourism development, this paper tries to identify a balanced indicator showing the impact of tourist accommodation facilities and related infrastructure in Sicily in terms of the three fundamental pillars of sustainability. Based on this indicator, the ranking of the nine Sicilian provinces is provided. In a wider perspective, the proposed approach is applied to make a comparison of tourism sustainability in Sicily and in other Italian regions.

Keywords

Alonso, A. D. & Liu, Y. (2012), “Old wine region, new concept and sustainable development: winery entrepreneurs’ perceived benefits from wine tourism on Spain’s Canary Islands,’ Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 20, no. 7, pp. 991-1009. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09669582.2011.65122010.1080/09669582.2011.651220Search in Google Scholar

Alvarez, M. D. (2014), ‘Sustainability issues: Tourism as an instrument for development,’ in E. Fayos-Solà, M. D. Alvarez & C. Cooper (eds.) Tourism as an Instrument for Development: A Theoretical and Practical Study, Bingley: Emerald, pp. 87-100. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/s2042-14432014000000600110.1108/S2042-144320140000006001Search in Google Scholar

Avena, G. & Giacalone, M. (2011), “Un’analisi statistica del turismo sostenibile in Calabria,’” Rivista di scienze del turismo, vol. 3, pp. 27-35.Search in Google Scholar

Barbier, E. B. (1998), The Economics of Environment and Development: Selected Essays, London: Edward Elgar.Search in Google Scholar

BarOn, R. R. V. (1973), ‘Seasonality in tourism - Part II,’ International Tourism Quarterly, vol. 1, pp. 51-67. Search in Google Scholar

-- (1975), Seasonality in Tourism: A Guide to the Analysis of Seasonality and Trends for Policy Making, London: The Economist Intelligence Unit Limited.Search in Google Scholar

Barney, G. O. (1980), The Global 2000 Report to the President of the U.S., Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Search in Google Scholar

Baum, T. & Lundtorp, S., eds. (2011), Seasonality in Tourism. Amsterdam: Elsevier.Search in Google Scholar

Beltratti, A.; Chichilnisky, G. & Heal, G. (1993), Sustainable Growth and the Green Golden Rule, NBER Working Paper no. 4430, Cambridge: National Bureau of Economic Research. http://dx.doi.org/10.3386/w443010.3386/w4430Search in Google Scholar

Berno, T. & Bricker, K. (2001), ‘Sustainable tourism development: The long road from theory to practice,’ International Journal of Economic Development, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 1-18.Search in Google Scholar

Blaug M. (1978), Economic Theory in Retrospect, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Boyer, J. C. (1972), Le tourisme, Paris: Éd. du Seuil.Search in Google Scholar

Bresso, M. (1982), Pensiero economico e ambiente, Torino: Loescher Editore. Search in Google Scholar

-- (1993), Per un’economia ecologica, Roma: La Nuova Italia Scientifica.Search in Google Scholar

Buchmann, A. (2009), ‘Managing sustainable wine tourism industry,’ Wine Business Research Symposium Proceedings, University of Newcastle, pp. 250-263.Search in Google Scholar

Buckley, R. (2012), ‘Sustainable tourism: Research and reality,’ Annals of Tourism Research, vol. 39, no. 2, pp. 528-546. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2012.02.00310.1016/j.annals.2012.02.003Search in Google Scholar

Butler, R. (1994), ‘Seasonality in tourism: issues and problems,’ in A. V. Seaton (ed.) Tourism: The State of the Art, New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 332-339.Search in Google Scholar

Byrd, E. T. (2007), ‘Stakeholders in sustainable tourism development and their roles: applying stakeholder theory to sustainable tourism development,’ Tourism Review, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 6-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/1660537078000030910.1108/16605370780000309Search in Google Scholar

Cannas, R. (2012), ‘An overview of tourism seasonality: key concepts and policies,’ Alma Tourism, vol. 5, pp. 40-58.Search in Google Scholar

Carlsen, J. (2004), ‘A review of global wine tourism research,’ Journal of Wine Research, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 5-13. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/095712604200030028110.1080/0957126042000300281Search in Google Scholar

Carmichael, B. A. & Senise, D. M. (2011), ‘Competitiveness and sustainability in wine tourism regions: the application of a stage model of destination development to two Canadians wine regions,’ in P. H. Dougherty (ed.) The Geography of Wine: Regions, Terroir and Techniques, Berlin: Springer, pp. 159-178.Search in Google Scholar

Carson, D. & Macbeth, J., eds. (2005), Regional Tourism Studies. Innovation on Regional Tourism, Altona Victoria: Common Ground Publishing.Search in Google Scholar

Cassar, S. (2007), ‘Tourism development in Sicily during the fascist period (1922-1943),’ Journal of Tourism History, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 131-149. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17551820903353447 10.1080/17551820903353447Search in Google Scholar

-- (2015a), ‘Il settore turistico in Sicilia nella seconda metà del Novecento,’ in P. Folguera et al. (eds.) Pensar con la historia desde el siglo XXI, Actas del XII Congreso de la Asociación de Historia Contemporánea, Madrid: UAM Ediciones, pp. 457-477.Search in Google Scholar

-- (2015b), ‘Offerta ricettiva e flussi turistici in Sicilia,’ in P. Avallone & D. Strangio (eds.) Turismi e turisti. Politica, innovazione, economia in Italia in età contemporanea, Milano: FrancoAngeli, pp. 137-180.Search in Google Scholar

Cassar, S. & Creaco, S. (2012), ‘Il ruolo della Cassa per il Mezzogiorno nello sviluppo del settore turistico,’ Rivista Economica del Mezzogiorno, vol. XXVI, no. 3, pp. 521-556.Search in Google Scholar

Cavallo, L. & Santoro, M. T. (2014), ‘The seasonal adjustment of occupancy variables: the Italian experience,’ Paper delivered at the 2nd Global Forum on Tourism Statistics, May 14-17, Prague.10.17265/2328-224X/2014.05.001Search in Google Scholar

Cerina, F.; Markandya, A. & McAleer, M., eds. (2010), Economics of Sustainable Tourism, New York: Routledge.10.4324/9780203842331Search in Google Scholar

Cernat, L. & Gourdon, J. (2007), Is the Concept of Sustainable Tourism Sustainable? New York: United Nations.Search in Google Scholar

Chichilnisky, G. (1977a), ‘Development patterns and the international order,’ Journal of International Affairs, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 275-304. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.1366878 10.2139/ssrn.1366878Search in Google Scholar

-- (1977b), ‘Economic development and the efficiency criteria in the satisfaction of basic needs,’ Applied Mathematical Modelling, vol. 1, pp. 290-298. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0307-904X(77)90060-9 10.1016/0307-904X(77)90060-9Search in Google Scholar

Choi, H. C. & Sirakaya E. (2006), ‘Sustainable indicators for managing community tourism,’ Tourism Management, vol. 27, pp. 1274-1289. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2005.05.01810.1016/j.tourman.2005.05.018Search in Google Scholar

Chung, J. C. (2009), ‘Seasonality in tourism: A review,’ E-Review of Tourism Research, vol. 7, no. 5, pp. 82-96.Search in Google Scholar

Ciani Scarnicci, M.; Marcelli, A.; Pinelli, P.; Romani, A. & Russo, R. (2014), Economia, ambiente e sviluppo sostenibile, Milano: FrancoAngeli.Search in Google Scholar

Cobbinah, P. B.; Black, R. & Thwaites, R. (2013), ‘Tourism planning in developing countries: review of concepts and sustainable issues,’ International Journal of Social Education, Economics and Management Engineering, vol. 7, no. 4, pp. 468-475.Search in Google Scholar

Consiglio regionale della Calabria (2011), Approvazione del Piano regionale di sviluppo turistico sostenibile per il triennio 2011-2013, Reggio di Calabria.Search in Google Scholar

Cooper, C.; Wanhill, S.; Fletcher, J.; Gilbert, D. & Fyall, A. (2008), Tourism: Principles and Practice, Harlow: Pearson Education.Search in Google Scholar

Creaco, S. (2015a), ‘Turismo e intervento straordinario per le aree depresse in Italia,’ in P. Folguera et al. (eds.) Pensar con la historia desde el siglo XXI, Actas del XII Congreso de la Asociación de Historia Contemporánea, Madrid: UAM Ediciones, pp. 425-456.Search in Google Scholar

-- (2015b), ‘Turismo e intervento straordinario nel Mezzogiorno,’ in P. Avallone & D. Strangio (eds.) Turismi e turisti. Politica, innovazione, economia in Italia in età contemporanea, Milano: FrancoAngeli, pp. 93-136.Search in Google Scholar

Defert, P. (1966), Le tourisme, factor de valorisation régionale, Paris: Centre de recherches économiques et sociales.Search in Google Scholar

-- (1967), La taux de fonction touristique: mise en point et critique, Aix-en-Provence: Centre d’études du tourisme.Search in Google Scholar

Diaz, D. (2011), ‘The viability and sustainability of international tourism in developing countries,’ Paper delivered at the Symposium on Tourism Services, Geneva.Search in Google Scholar

Dixon, J. A. & Steer, A., eds. (1994), The World Bank and the Environment: A Fourfold Agenda, Washington, DC: The World Bank.Search in Google Scholar

EC (1992), Towards Sustainability, A European community programme for policy and action in relation to the environment and sustainable development. Official Journal of the European Communities, C 138/5, 17.05.1993.Search in Google Scholar

Emmelin, L. (2006), Sustainable Tourism Development in the Baltic Sea Region, Östersund: The European Tourism Research Institute.Search in Google Scholar

Eurostat (2015), Tourism Statistics at Regional Level, Brussels.Search in Google Scholar

Farsari, Y.; Butler, R. & Prastacos, P. (2007), ‘Sustainable tourism policy for Mediterranean destinations: issues and interrelationships,’ International Journal of Tourism Policy, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 58-78. http://dx.doi.org/10.1504/IJTP.2007.013898 10.1504/IJTP.2007.013898Search in Google Scholar

Fossati, A. & Panella, G., eds. (2000), Tourism and Sustainable Economic Development, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.10.1007/978-1-4615-4321-3Search in Google Scholar

Garau, C. (2014), ‘Smart paths for advanced management of cultural heritage,’ Regional Studies, Regional Science, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 286-293. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/21681376.2014.97343910.1080/21681376.2014.973439Search in Google Scholar

-- (2015), ‘Perspectives on cultural and sustainable rural tourism in a smart region: the case study of Marmilla in Sardinia (Italy),’ Sustainability, vol. 7, no. 6, pp. 6412-6434. http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/su706641210.3390/su7066412Search in Google Scholar

Giacalone, M.; La Tona, L. & Marino, C. (2005), Sustainability in the Receptive- Tourist Field in Sicily, Relazione al Convegno SIS: Statistics and Environment, Università di Messina.Search in Google Scholar

Gordon, B. M. (2003), ‘The Mediterranean destination from classical antiquity to Club Med,’ Mediterranean Studies, vol. 12, pp. 203-226.Search in Google Scholar

Grafton, R. Q.; Adamowicz, W.; Dupont, D.; Nelson, H.; Hill, R. J. & Renzetti, S. (2004), The Economics of the Environment and Natural Resources, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing. http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/978047075546410.1002/9780470755464Search in Google Scholar

Günther, W. (2011), Sustainable Tourism Development in the Baltic Sea Region, Kiel: Institute for Tourism Research in Northern Europe.Search in Google Scholar

Heal, G. M. (1998), ‘Interpreting sustainability,’ in G. Chichilnisky, G. M. Heal & A. Vercelli (eds.) Sustainability: Dynamics and Uncertainty, Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-94-011-4892-4_110.1007/978-94-011-4892-4_1Search in Google Scholar

Heikkilä, J.; Poladova, A. & Kääriä, J. (2014), ‘Need for service design development for sustainable rural tourism in Azerbaijan,’ Baltic Journal of European Studies, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 83-98. http://dx.doi.org/10.2478/bjes-2014-001710.2478/bjes-2014-0017Search in Google Scholar

Herrera, A. O. (1974), Introduction and basic assumptions of the model, Proceedings of the second IIASA symposium on global modelling, Laxenburg: International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis, pp. 3-8.Search in Google Scholar

Herrera, A. O.; Scolnik, H. D. & Chichilnisky, G. (1976), Catastrophe or New Society. A Latin American World Model, Ottawa: International Development Research Centre.Search in Google Scholar

Istituto centrale di statistica (2013), Annuario statistico italiano. Anno 2013, Roma.Search in Google Scholar

-- (2014a), La superficie dei comuni, delle provincie e delle regioni italiani, Roma. Search in Google Scholar

-- (2014b), Statistiche del turismo. Anno 2013, Roma.Search in Google Scholar

IUCN (2010), Sustainable Tourism in the Mediterranean Panorama and Perspectives, Strategies and Actions, Gland: IUCN.Search in Google Scholar

IUCN; UNEP & WWF (1980), World Conservation Strategy: Living Resource Conservation for Sustainable Development, Gland: IUCN, UNEP & WWF.10.2305/IUCN.CH.1980.9.enSearch in Google Scholar

Kondur, O.; Kopchak, Y. & Kopchak, L. (2014), ‘Role of the tourism sector in sustainable development of the Carpathian region: social, educational and economic aspects,’ Journal of Vasyl Stefanyk Precarpathian National University, vol. 1, nos. 2-3, pp. 119-122. http://dx.doi.org/10.15330/jpnu.1.2-3.119-12210.15330/jpnu.1.2-3.119-122Search in Google Scholar

Liu, Z. (2003), ‘Sustainable tourism development: a critique,’ Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 11, no. 6, pp. 459-475. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0966958030866721610.1080/09669580308667216Search in Google Scholar

Lück, M.; Maher, P. T. & Stewart, E. J., eds. (2010), Cruise Tourism in Polar Regions: Promoting Environmental and Social Sustainability? London: Routledge.10.4324/9781849776394Search in Google Scholar

Manning, T. (1999), ‘Indicators of tourism sustainability,’ Tourism Management, vol. 20, pp. 179-181.Search in Google Scholar

Markandya, A.; Taylor, T. & Pedroso, S. (2003), ‘Tourism and sustainable development: Lessons from recent World Bank experience,’ Paper delivered at the International Conference on Tourism and Sustainable Economic Development, Macro e micro issues, Chia (Cagliari).Search in Google Scholar

Meadows, D. H.; Meadows, D. L.; Randers, J. & Behrens, W. W. (1972), The Limits to Growth, New York: Universe Books.Search in Google Scholar

Middleton, V. T. C. & Hawkins, R. (1998), Sustainable Tourism: A Marketing Perspective, Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann.10.1016/B978-0-7506-2385-8.50007-7Search in Google Scholar

Milne, S. (1998), ‘Tourism and sustainable development: Exploring the global-local nexus,’ in C. M. Hall & A. A. Lee (eds.) Greening the Sustainable Tourism: A Geographical Perspective, Essex: Longman, pp. 35-48.Search in Google Scholar

Mirloup, J. (1974), ‘Élements méthodologiques pour une étude de l’équipment hôtelier: l’exemple des departments de la Loire moyenne,’ Norois, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 563-583. http://dx.doi.org/10.3406/noroi.1974.340410.3406/noroi.1974.3404Search in Google Scholar

Musu, I. (1993), Economia e ambiente, Bologna: Il Mulino.Search in Google Scholar

O’Mahony, B. & McMurray, A. (2008), Seasonality in the Tourism Industry: Impacts and Strategies, Gold Coast: Sustainable Tourism Cooperative Research Centre’s Monograph Series.Search in Google Scholar

O’Riordan, T. (1993), ‘The politics of sustainability,’ in R. K. Turner (ed.) Sustainable Environmental Economics and Management: Principles and Practice, New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 37-69.Search in Google Scholar

OECD (2010), Sustainable Tourism and Local Development in Apulia Region, Paris: OECD.Search in Google Scholar

Osservatorio turistico della Regione siciliana (2005), Il turismo in Sicilia. I flussi dell’incoming nazionali ed internazionali. 2004-2005, Palermo.Search in Google Scholar

-- (2013), Il turismo in Sicilia. Rapporto 2012-2013, Palermo.Search in Google Scholar

-- (2014), Piano strategico di sviluppo turistico 2014-2020, Programma triennale 2015-2017, Palermo.Search in Google Scholar

Özçevik, O.; Brebbia, C. A. & Şener, S. M. (2015), Sustainable Development and Planning VII, Southampton: The WIT Press.Search in Google Scholar

Pearce, D. (2002), ‘An intellectual history of environmental history,’ Annual Review of Energy and the Environment, vol. 27, pp. 57-81. http://dx.doi.org/10.1146/annurev.energy.27.122001.083429 10.1146/annurev.energy.27.122001.083429Search in Google Scholar

Pearce, D. W. & Turner, R. K. (1990), Economics of Natural Resources and the Environment, New York: Harvester Wheatsheaf.Search in Google Scholar

Peris-Ortiz, M.; DelRio Rama, M. & Rueda-Armengot, C. (2016), Wine and Tourism: A Strategic Segment for Sustainable Economic Development, Berlin: Springer. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-18857-710.1007/978-3-319-18857-7Search in Google Scholar

Petreska, B. (2013), ‘Empirical analysis of seasonality in tourism patterns,’ Journal of Process Management, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 87-95.Search in Google Scholar

Pezzey, J. (1989), Definitions of Sustainability, Working Paper no. 9, London: UK Centre for Environment and Development. Search in Google Scholar

-- (1997), ‘Sustainability constraints versus “optimality” versus intertemporal concern, and axioms versus data,’ Land Economics, vol. 73, no. 4, pp. 448-466. http://dx.doi.org/10.2307/314723910.2307/3147239Search in Google Scholar

Poitras, L. & Getz, D. (2010), ‘Sustainable wine tourism: the host community perspective,’ Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 425-448. http://dx.doi.org/10.2167/jost587.010.2167/jost587.0Search in Google Scholar

Presidenza del Consiglio dei Ministri (2013), Turismo Italia 2020. Piano strategico per lo sviluppo del turismo in Italia, Roma.Search in Google Scholar

Sandmo, A. (2014), The Early History of Environmental Economics, Bergen: Norwegian School of Economics.10.2139/ssrn.2432928Search in Google Scholar

Santini, C.; Cavicchi, A. & Casini, L. (2013), ‘Sustainability in the wine industry: Key questions and research trends,’ Agricultural and Food Economics, vol. 1, pp. 1-14. http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2193-7532-1-910.1186/2193-7532-1-9Search in Google Scholar

Secretariat of the Alpine Convention (2013), Sustainable Tourism in the Alps. Report on the State of the Alps, Innsbruck: Secretariat of the Alpine Convention.Search in Google Scholar

Shah, K.; McHarry, J. & Gardiner, R. (2002), ‘Sustainable tourism - turning the tide, towards Earth Summit 2002,’ Economic Briefing, vol. 4, pp. 1-14.Search in Google Scholar

Sharpley, R. (2000), ‘Tourism and sustainable development: exploring the theoretical divide,’ Journal of Sustainable Tourism, vol. 8, no. 1, pp. 1-19. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/0966958000866734610.1080/09669580008667346Search in Google Scholar

Sirageldin, I. (1994), ‘Making development sustainable,’ in I. Sirageldin & A. Steer (eds.) Making Development Sustainable: From Concepts to Action, Environmental Sustainable Development Occasional Papers, no. 2, Washington, DC: World Bank. http://dx.doi.org/10.1596/0-8213-3042-X 10.1596/0-8213-3042-XSearch in Google Scholar

Solow, R. (1993), ‘An almost practical step toward sustainability,’ Resources Policy, vol. 19, no. 3, pp. 162-172. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/0301-4207(93)90001-410.1016/0301-4207(93)90001-4Search in Google Scholar

Stewart, E. J.; Drape. D. & Johnston (2005), ‘A review of tourism research in the polar regions,’ Arctic, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 383-394.Search in Google Scholar

Swarbrooke, J. (1999), Sustainable Tourism Management, New York: CABI Publishing.10.1079/9780851993140.0336Search in Google Scholar

Tanguay, G. A.; Rajaonson, J. & Therrien, M-C. (2011), Sustainable Tourism Indicators: Selection criteria for policy implementation and scientific recognition, Montréal: Centre Interuniversitaire de Recherche en Analyse des Organisations (CIRANO).10.2139/ssrn.1948674Search in Google Scholar

Tourism Sustainability Group (2007), Action for More Sustainable Tourism, Brussels: European Commission.Search in Google Scholar

Turner, R. K. (1993), ‘Sustainability: principles and practice,’ in R. K. Turner (ed.) Sustainable Environmental Economics and Management: Principles and Practice, New York: John Wiley & Sons, pp. 3-36.Search in Google Scholar

ULUCHAY (2014), Sheki-Zagatala Economic Region: Assessing Tourism Potential, Sheki: ULUCHAY.Search in Google Scholar

UN (1972), Report of the United Nations Conference on the Human Environment, New York: United Nations. Search in Google Scholar

-- (2001), Plan of Action for Sustainable Tourism Development in the Asian and Pacific Region (1999-2005), New York: United Nations.Search in Google Scholar

-- (2002), Report of the World Summit on Sustainable Development, New York: United Nations.Search in Google Scholar

UNEP (2005), Mediterranean Strategy for Sustainable Development: A Framework for Environmental Sustainability and Shared Prosperity, Athens: UNEP.Search in Google Scholar

UNEP & UNWTO (2005), Making Tourism More Sustainable: A Guide for Policy Makers, Paris: UNEP & UNWTO.Search in Google Scholar

UNWTO (2006), What Tourism Managers Need to Know: A Practical Guide to the Development and Use of Indicators of Sustainable Tourism, Madrid: UNWTO.Search in Google Scholar

-- (2007), A Practical Guide to Tourism Destination Management, Madrid: UNWTO.Search in Google Scholar

Waligo, V. M.; Clarke, J. & Hawkins, R. (2013), ‘Implementing sustainable tourism: a multi-stakeholder involvement management framework,’ Tourism Management, vol. 36, pp. 342-353. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tourman.2012.10.00810.1016/j.tourman.2012.10.008Search in Google Scholar

Wall, G. & Mathieson, A. (2006), Tourism: Change, Impacts and Opportunities, Edinburgh: Pearson Education.Search in Google Scholar

Weaver, D. & Lawton, L. (1999), Sustainable Tourism: A Critical Analysis, Gold Coast: CRC.Search in Google Scholar

Wilard, P. (2011), Regional Environmental Policy and Sustainable Tourism Development in the Caribbean, Santiago: United Nations Publication.Search in Google Scholar

World Commission on Environment and Development (1987), Our Common Future, London: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

WTO (1993), Indicators for the Sustainable Management of Tourism, Madrid: WTO. Search in Google Scholar

-- (1997), What Tourism Managers Need to Know: A Practical Guide to the Development and Use of Indicators of Sustainable Tourism, Madrid: WTO. Search in Google Scholar

-- (1998), Guide for Local Authorities in Developing Sustainable Tourism, Madrid: WTO. Search in Google Scholar

-- (1999), Sustainable Development of Tourism: An Annotated Bibliography, Madrid: WTO. Search in Google Scholar

-- (2004), Indicators of Sustainable Development for Tourism Destinations: A Guidebook, Madrid: WTO.Search in Google Scholar

Yazdi, S. (2012), ‘Sustainable tourism,’ American International Journal of Social Science, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 50-56.Search in Google Scholar

Yunis, E. (2004), ‘Indicators to measure sustainability in tourism,’ Paper delivered at the 7th International Forum on Tourism Statistics. Stockholm, 9-11 June. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo