1. bookVolume 5 (2015): Issue 2 (October 2015)
Journal Details
First Published
18 Jun 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
access type Open Access

Technology Transfer in the EU: Exporting Strategically Important ICT Solutions to Other EU Member States

Published Online: 15 Oct 2015
Volume & Issue: Volume 5 (2015) - Issue 2 (October 2015)
Page range: 5 - 29
Journal Details
First Published
18 Jun 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year

The fast development of ICTs pose new challenges to the European Union and its Member States. Every EU country has its own policies regarding technology transfer, ownership of state e-services, and the possibilities how the state-owned or licensed e-service could be exported. Taking into account the free movement of goods, the EU has created a platform to cooperate and export IT solutions. However, the lack of preparedness of infrastructures, legislation and stakeholders for cross-border exchanges poses a threat to IT transfer and should be taken into consideration in the EU as well. In the coming decades the number of outsourced ICT solutions, strategically important ICT solutions, public services and critically important information exchange platforms developed on behalf of the states, will grow exponentially. Still, digital development is uneven across the EU, they grow at different speeds and the performance is quite splintered. There are legal provisions which are outdated and therefore impede technological cooperation and export of IT solutions. A Member State may restrict the ICT licensing based on national security and policy reasons and the ownership of intellectual property might pose a threat to technology transfer or further development of the IT solution. There are examples of strategically important export of ICT solutions, the experience at which can be expanded to cover other EU Member States. Strong collaboration would enable mutual learning from past experiences along with the opportunities for better use of technology. Parallels can be drawn with military technology transfers, as the policies and legal framework was first developed and mostly used with them.

This introduces a question of what are the conditions for exporting strategically important ICT solutions from one Member State to another, given that there is no common legal framework developed yet, and who should decide whether to transfer or not?


Apple Computer, Inc. v. Franklin Computer Corporation [1983], US Court of Appeals Third Circuit, 30.08.1983, 714 F.2d 1240, 219 USPQ 113.Search in Google Scholar

Benson, S. (1990), ‘The technology transfer dimensions of U.S. military assistance,’ The DISAM Journal, pp. 18-22.Search in Google Scholar

Canfield, J. (1984), ‘Copyrightability of object code,’ Notre Dame Law Review, vol. 59, no. 2, p. 412-430.Search in Google Scholar

Carrier, M. K. (2011), ‘Introduction to U.S. export control: regulations for patent practitioners,’ Akron Intellectual Property Journal, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 1-17.Search in Google Scholar

Council of the European Union (2006), Directive 2006/116/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 12 December 2006 on the term of protection of copyright and certain related rights, Official Journal of the European Union, OJ L 372, 27.12.2006.Search in Google Scholar

-- (2009), Directive 2009/24/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the legal Protection of computer programs, Official Journal of the European Union, OJ L 111, 5.5.2009.Search in Google Scholar

-- (2015), Digital Economy and Society Index 2015: Methodological note, Brussels: European Commission Directorate-General for Communications Networks, Content and Technology.Search in Google Scholar

Curtis, S. & Hoggins, T. (2014), ‘Is Destiny the most expensive video game ever made?’ The Telegraph, 9 September 2014.Search in Google Scholar

Cybernetica (2013), ‘X-Road eGovernment Interoperability Framework (X-Road whitepaper).’ Retrieved from http://cyber.ee/uploads/2013/03/cyber_xroad_NEW2_A4_web.pdf [accessed 2 Jul 2015]Search in Google Scholar

-- (2014), ‘X-Road reaches Finland’. Retrieved from http://cyber.ee/en/news/x-roadreaches-finland/ [accessed 1 Jul 2015] -- (2015), ‘X-Road’. Retrieved from http://cyber.ee/en/e-government/x-road/ [accessed 2 Jul 2015]Search in Google Scholar

Data exchange layer of information systems (2008), ‘Infosüsteemide andmevahetuskiht,’ Riigi Teataja, RT I 2008, 18, 129.Search in Google Scholar

DISAM (2015), The Management of Security Cooperation (Green Book), 34th edition, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH: Defense Institute of Security Assistance Management.Search in Google Scholar

DoD (1984), International Transfers of Technology, Goods, Services, and Munitions, Department of Defense Directive Number 2040.2, 17.1.1984.Search in Google Scholar

Dunning, J. H. (2013), Multinationals, Technology & Competitiveness, Routledge Library Editions: International Business, vol. 13, Abingdon: Routledge.10.4324/9780203076231Search in Google Scholar

Durell, K. L. (2000), ’Intellectual property protection for computer software: how much and what form is effective?’ International Journal of Law and Information Technology, vol. 8, no. 3, pp. 231-262.10.1093/ijlit/8.3.231Search in Google Scholar

Dusollier, S. (2007), ‘Sharing access to intellectual property through private ordering,’ Chicago-Kent Law Review, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 1391-1435.Search in Google Scholar

Duxbury, C. (2015), ‘Sweden ends military cooperation deal with Saudi Arabia: criticism of Saudi rights record causes diplomatic standoff,’ The Wall Street Journal, 10 March 2015.Search in Google Scholar

E-Estonia (n.d., a), ‘Electronic ID Card.’ Retrieved from https://e-estonia.com/component/electronic-id-card/ [accessed 2 Jul 2015]Search in Google Scholar

-- (n.d., b), ‘E-Prescription.’ Retrieved from https://e-estonia.com/component/eprescription/ [accessed 1 Jul 2015]Search in Google Scholar

-- (2013), ‘Top 5 Technology Transfers from e-Estonia.’ Retrieved from https://eestonia.com/top-5-technology-transfers-e-estonia/ [accessed 5 Jul 2015]Search in Google Scholar

-- (2014), “Estonia’s Digital Revolution Takes Root in Azerbaijan,” 13 August 2014. Retrieved from https://e-estonia.com/estonias-digital-revolution-takes-rootazerbaijan/ [accessed 4 Jul 2015]Search in Google Scholar

-- (2015), ‘Estonia and Finland to plug in Real-Time Economy,’ 14 January 2015. Retrieved from https://e-estonia.com/estonia-and-finland-to-plug-in-real-timeeconomy/ [accessed 4 Jul 2015]Search in Google Scholar

E-Governance Academy (n.d.), ‘Change Management (CHARE)’. Retrieved from http://www.ega.ee/domains/central-e-government/change-management-chare/ [accessed 1 Jul 2015]Search in Google Scholar

Estonian Embassy in Helsinki (2015), ‘Relations,’ 2 June 2015. Retrieved from http:// www.estemb.fi/eng/estonia_and_finland [accessed 4 Jul 2015]Search in Google Scholar

Estonian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (2014), ‘Eesti ja Soome: Kahepoolsed Suhted’. Retrieved from https://peaveeb.vm.ee/?q=en/node/143 [accessed 29 Jun 2015] Search in Google Scholar

Estonian Public Broadcasting Agency (2013), ‘Finland to set up its own data X-Road, cross-border e-services in the works,’ 13 September 2013. Retrieved from http://news.err.ee/v/scitech/89928bc5-f5df-407d-9dbd-3f4a97e80e8a [accessed 4 Jul 2015] Search in Google Scholar

European Commission (2014), ‘The Digital Single Market - investing in the future,’ Speech by Vice-President Andrus Ansip on 11 December 2014 at the LIKTA 16th Annual Conference in Riga, European Commission.Search in Google Scholar

Frankel, M. J. (2012), ‘Secret sabermetrics: trade secret protection in the baseball analytics field,’ Albany Government Law Review, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 240-284.Search in Google Scholar

Government of the Republic of Estonia (2014), ‘Peaminister Rõivas Slushil Helsinkis: ehitame e-residentsusest järgmise eduloo’ [Prime Minister Rõivas attending Slush in Helsinki: e-residency will be our next success story]. Retrieved from https://valitsus.ee/et/uudised/peaminister-roivas-slushil-helsinkis-ehitame-eresidentsusest-jargmise-eduloo [accessed 1 Jul 2015]Search in Google Scholar

Hamza, S. M. & Stovall, H. L. (1987), ‘Proposed law to regulate technology transfers in Egypt,’ Arab Law Quarterly, vol. 2, no. 1, pp. 3-11.10.1163/157302587X00020Search in Google Scholar

Horne, A. J. (1992), ‘Shared rights to source code: the copyright dilemma,’ Santa Clara Law Review, vol. 32, no. 2, pp. 497-538.Search in Google Scholar

Hoyos, C. (2013), ‘Europe defence groups urge technology sharing,’ The Financial Times, 13 October 2013.Search in Google Scholar

Hsu, L. (2010), ‘2000-2009: A decade of security-related developments in trade and investment,’ Journal of World Investment & Trade, vol. 11, no. 5, pp. 697-729.10.1163/221190010X00374Search in Google Scholar

IBM (1998), European Patent Office T 1173/97.Search in Google Scholar

ID.ee (2013), ‘Estonian and Finnish Prime Ministers signed the ICT Memorandum of Understanding digitally,’ 11 December 2013. Retrieved from http://id.ee/index.php?id=36546 [accessed 4 Jul 2015]Search in Google Scholar

Kalvet, T.; Tiits, M. & Hinsberg, H. (2013), E-teenuste kasutamise tulemuslikkus ja mõju [Efficiency and effect of e-service usage], Tallinn: Balti Uuringute Instituut ja Poliitikauuringute Keskus Praxis.Search in Google Scholar

Karjala, D. S. (1998), ‘Copyright protection of computer program structure,’ Brooklyn Law Review, vol. 64, no. 2, pp. 519-543.Search in Google Scholar

Lakson, P. (2015), ‘Taavi Rõivas Helsingis: Soome on Eesti olulisim partner’ [Taavi Rõivas in Helsinki: Finland is Estonia’s main partner], Postimees, 14 April 2015.Search in Google Scholar

Levine, H. (1986), ‘Technology transfer: export controls versus free trade,’ Texas International Law Journal, vol. 21, no. 2.Search in Google Scholar

Lin, D.; Sag, M. & Laurie, R. S. (2002), ‘Source code versus object code: patent implications for the open source community,’ Santa Clara Computer and High Technology Law Journal, vol. 18, no. 2, pp. 235-257.Search in Google Scholar

Ma, Z. (2010), ‘On relationship between technology standards and patented technology licensing,’ Journal of Politics and Law, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 16-23.10.5539/jpl.v3n1p16Search in Google Scholar

Maskus, K. E. (2004), Encouraging International Technology Transfer, UNCTADICTSD Project on Intellectual Property Rights and Sustainable Development, Issue Paper no. 7.10.7215/IP_IP_20040501ASearch in Google Scholar

Michaels, A. (2009), ‘International technology transfer and TRIPS Article 66.2: Can global administrative law help least developed countries get what they bargained for,’ Georgetown Journal of International Law, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 223-261.Search in Google Scholar

Michler, C. (2005), “The procurement decision - ‘open’ or ‘closed’ source software?” Deakin Law Review, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 261-269.10.21153/dlr2005vol10no1art276Search in Google Scholar

Newsweek (2015), “Sweden’s odd military alliance with Saudi Arabia,” 9 March 2015.Search in Google Scholar

OECD (2015), OECD Public Governance Reviews: Estonia and Finland: Fostering Strategic Capacity across Governments and Digital Services across Borders, Paris: OECD Publishing.Search in Google Scholar

Population Register (n.d.), [Rahvastikuregister], Ministry of Interior Affairs. Retrieved from https://www.siseministeerium.ee/et/tegevusvaldkonnad/rahvastikutoimingud/rahvastikuregister [accessed 6 Jul 2015]Search in Google Scholar

Public Procurement Act (2007), ‘Riigihangete seadus,’ Riigi Teataja, RT I 2007, 15, 76, 24.Search in Google Scholar

RIA (2015a), ‘Eesti IT edulood’ [Estonian IT success stories], Riigi infosüsteemi teejuht. Retrieved from https://www.ria.ee/teejuht/eesti-it-edulood [accessed 2 Jul 2015]Search in Google Scholar

-- (2015b), ‘Kogu riigi infosüsteem ühes autos’ [A whole country’s information system in a single car], Riigi infosüsteemi teejuht. Retrieved from https://www.ria.ee/teejuht/eesti-it-edulood/kogu-riigi-infosusteem-uhes-autos [accessed 30 Jun 2015]Search in Google Scholar

RIHA (2015), Riigi infosüsteemi haldussüsteem, Infosüsteem: Kohtute infosüsteem [The State Information System, Information System: Judicial Information System]. Retrieved from https://riha.eesti.ee/riha/main/inf/kohtute_infosusteem [accessed 1 Jul 2015]Search in Google Scholar

Rosentau, M. (2008), ‘Riigi ja kohaliku omavalitsuse asutuste poolt tellitava arvutitarkvara autoriõiguste omandamise, litsenseerimise ja teenusepõhise kasutuse põhimõtted’ [Principles of acquiring, licensing and service-based use of copyrights of computer software procured by state and local government offices], Version 1.0/20.11.2008.Search in Google Scholar

Rowe, E. A. (2009), ‘Contributory negligence, technology, and trade secrets,’ George Mason Law Review, vol. 17, no. 1, pp. 1-37.10.2139/ssrn.1161166Search in Google Scholar

Rull, A.; Täks, E. & Norta, A. (2014), ‘Towards software-agent enhanced privacy protection,’ in T. Kerikmäe (ed.) Regulating eTechnologies in the European Union, Cham, etc.: Springer, pp. 75-77.10.1007/978-3-319-08117-5_5Search in Google Scholar

Ryanair Ltd v PR Avaiation BV [2015], CJEU, Case C-30/14, ECLI:EU:C:2015:10.Search in Google Scholar

Scott, M. D. (2006), Scott on Information Technology Law, 3rd ed., Aspen Publishers: Wolters Kluwer Law & Business.Search in Google Scholar

Sepp, O. (1999), ‘Rakendusjuhised ID-kaardi pilootprojektide läbiviimiseks’ [Application guide for carrying out ID card pilot projects], Cybernetica. Retrieved from http://www.id.ee/public/rakendusjuhised.pdf [accessed 2 Jul 2015]Search in Google Scholar

Stephens, K. P. & Sumner, J. P. (1996), ‘Software objects: a new trend in programming and software patents,’ Santa Clara Computer and High Technology Law Journal, vol. 12, no. 1, pp. 1-30.Search in Google Scholar

Szattler, E. (2007), ‘Patentability of computer programs,’ Masaryk University Journal of Law and Technology, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 97-108.Search in Google Scholar

State Assets Act (2009), ‘Riigivaraseadus,’ Riigi Teataja, RT I 2009, 57, 381.Search in Google Scholar

Sun, C. (2003), ‘Technology import and export in post-WTO China,’ IPL Newsletter, vol. 21, no. 4.Search in Google Scholar

TRIPS (1994), TRIPS: Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights, April 15, 1994, Marrakesh Agreement Establishing the World Trade Organization, Annex 1C, The Legal Texts: the Results of the Uruguay Round of Multilateral Trade Negotiations 320 (1999), 1869 U.N.T.S. 299, 33 I.L.M. 1197.Search in Google Scholar

UNCTAD (2001), Transfer of Technology, United Nations Conference on Trade and Development, UNCTAD Series on issues in international investment agreements.Search in Google Scholar

US Army Research Laboratory (2010), ‘Patent Licensing.’ Retrieved from http://www.arl.army.mil/www/default.cfm?page=15 [accessed 28 Jun 2015]Search in Google Scholar

US Dept. of State Dispatch (1993), Fact Sheet: U.S. Export - Strategic Technology Controls, US Department of State Dispatch Supplement, August 1993, vol. 4, no. 3.Search in Google Scholar

Vedinas, V. (2012), ‘Aspects of the privatization of public services,’ Juridical Tribune, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 6-12.Search in Google Scholar

Vicom (1986), European Patent Office T 0208/84.Search in Google Scholar

Villapaz, L. (2013), “‘GTA 5’ costs $265 million to develop and market, making it the most expensive video game ever produced: Report,” International Business Times, 8 September 2013.Search in Google Scholar

WIPO (2015a), ‘Copyright,’ World Intellectual Property Organization. Retrieved from http://www.wipo.int/copyright/en/ [accessed 27 Jun 2015]Search in Google Scholar

-- (2015b), ‘Licensing and Technology Transfer,’ World International Property Organization. Retrieved from http://www.wipo.int/patent-law/en/developments/licensing.html [accessed 29 Jun 2015] Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo